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VOLUME 
NO. 3 



1\ 



NOVEMBER-DECEMBER 1976 




TECmNILOOT 

ABsnuurrs 




U.S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE 

National Fire Prevention 

and Control Administration 



NOTE . . . 



This is Volume 1, No 3. of the new Fire Technology Abstracts, sponsored and 
published by the National Fire Prevention and Control Administration, U.S. 
Department of Commerce. Issues of this abstract journal will be published bi- 
monthly during the remainder of 1977. They will average 100 pages per issue. 
Subscriptions to all first-year issues may be ordered directly from the Superintendent 
of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402. The 
price is $11.50 per year ($14.50 foreign). Send check or money order payable to: 
Superintendent of Documents. Or charge your Supt. Docs. Deposit Account, if you 
have one. 



VOLUME 
NO. 3 



cfl 



NOVEMBER-DECEMBER 1976 



FIRE 

TECHIHILOOT 

ABSTRACTS 




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•^4TES Of *" 



U.S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE 
National Fire Prevention 
and Control Administration 
The National Fire Reference Service 

Prepared by 

The Applied Physics Laboratory 

The Johns Hopkins University 



For further information contact; 
The National Fire Reference Service 
P.O. Box 19518 
Washington, D.C. 20036 
Telephone: 202/634-3913 



EDITORIAL STAFF 



THE JOHNS HOPKINS UNIVERSITY 
APPLIED PHYSICS LABORATORY 



L. J. Holtschlag 

Chief Editor 



B. W. Kuvshinoff 

Associate Editor 



TECHNICAL ASSISTANTS 

J. B. Jernigan 
A. I. Bailey . B. E. Hess 

EDITORIAL ADVISORY BOARD 



I. A. Benjamin 

National Bureau of Standards 
Center for Fire Research 

W. G. Berl 

Johns Hopkins University 
Applied Physics Laboratory 

J. E. Bihr 

International Conference of 
Building Officials 

J. L. Bryan 

University of Maryland 
Fire Protection Curriculum 

R. M. Fristrom 

Johns Hopkins University 
Applied Physics Laboratory 

A. F. Robertson 

National Bureau of Standards 
Center for Fire Research 

P. S. Schaenman 

National Fire Prevention and 
Control Administration 

P. G. Seeger 

University of Karlsruhe (FRG) 
Fire Protection Engineering 
Research Facility 



J. H. Shern 

City of Pasadena, California 
Fire Department 

G. W. Shorter 

National Research Council (Canada) 
Division of Building Research, 
Fire Research Section 

V. Sjolin 

National Defense Research 
Institute (Sweden) 

R. E. Stevens 

National Fire Protection Association 

A. R. Taylor 

U. S. Department of Agriculture 
Forest Service 

P. H. Thomas 

Building Research Establishment (UK) 
Fire Research Station 

T. Wakamatsu 

Ministry of Construction (Japan) 
Building Research Institute 

I.J. Witteveen 

TNO for Building Materials and 
Building Structures (The Netherlands) 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



1. GENERAL 

a. Fire Protection Organization 145 

b. Meetings and Professional 

Activities 146 

c. Literature and Notices 146 

d. Fire and Explosion Incident 

Critiques and Analyses 147 

e. Fire Science Education 148 

f . Legislation 149 

g. Research and Development Pro- 

grams 149 

2. DYNAMICS AND MECHANICS OF FIRE 

a. Fire Buildup, Propagation, and 

Spread 150 

b. Flammability, Ignition, and 

Extinction 151 

c. Flow of Combustion Products 151 

d . Instrumentation 153 

e. Meteorology 153 

f . Radiation , .153 

g. Thermal Conductivity 154 

3. BEHAVIOR AND PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS 

a. Characteristics and Thermal 

Behavior of Materials 154 

b. Combustion and Flammability 

Tests and Methods 155 

c. Fire and Explosion Hazards of 

Materials 157 

d. Nature of Combustion Products. .. .158 

e. Protection and Modification of 

Materials 159 

f. Stability of Materials at 

Elevated Temperatures 160 

4. FIRE MODELING AND TEST BURNS 

a. Field Evaluation 162 

b. Fire Testing, Structures 162 

c. Modeling and Scaling. 162 

d . Systems Behavior 164 

5. FIRE PROTECTION PRINCIPLES 

a. Building Design and Construc- 

tion Principles 164 

b. Detection and Alarm Equipment .... 165 

c. Fire and Explosion Risks 170 

d. Fire Loads 172 

e. Heat and Pressure Load Effects 

on Structures 172 

f. Prevention and Hazard Reduction. .172 

g. Protection Devices and Equip- 

ment , 173 

h. Suppression Devices and Equip- 
ment 178 



6. FIRE SAFETY 

a. Agriculture and Wildlands 188 

b. Commercial Occupancies 188 

c. Electrical 188 

d . Industrial Occupancies 189 

e. Institutional Occupancies 190 

f . Mining 190 

g . Power Plants 191 

h . Public Buildings 191 

i . Residential Occupancies 191 

j. Transportation (Air, Rail, 

Road , Water) 191 

7. FIRE SERVICE ORGANIZATION AND FACILI- 
TIES 

a. Administration, Organization 

and Management 192 

b. Education and Training 193 

c. Facilities 194 

d . General Equipment 194 

e. Information Systems 195 

f. Investigation and Reporting 196 

g. Personal Equipment 196 

h . Personnel Affairs 198 



8. FIRE OPERATIONS PREVENTION AND SUP- 
PRESSION 

a. Communications and Signalling. . .199 

b. Extinguishing Agents and Ad- 

ditives 199 

c. Hydraulics and Water Supplies. . .202 

d. Inspection 202 

e . Operational Problems 202 

f. Public Education and Public 

Relations 203 

g. Rescue Operations 203 

h. Tactics 206 

9. PLANNING 

a . Budgeting 207 

b. Logistics 208 

c . Operations Analysis 208 

10. HUMAN BEHAVIOR, SOCIAL, AND MEDICAL 
PROBLEMS 

a . Arson 208 

b . Combustion Toxicology 208 

c. Emergency Medical Services and 

Facilities 210 

d. Injuries and Fatalities 210 

e. Physiology 211 

f . Psychology 211 

III 



11. CODES, STANDARDS, SAFE HANDLING, c. Restoration 213 

IDENTIFICATION OF HAZARDS d . Risk Management 214 

a . Codes 211 e . Salvage , 214 

b. Hazards Identification ..212 

c. Safe Handling of Hazardous 

Materials 212 13 . STATISTICS 214 

d . Standards 212 

AUTHOR INDEX I-l 

12. INSURANCE, ECONOMICS OF LOSS AND SUBJECT INDEX 1-5 

PREVENTION SOURCE INDEX 1-29 

a . Insurance 213 REPORT NUMBER INDEX 1-33 

b . Losses 213 EXPANSIONS OF JOURNAL ABBREVIATIONS . . . 1-35 



IV 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



Fire Technology Abstracts is an abstracts journal being prepared bimonthly by 
the Fire Problems Program Group of the Applied Physics Laboratory of the Johns Hop- 
kins University, Laurel, Maryland, USA, under the sponsorship of the National Fire 
Prevention and Control Administration (NFPCA) of the US Department of Commerce. It 
complements the Fire Research Abstracts and Reviews published under the auspices of 
the US National Academy of Sciences/National Research Council in cooperation with 
the NFPCA. 

SCOPE AND COVERAGE 

The aim of Fire Technology Abstracts is to provide comprehensive reference to 
the applied fire literature in the broad range of topics outlined in the "Table of 
Contents." Most topics are covered fully; a few topics, such as forest fires and 
mine fires, are referenced selectively, because they are covered systematically in 
other specialized indexing and abstracting serials. For such topics an appropriate 
notice has been entered under the respective category. 

The information contained in Fire Technology Abstracts has been gleaned from a 
wide variety of sources (journals, books, reports, patents, codes, and standards), 
with particular emphasis on the report and patent literature, for which referencing 
heretofore has been inadequate. Although the English-language literature comprises 
the majority of the entries, the coverage includes selections from the world fire 
literature, identified in part through such sources as Safety in Mines Abstracts of 
the Safety in Mines Research Establishment (UK) , identified in the abstracts as 
(SMRE) , the Soviet Abstracts Journal , Series 68, "Fire Protection," identified as 
(RZh) , and the card abstracts issued monthly by the Fire Literature Documentation 
Section of the German Fire Technology Research Center at the University of Karls- 
ruhe, identified as (Fachdok) . 

Many of the entries in Fire Technology Abstracts are being used with the per- 
mission of the copyright holder. Any abstract terminating with (Author) should be 
considered as possibly subject to copyright restrictions. 

ARRANGEMENT 

The journal is arranged in two sections: Abstracts and Indexes. 

The Abstracts section contains complete bibliographic description required for 
retrieval of the item, along with a brief description of the contents of the item, 
usually consisting of the author's abstract, summary, or conclusions. The abstracts 
are classified under the 13 main categories listed in the "Table of Contents" and a 
suitable number of subcategories, which are subject to revision as the necessity for 
finer classification arises. The page-keyed categories and subcatergories of the 
"Table of Contents" are repeated on the appropriate pages in the abstracts section 
to assist the reader in rapid identification of the topical field of interest. 

The Index section consists of four indexes: author, subject, source, and report 
number. Each entry in each index is keyed to an abstract number. Annual cumulative 
indexes will be published. 

The Author Index is an alphabetical list of all authors cited in the abstracts 
section, whether principal or secondary. 



The Sub.ject Index entries consist of up to three hierarchic descriptive levels 
to characterize the nature of the subject content. 

The Source Index displays citations in alphanumeric order of the sources under 
the headings: Books, Codes, Conferences, Congresses, Dissertations, Journals, Meet- 
ings, Patents, Reports, Seminars, Standards, and Symposia. 

The Report Index lists in alphabetical order the numbers of all the reports 
entered in each issue, including multiple numbers, as well as the accession numbers 
under which reports are available from document repositories. 

These indexes (as indeed the entrie journal) are composed and printed out by an 
IBM 360/91 computer, using the INFO-360 Document Writing Package of programs develop- 
ed at the Applied Physics Laboratory. All but the subject index are produced direc- 
tly from the printed portion of the entries. The subject index terms are typed in at 
the ends of the abstracts, but are not printed in the body of the journal. Author 
affiliations, whenever available, are also included in the records. These are not 
printed or listed, but are reserved for future use in developing directories and the 
like. 

AVAILABILITY 

Fire Technology Abstracts is a literature announcement service only and cannot 
respond to requests for the documents announced in the journal. For all literature 
citations an effort is made to provide the information needed by the reader to 
acquire the document. In general, however, the full text of many of the journal 
articles cited in the FTA can be purchased through the Original Article Tear Sheet 
service (registered tradename OATS) of the Institute for Scientific Information 
(registered ISI) in Philadelphia, PA. The full text of those abstracts terminating 
with (Fachdok plus number) can be purchased by citing the number and ordering from 
the Documentation Center of the German Fire Technology Research Center in Karlsruhe, 
FRG. The addresses of these two organizations are given below. 

For books , monographs , conference papers , and proceedings the source is, in 
most cases, either the publisher or the sponsoring organization. 

Dissertations are available in xerographic copy from University Microfilms of 
Ann Arbor, Michigan. 

Patents can be obtained from the respective national Patent Offices. 

US Reports are available for a fee from the National Technical Information 
Service (NTIS) or from the US Government Printing Office (GPO) . If availability is 
not indicated, the issuing organization should be queried. 



VI 



ADDRESSES 

NTIS 



Fachdok 



GPO 



OATS 



Pat Off 



Univ Micro 



National Technical Information Serivce 
Springfield, VA 22161 

Forschungsstelle fuer Brandschutztechnik 
an der Universitaet Karlsruhe (T.H.) 
Abteilung Fachdokumentation 
Hertzstrasse 16, Postfach 6380 
Federal Republic of Germany 

Superintendent of Documents 
US Government Printing Office 
Washington, DC 20402 

Institute for Scientific Information 
325 Chestnut Street 
Philadelphia, PA 19106 

Commissioner of Patents and Trademarks 
Washington, DC 20231 

University Microfilms 
300 North Zeeb Road 
Ann Arbor, MI 48106 



VII 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



Volume 1, Number 3 



November-December 1976 



1. GENERAL 

a. FIRE PROTECTION ORGANIZATION 

668. Obukhov FV, Filatov AV and Gavriley VM 
ORGANIZATIONAL PROBLEMS IN IMPROVING THE 
CONTROL OF SOCIALIST PRODUCTION (PROBLEMY 
ORGANIZATSIY SOVERSHENSTVOVANIYA 
UPRAVLENIYA SOTSIALISTICHESKOM PROIZ- 
VODSTVOM) 

Moscow University Press, Moscow, USSR; pages 284- 
288. 1975 (Russian) 

This book, which was compiled and published at 
Moscow University, contains an article entitled "Problems 
of Organization in Improving Administration of the Na- 
tion's Fire Fighting Service", the principal author of 
which is head of the Main Fire Protection Administration. 
Discussed in the article is the development of a set of 
predictions to solve the following problems: evaluation 
of the volume of work required to ensure fire protection 
of the national economy and the tendency of this volume 
to change as the national Uving standard increases; ap- 
praisal of the operational status; and development of ways 
and means to influence the operational situation. (RZh) 

669. Jurkat MP 

A REGIONALIZATION STUDY 

Fire Chief; 20(8):72-74, 1976 

A thorough study of fire protection in six communities 
in New Jersey shows how regionalization could provide 
fire protection at less cost and more efficiently. The study 
also provides a basic plan for merging the fire department 
functions on a step-by-step basis. 1 table. (Author) 

670. Lucht DA 

NFPCA DESIGNED TO ASSIST LOCAL AND STATE 
GOVERNMENTS 

Fire Eng; 129(8): 18, 21-22, 1976 

In a talk presented at the annual meeting of the Amer- 
ican Association for the Advancement of Science, held 
in Boston on Feb 24, 1976, the Deputy Administrator 
of NFPCA outlined one of the first products of the Ad- 
ministration to assist local and state governments to decide 
what to do about fire safety, the creation of a community 
fire protection master planning procedure. The various 
components of the plan are discussed in some detail, in- 
cluding identification and measurement of the community 
fire situation, identification and agreement on an accepta- 
ble fire risk, identification and evaluation of alternative 
combinations of pubhc and private sector actions to 



achieve the acceptable level of community fire risk, adop- 
tion and implementation of a community action plan, and 
monitoring of the effectiveness of the plan. The same 
types of analytical procedures are applied to buildings. 

671. OkawaT 

THE JAPANESE FIRE SERVICE 

Internal Fire Chief, 42(3):8-13, 1976 

This article is a paper presented by Chief T. Okawa 
at the 102nd annual meeting of the IFAC in Las Vegas, 
NV. Following a broad survey of the historical develop- 
ment of the Japanese fire service, which has undergone 
major reforms on several occasions, the author describes 
the organization and operating methods of the fire depart- 
ments, which are shared in large measure by national, 
prefectural and municipal authorities. Financial problems 
are discussed, as are the specific problems of the in- 
dividual fire departments, which have the tasks of fire 
prevention and protection, controlling hazardous materials 
and ambulance service, as well as measures to protect 
against earthquakes, protection of the fundamental rights 
of firemen, and others. 2 figs. 

672. Rule CH 

COULD REGIONALIZATION SOLVE YOUR PROBLEM? 

Fire Chief, 20(8): 68-71, 1976 

More responsive and cost-effective deUvery of fire and 
emergency medical services can be accomplished by con- 
solidation or regionalization of two or a number of fire 
department jurisdictions. The planning, command, person- 
nel, communication, funding, training, and logistics 
problems involved in such a procedure are examined. 

673. Pfefferh W 

THE FIRE SERVICE IN THE STATE OF BADEN- 
WUERTTEMBERG 

Schweiz Feuerwehr Z, 102(8):303-308, 1976 (German) 

On the occasion of a visit of a delegation of the (j entral 
Committee of the Swiss Fire Protection Association to 
the State Fire Protection School of Baden-Wuerttemberg 
in Bruchsal (FRG) and the inspection of several fire sta- 
tions in the Karlsruhe administrative district, the author 
presents an outUne of the organization of the fire protec- 
tion service, its legal foundations, training, funding, and 
the problems arising in Baden-Wuerttemberg from commu- 
nity and territorial reform. 3 figs, 2 tables. (Fachdok 
12/1006) 



145 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



1 . GENERAL 



b. MEETINGS AND PROFESSIONAL ACTIVITIES 

674. Anon 

Control of Smoke Movement in Building Fires Symp, CIB, 
Proc, Vol 1 - Papers; 1975, Nov 4-5, Garston, Watford, 

UK, 368 pages, 1975 

Sponsor: Fire Res Sta, Bldg Res Estab (UK) 

For over 20 years the Commission W14 of the Conseil 
International du Batiment (CIB) has been a focus for fire 
research workers. It has conducted joint research projects 
and has provided a forum for the exchange of information 
and ideas between its members, representing countries 
all over the world. This symposium on the problems of 
smoke control in buildings was hosted by the Fire 
Research Station of the Building Research Establishment, 
UK. In the symposium, research workers, building 
designers, regulatory officials, fire brigade spokesmen and 
others met to pool their knowledge and experience. The 
volume of papers and discussion forming the proceedings 
of the symposium provide an authoritative and up-to-date 
source of information and opinion for the many specialists 
involved in the design of safer buildings. This volume 
contains the 26 papers presented at the symposium, all 
of which are separately abstracted. The individual ab- 
stracts can be found by consulting the source index under 
the appropriate "symposia" entries. 

675. Anon 

Dynamics of Fire Prevention Conf, Proc; 1976, Oct 18- 

20, Los Angeles, CA 

Sponsor: Nat Fire Prev and Control Admin 

The second national conference of the NFPCA was 
devoted to the theme of providing the fire community 
with assistance in planning, organizing, managing, and 
evaluating effective fire prevention programs. The major 
components of the conference were addressed in the first 
five sessions, followed by a sixth session to summarize 
the content of the previous sessions. The first session, 
A Proper Mix for Fire Prevention, emphasized the various 
facets and responsibilities of fire prevention, including in- 
dustry, the firefighter, and the city manager. Session II, 
Fire Prevention Through PubUc Education, dealt with new 
developments in public fire education; professional qualifi- 
cations for public education specialists; goals, objectives 
and functions of a public education program which 
reduces fire losses, and a special report on the NFPCA 
fire prevention programs. Session III, Fire prevention 
Through Building Design, took into account the significant 
impact on fire losses of the ways buildings are designed, 
constructed, and furnished, stressing the importance of 
building design in fire prevention to provide specific infor- 
mation on how to reach improvements in this area. Four 
papers were read in Session IV, Fire Prevention Through 
Inspection and Enforcement, namely: goals, objectives, 
and functions of fire inspection programs which reduce 
losses; a discussion of the qualifications required for fire 
inspectors; a discussion of the factors associated with 
the enforcement of fire codes, standards, and regulations. 
Fire Prevention through Fire and Arson Investigations and 
Fire Prevention in the United Kingdom was the theme 
of session V, in which three papers were presented: goals, 
objectives, and functions of fire/arson investigation pro- 
grams which reduce fire losses; why arson is not a class 
1 crime; and professional qualifications for fire investiga- 

146 



tors. The final, sixth session. Getting It Together in Fire 
Prevention, had as its primary object to illustrate the con- 
tent of the previous sessions by drawing on examples 
of two successful fire prevention programs, one in Ed- 
monds, Washington, the other in Fort Washington, 
Pennsylvania. The proceedings contains the texts of the 
twenty-four papers and ends with a list of conference 
participants. 110 pages. 

676. Anon 

Industrial Civil Defense Conf, Int, 3rd, Proc Record; 1975, 

Apr 8-12, Beirut, Lebanon 

Sponsor: Intemat Civil Def Org, Geneva, Switzerland 

The complete record of the proceedings of the con- 
ference contains abbreviated versions of several papers 
relating to fire safety within the framework of civil 
defense planning: paper 13 - Protection and Security 
Problems in Petroleum and Petrochemical Industries; 
paper 14 - Security Regulations and Devices for Public 
Premises and Conveyances; paper 15 - Safety Measures 
in Highrise Buildings; paper 16-Modem Construction 
Materials and Their Use in Highrise Buildings; Research 
into Inflammability and Toxicity of Materials; and Rescue 
of Trapped Persons from Highrise Buildings by 
Helicopter. 107 pages. 

677. Anon 

THE SCIENTIFIC APPROACH IS THE FOUNDATION 
FOR SUCCESS 

Pozhar delo; (5): 14-16, 1976 (Russian) 

A detailed report is given on an All-Union scientific 
and practical conference on the fire protection of public 
housing held in Moscow in 1975, in which buUders, 
architects and fire speciaUsts reviewed current and future 
problems of fire protection in the light of present-day 
trends in the development of urban construction. An im- 
portant theme of the conference was fire protection of 
the future, which begins in the laboratories of chemists 
and workshops of the building industries, with particular 
emphasis on the scientific aspects of fire safety develop- 
ment. 

c. LITERATURE AND NOTICES 

678. Bennett D 

IS THERE A NEED FOR A FIREMAN'S HANDBOOK? 

Fire; 69(855): 183, 1976 - 

Following a discussion of the recent re-issue of the 
Manuals of Firemanship (UK) and their availability, the 
author proposes compilation of a "Fireman's Handbook", 
which would be a reference book satisfying the fireman's 
everyday needs. The contents should include the headings 
of fire service conditions, practical firemanship and fire 
prevention. 

679. Jason NH 

FIRE RESEARCH PUBLICATIONS, 1975. Nat Bureau of 
Standards, Center for Fire Res, Washington, DC; NBSIR 
76-1120, 12 pages, Sep 1976 
Availability: NTIS n ? «■ , 

Fire Research Publications, 1975 is a supplement to 

the previous editions, which covered the years 1969 - 

1972 (NBSIR 73-736). 1973 (NBSIR 74-511) and 1974 



WW 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



1. GENERAL 

c. Literature and Notices- 



Continued 



(NBSIR 75-736). Only publications prepared by the mem- 
bers of the Center for Fire Research (CFR), by National 
Bureau of Standards (NBS) personnel or external laborato- 
ries under contract or grant from the CFR are cited. Arti- 
cles published in NBS house organs also are cited. The 
standards publications include Technical Notes (TN), 
Building Science Series (BSS), and Standards Interagency 
Reports (NBSIR). (Author) 

d. FIRE AND EXPLOSION INCIDENT CRITIQUES 
AND ANALYSES 

680. Baldino A 

TRAIN FIRE IN AN UNDERGROUND STATION 

Antincendio protez civ; 27(10): 767-771, 1975 (Italian) 

After a fire in a subway station in Naples, deficiencies 
and difficulties in organizing the fire-suppression attack 
and in evacuating people from underground stations were 
discovered. The presence of cables in the tunnels and 
of flammable materials used to finish car interiors makes 
such premises fire hazards, requiring special fire safety 
measures, such as the installation of fire hydrants in sub- 
way stations, emergency smoke removal systems, and 
others. 

681. Anon 

FIRE IN A SYNTHETIC RESIN VARNISH FACTORY 

Brandverhuetung; (118):57-59, 1976 (German) 

The synthetic resin department of a varnish factory in 
the Federal State of Salzburg (Austria) was the scene 
of a fire which was instructive with respect to the manner 
of ignition. The production process is illustrated. Owing 
to overboiling, the contents of the reaction vessel ran 
over, releasing xylene vapors, which could have been ig- 
nited only by some remote source. The overflow from 
the vessel was then set afire by flame flashback. 2 figs. 
(Fachdok 12/0977) 

682. Dimeo MJ 

WHERE THERE ARE NO EMERGENCY EXITS 

Fire Command; 43(8):46-49, 1976 

An NFPA fire analysis specialist examines the causes 
of prison fires and the advantages and liabilities of the 
prison fire environment, such as construction, lack of staff 
training, detection and alarm delays, lack of smoke ven- 
tilation, and evacuation. Nine actual prison fire scenarios 
are cited in evidence of the prison fire prevention and 
protection problems. 1 photo. 

683. Gebhardt M 

FTRE IN THE LIVING QUARTERS OF OCEAN GOING 
VESSELS - A MORTAL DANGER 

Hansa; 11 2(23): 1937- 1942, 1975 (German) 

A description of fires in the living quarters of three 
dry-cargo ships leads to the following conclusions: all the 
fires built up rapidly (10-15 min) and spread outside the 
compartments where they broke out. All the fires were 
accompanied by rapid smoke logging of all decks, 
promoted by open gangways and doors. Conditions which 
threatened the lives of the personnel developed quickly. 
Fire-fighting teams were not able either to save the lives 



of those cut off by the fires or to extinguish them on 
their own. The ships were built in accordance with the 
regulations of the International Convention for the Protec- 
tion of Human Life at Sea of 1960, but the structural 
protection measures specified by the Convention did not 
prevent the rapid spread of flame and smoke. In 1972 
the Federal Republic of Germany introduced the new 
regulations of the Professional Seaman's Union, 
strengthening the active protective measures, the most im- 
portant of which is the shielding of gangways, corridors 
and quarters by incombustible bulkheads. It is stated that 
these measures are inadequate and it is recommended that 
automatic detection systems be installed in these areas. 
2 refs. (RZh) 

684. Scott RL 

BROWNS FERRY NUCLEAR POWER-PLANT FIRE ON 
MAR 22, 1975 

Nuclear Saf; 17(5):592-611, 1976 

This article reviews the Mar 22, 1975, fire at the Browns 
Ferry nuclear power plant. The fire originated in the elec- 
trical cable trays and burned for 7 hrs before it was 
extinguished by water. The use of water was delayed 
until the reactors were in a stable shutdown condition 
because of the possibility of shorting circuits, which might 
have caused further degradation of conditions that would 
have been more difficult to control. However, when water 
was authorized, the fire was quickly extinguished. The 
fire-fighting efforts and the damage by the fire are 
described. The loss of electrical power and control circuits 
resulted in the unavailability of emergency core-cooling 
systems and hampered efforts to provide normal cooling 
to the reactor fuel. The availability of alternate cooUng 
methods is reviewed, the efforts to maintain cooling of 
the reactor fuel are discussed, and the basic reasons for 
the common-mode failures are described. Assessments of 
the fire were made by three groups in the U.S. Nuclear 
Regulatory Commission (NRC), as well as by an indepen- 
dent insurance group. Some of the details of these assess- 
ments are presented, in particular, some deficiencies that 
the NRC Office of Inspection and Enforcement found 
during its investigation and some of the lessons learned 
from the events as determined by the NRC Special 
Review Group. 14 figs, 8 refs. (Author) 

685. Bieletzke A 

AN UNUSUAL CAUSE LED TO A FIRE IN AN OPTI- 
CIAN'S WORKSHOP 

Unser Brandschutz; 26(7):28-29, 1976 (German) 

A fire with appreciable property damage occurred in 
an optician's place of business. A large quantity of highly 
combustible material, such as celluloid plates, frames for 
glasses, acetone and wooden fittings, was located in the 
workshop, contributing to rapid spread of the fire. An 
investigation of the cause of the fire showed that the 
explosion of an a-c meter in the workshop was responsible 
for the fire. Due to the continuous use of acetone, acetone 
vapors must have penetrated into the meter through the 
openings for the cable lead, resulting in the buildup of 
an explosive mixture. Ignition may have been by a spark. 
Then the acetone was ignited by the short-circuit spark. 
4 figs. (Fachdok 12/0888) 



147 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



1. GENERAL 

d. Fire and Explosion Incident Critiques and Analyses — Continued 



686. Kordina K, Krampf L and Seiler HF 

AN EXAMINATION OF THE EFFECTS OF A BIG FIRE 
IN SOME CONCRETE BUILDINGS 

Fire Prev Sci Technol; (14):4-17, 1976 (English; German 
and French summaries) 

The types of concrete used in the construction of the 
buildings are detailed, and the damage which occurred 
in the fire is described. The performance of these materi- 
als is considered in relation to the mechanical and fire 
loadings present. This contribution is the translation of 
an article pubUshed in Beton u. Stahlbeton, Vol 67, Nos. 
5/6, pp. 108-113, 129-134. 15 figs. (Author) 

687. ButUn RN 

ESTIMATION OF MAXIMUM EXPLOSION PRESSURE 
FROM DAMAGE TO SURROUNDING BUILDINGS. EX- 
PLOSION AT MERSEY HOUSE, BOOTLE, 28 AUGUST 
1975. Dept of the Environ and Fire Offices' Committee 
(UK), Fire Res Station; Fire Res Note 1054, 11 pages, 
4 figs, 7 refs, Jul 1976 

An explosion in the ground floor flat of a 16-story block 
caused severe damage to the flat, some other parts of 
the 16-story block, and resulted in the failure of many 
windows in surrounding property. 

Calculations based on the decay of pressure with 
distance, and the dimensions and thickness of glazing 
broken in nearby buildings, indicate that the peak explo- 
sion pressure within the flat was between 46 and 81 kN/m^. 
(6.5 and 11.5 Ibf/in^). These pressures are substantially 
greater than those that would be expected from measure- 
ments made from explosions in single, empty compart- 
ments, and are also greater than that calculated from an 
equation making some allowance for turbulence, and in- 
dicate that a high degree of turbulence was generated 
by the complexity of the compartmentation and the con- 
tents of the flat. 

These findings emphasize the importance of tests to 
be carried out by the Fire Research Station in a complex 
array of compartments and corridors and the development 
of appropriate mathematical expressions for the relation- 
ship between vent area and explosion pressure for a given 
set of conditions. (Author) 

688. Burriss WH, Jr 

EXPLOSION AND FIRE IN A-LINE FACILITY OF THE 
SAVANNAH RIVER PLANT. EI DuFont de Nemours and 
Co, Savannah River Lab, Aiken, SC; CONF-75 1084-1, 4 
pages, Sep 1975 
AvaUabihty: NTIS DPSPU-75-30-13 

During routine operations to reduce uranyl nitrate hex- 
ahydrate to uranium trioxide, an excessive amount of or- 
ganic solution entered denitrator pots and ignited. Damage 
from the resulting explosion and fire amounted to about 
S300,000, No spread of contamination or serious injuries 
occurred. The faciUty has been restored to production 
with process modifications to prevent recurrence. (Author) 

e. FIRE SCIENCE EDUCATION 

689. Zwingmann R 

BASIC nRE EDUCATION AT THE BERLIN TECHNI- 
CAL UNIVERSITY 

Beratende Ing; (6):17-18, 21-24, 1976 (German) 



The Interior Design and Planning Institute of the Berlin 
Technical University is the first institute in the Federal 
Republic of Germany to take steps toward introducing 
preventive structural and industrial fire protection as a 
required subject in the curriculum. The fire protection 
informatipn absolutely necessary for the architect is in- 
troduced at this institute. The present article gives the 
reasons why this must be done and explains what is taught 
about fire protection. 2 figs. (Fachdok 12/0903) 

690. Sylvia RP 

FIREMEN WILL FEEL ACADEMY IMPACT ON EDU- 
CATION 

Fire Eng; 129(8):44-45, 1976 

The status of planning for the National Fire Academy's 
training and education program is reviewed. The scope 
of the program is indicated in a chart. Position papers 
are being written for the fire prevention, arson, data, 
instruction training and management education and train- 
ing programs and for the two- and four-year college cur- 
ricula and correspondence courses. The greatest progress 
has been made on the arson detection and investigation 
program. Ways of delivering the programs to the fire ser- 
vice are being examined, perhaps by classes and seminars 
at the Academy, where possible by working through state 
directors of fire service training. Model courses may be 
made available. A computerized record system for the 
Academy's training and educational program is being con- 
sidered. 2 tables. 

691. Sylvia RP 

ARSON PROGRAM ON WAY TO FIGHT NATION'S 
MAJOR FIRE PROBLEM 

Fire Eng; 129(8):48-49, 1976 

An arson detection and investigation program will 
probably be the first educational program to be instituted 
by the National Fire Academy, as recommended by con- 
ferees at the Battelle Institute Conference in Jan, 1976. 
The four phases of the program are discussed, namely, 
detection, company officer training, arson investigation, 
and fire investigation. The scope of course development 
participation by representatives of the fire service, police 
service, and criminal justice system, as well as from the 
insurance industry and banking industry is being con- 
sidered. The course may include the material needed for 
an arson investigator to become certified. 1 photo. 

692. Sylvia RP 

13 STATES GETTING PLANNING GRANTS 

Fire Eng; 129(8): 50-52, 1976 

The planning assistance program of the National Fire 
Academy has provided funding for state use. Nine states 
have been recommended for grants to develop statewide 
fire education and training organizational designs and four 
states have been selected for the development of com- 
prehensive five-year statewide plans for improving fire 
education and training. The objectives and procedures of 
the assistance program are discussed. 



148 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



1. GENERAL 



f. LEGISLATION 

693. Schaffner LE and DeCicco PR 

DEVELOPMENT OF A COMPREHENSIVE FIRE 
SAFETY LAW FOR NEW YORK; Paper No. 24 

Control of Smoke Movement in Building Fires Symp, CIB, 
Proc, Vol 1 - Papers; 1975, Nov 4-5, Garston, Watford, 
UK, pages 317-341 
Sponsor: Fire Res Sta, Bldg Res Estab (UK) 

In January 1973, after two serious fires in highrise office 
buildings. New York City adopted a comprehensive fire 
safety law. For the first time in the City's history such 
legislation was made retroactive, affecting 900 existing 
buildings over 100 feet high and thousands under 100 feet. 
Mr. Schaffner, who was the Executive Director of the 
Mayor's Committee on Fire Safety in Highrise Office 
Buildings, describes conditions which led to the formation 
of the Committee, participation of industry, full-scale fea- 
tures of the law, and the compliance experience in existing 
buildings. In order to verify the appUcability of the 
proposed requirement for stairwell pressurization in exist- 
ing buildings. Professor Paul R. DeCicco of Polytechnic 
Institute of New York was asked to conduct full-scale 
fire tests in a 22-story office building. In addition, scale 
models (including stairwells) were tested to establish drag 
coefficients and means of control. Continuing studies on 
stairwell pressurization systems are being made in a 41- 
story building as well as in models which will lead to 
general design guidelines applicable to a wide variety of 
buildings. A report will also be made on model studies 
of smoke control measures for a major atrium-type hotel 
to be built in New York City. 22 refs. (Author) 

694. Hinkel E 

OPERATIONS OFFICER ACCORDING TO THE "STATE 
LAW ON FIRE PROTECTION AND TECHNICAL 
ASSISTANCE" OF RHEINLAND PFALZ 

Brandschutz; 30(4):92-95, 1976 (German) 

In this brief article an attempt is made to shed light 
on points not adequately classifed by the fire protection 
law of June 27, 1974. This is true particularly of technical 
control, which is missing entirely in this law. On the 
other hand, a distinct regulation on "overall command" 
is introduced in the law; both operations control in the 
normal case or with joint operations by the professional 
and voluntary fire departments or operations by industrial 
fire brigades with the voluntary or professional fire depart- 
ments, all these combinations are regulated in the law 
and discussed in the article. The law as it applies to 
the powers of the operations officer is criticized because 
of inadequate delineation of duties. The coercive measures 
available to the operations officer are classified. 4 figs. 
(Fachdok 12/0642) 

g. RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMS 

695. Stolp M, Zorgman H, CrommeUn RD and Euser P 
RESEARCH PROPOSAL ON SMOKE PROBLEMS IN 
BUILDINGS; Paper No 26 

Control of Smoke Movement in Building Fires Symp, CIB, 
Proc, Vol 1 - Papers; 1975, Nov 4-5, Garston, Watford, 
UK, pages 355-368 
Sponsor: Fire Res Sta, Bldg Res Estab (UK) 



In this research proposal concerning smoke problems 
presented by fire in buildings, the motivation is based 
on the annual loss of some fifty human lives (in The 
Netherlands) in consequence of smoke generation, as well 
as on an economic loss amounting to approximately 100 
million florins per year. In order to obtain an overall 
view of the problem, the following questions may be 
posed: (1) How much smoke does a fire produce? (2) 
In what manner does smoke propagation take place? (3a) 
How much smoke can a human being tolerate under cer- 
tain conditions? (3b) How much smoke can a material 
tolerate before suffering smoke damage? and (4) What 
measures are available for combating the smoke problem? 
In answering these questions it appears meaningful to sub- 
divide smoke in terms of particles, gases and convective 
heat, and to apply to the fire a subdivision corresponding 
to its three stages of development, namely, the start of 
the fire, the stage of growth, and burning state (when 
the fire is fully developed). Each of these three stages 
is characterized by its own smoke production and smoke 
spread mechanism. The acceptabiUty level decides which 
stage of development of the fire will have to be considered 
and how accurately smoke production and propagation 
will have to be known. Set up in this way, the proposal 
aims to present an overall approach to the smoke problem. 

696. Anon 

FIRE RESEARCH STATION'S ANNUAL REPORT FOR 
1975 

Fire; 69(853):80, 1976 

The results of Fire Research Station studies of the 
economic aspects of fire and fire protection are to be 
used in the formulation of fire protection poUcies and 
to be of influence when considering the provisions of 
fire regulations for buildings. Some of the programs being 
pursued are the problems of escape from house fires, 
research and testing of detectors and contribution to inter- 
national standardization of these devices; linking the extin- 
guishing capabilities of foams with their physical proper- 
ties; full-scale experiments on the behavior of many items 
of furniture and furnishings in fire; and the use of a 
suitable plastic (polyurethane or polyisocyanurate) foamed 
into reusable molds to form temporary shelters for large 
numbers of disaster survivors. 1 ref. 

697. Zachary WB, Grossman ERFW and Quan EC 

AN INTERIM REPORT ON THE FINDINGS OF THE 
SAN FRANCISCO HIGH-RISE STUDY. Univ of California 
(Berkeley), Fire Res Group; UCB FRG 76-5, 34 pages, 
17 tables, Oct 1975 

The interim report forms part of an ongoing project 
designed to acquire up-to-date knowledge of the ex- 
periences of people with fire incidents, availability of fire 
protection equipment, fire knowledge and preparedness, 
and attitudes and desires regarding fire protection. This 
information is needed to design an efficient and cost- 
effective fire protection system. The initial survey on 
which the present one is modeled was performed in 
Berkeley, California. Another study, still in the planning 
phase, is scheduled for the city of Worcester, Mas- 
sachusetts. 

Current research is concerned with extending and 
deepening the data base available from pioneer studies. 
Also see UCB FRG WP-76-10. (Author) 



149 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



1. GENERAL 

g. Research and Development Programs— Continued 



698. Zachary WB, Grossman ERFW and Quan EC 
THE SAN FRANCISCO RESIDENTIAL HIGH-RISE FIRE 
SAFETY INVESTIGATION. Univ of California (Berkeley), 
Fire Res Group; UCB FRG WP 76-10, 57 pages, 23 tables, 
1976 

This report forms part of an ongoing project designed 
to acquire up-to-date knowledge of the experiences of 
people with fire incidents, availability of fire protection 
equipment, fire knowledge and preparedness, and attitudes 
and desires regarding fire protection. Such information 
is needed to design an efficient and cost-effective fire 
protection system. The initial one on which the present 
one is modeled was performed in Berkeley, California. 
Additional study has since been done in the city of Wor- 
cester, Massachusetts. Current research is concerned with 
extending and deepening the data base from the pioneer 
Berkeley and NBS studies. 

This report represents the bulk of the more saUent 
findings in the San Francisco highrise survey. It will be 
followed shortly by a comparison of Berkeley, San Fran- 
cisco, and selected Worcester results which will seek to 
establish some justifiably generalizable statements about 
occupant response to, and preparedness for, fires occur- 
ring in this country. A forthcoming report, to be filed 
with the National Technical Information Service, will con- 
tain additional analysis, conclusions, and information on 
the actual project techniques. See also UCB FRG 76- 
5. (Author) 



2. DYNAMICS AND MECHANICS OF 
FIRE 



a. FIRE BUILDUP, PROPAGATION, AND SPREAD 

699. Rasbash DJ 

A FLAME EXTINCTION CRITERION FOR FIRE 
SPREAD 

Combust Flame; 26(3):41 1-412, 1976 

A number of theories of flame spread over surfaces 
have been advanced, both for solid and liquid fuels, 
mostly fuel oriented and focusing on the rate at which 
fuel ahead of the flame becomes heated to a certain tem- 
perature that characterizes flame onset. The author sug- 
gests that it may be illuminating to focus on the flame 
as well as the fuel, visualizing the flame as extending 
within boundaries (near the surface of the fuel) at which 
a flame extinction condition prevails and regarding the 
movement of the flame forward over the fuel as the move- 
ment of one of these extinction fronts. The simple fire 
point theory is applied to the development of the criterion. 
1 fig, 3 refs. (Author) 

700. DeUchatsios MS 

HRE GROWTH RATES IN WOOD CRIBS 

Combust Flame; 27(2):267-278, 1976 

The burning history of a wood crib ignited at the center 
of its base has been investigated theoretically and experi- 
mentally. A simple energy-balance model has proven suc- 
cessful in predicting the radial fire-spread rates and mass 



burning rates for varying crib geometries with accuracies 
of ±10%. Exceptions to the vaUdity of the model were 
only noted for very densely packed cribs, for which sig- 
nificant lateral spread occurred simultaneously with verti- 
cal fire spread. Cribs consisting of sticks with thicknesses 
of 0.635 cm, 1.905 cm and 3.17 cm were burned in the 
present experiments. Analysis of pressure modeUng ex- 
periments has also shown that pressure modeling cannot, 
in general, model the fire growth rates in wood cribs. 
8 figs, 2 tables, 15 refs. (Author) 

701. BullenML 

A COMPARISON OF FLASHOVER TIMES IN SMALL- 
SCALE FIRES USING TEST DATA 

Fire Mater; 1(2): 74-75, 1976 

Reaction to fire standard tests on materials used as 
Unings are not sufficient in themselves to predict the 
behavior of growing fires. However, flashover times with 
cellulosic Unings have been correlated qualitatively with 
the British test, but generally there is wide divergence 
in the test results from different countries. This short 
paper discusses some aspects of this problem. 2 tables, 
7 refs. (Author) 

702. Martin RE, Pendleton DW and Burgess W 
EFFECT OF FIRE WHIRLWIND FORMATION ON 
SOLID FUEL BURNING RATES 

Fire Technol; 12(1): 33-40, 1976 

Burning rates of Douglas fir wood were measured using 
crosspiled sticks 1/4, 1/2, 3/4 and 1 inch in cross-sectional 
dimensions. The 1/4-inch crosspiles (cribs) burned up to 
4.2 times as fast with whirlwind as without, and 1-inch 
cribs, as low as 1.4 times as fast with whirlwind formation 
as without. Differences between size classes of crib sticks 
were inconsistent, perhaps due to variation in wood densi- 
ty, high packing ratios, and crib shape. 6 figs, 2 tables, 
14 refs. (Author) 

703. Nakakuki A 

FLAME SPREAD OVER SOLID AND LIQUID FUELS 

J Fire Flammability; 7(l):19-40, 1976 

The mechanism of flame spread over solid and liquid 
fuels was studied. The horizontal flame spread over solid 
fuels, especially for plastics, is discussed. The various 
heats transferred from the flame to the fuel ahead of 
the flame front are estimated from the experimental data. 
The conductive heat through the gas phase is seen to 
be dominant. The heat from the flame to the unbumt 
fuel, calculated by the equation derived by Lastrina et 
al, agreed roughly with the value estimated from the data. 
The flame spread over liquid fuels is discussed. In flame 
spread over non- volatile hquid, the fire point and the con- 
vection of the Uquid are known to give effects on the 
flame spreading velocity. The flame spread over the 
volatile liquid under various ambient pressures and ox- 
ygen-enriched atmospheres is analyzed by the theory of 
flame propagation in the Bunsen burner and tube. 12 figs, 
4 tables, 27 refs. (Author) 

704. Tu K-M and Davis S 

FLAME SPREAD OF CARPET SYSTEMS INVOLVED IN 
ROOM FIRES. Nat Bureau of Standards, Center for Fire 
Res; NBSIR 76-1013, 41 pages, 23 figs, 4 tables, 4 refs, 
Jun 1976 
Availability: NTIS 



150 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



2. DYNAMICS AND MECHANICS OF FIRE 

a. Fire Buildup, Propagation, and Spread — Continued 

This study was designed to test the hypothesis that given 
a situation where a chair or other item of furniture 
becomes the first item to bum in a room (providing the 
ceihng and walls are noncombustible), there is Uttle reason 
to expect involvement of the carpet in the fire beyond 
the immediate vicinity of the burning object. Four small- 
sized carpet fire tests and eight full-scale bum room fire 
experiments were conducted. Experimental data for tem- 
perature distribution and incident heat flux to the floor 
covering were measured in the rooms. General analysis 
of the experimental results obtained shows this to be the 
case. It also is evident that the critical radiant flux of 
the floor covering system is predictive of the extent of 
burning. From this study, carpet systems used in rooms 
will not normally spread fire provided they meet the 
requirements of DOC FF 1-70 (the pill test). (Author) 

705. BuUen ML 

A COMBINATION OVERALL AND SURFACE ENERGY 
BALANCE FOR FULLY-DEVELOPED VENTILATION- 
CONTROLLED LIQUID FUEL FIRES IN COMPART- 
MENTS. Dept of the Environ and Fire Offices' Committee 
(UK), Fire Res Station; Fire Res Note 1051, 43 pages, 
15 figs, 7 tables, 1 ref, Jun 1976 

As part of the research to extend the understanding 
of fully-developed wood fires to non-cellulosic fuels, the 
outline of a theoretical energy balance for a liquid fuel 
fire in a compartment is presented. A computer solution 
of the heat balance is described and the results of simu- 
lated fires are given to illustrate the uses of the model 
and the limitations of the assumptions made in the theory. 

The results show systematic departures from the well- 
known assumption of the constancy of the ratio of burning 
rate to ventilation rate; this can account for some of 
the scatter commonly found in measurements of this ratio. 
(Author) 

b. FLAMMABILITY, IGNITION, AND EXTINCTION 

706. Damant GH 

FLAMMABILFTY ASPECTS OF UPHOLSTERED FURNI- 
TURE. Part II. 

Fj>e//ne; :9-ll, June, 1976 

The second part of this report of work performed by 
the California Bureau of Home Furnishings on furniture 
composites indicates the interaction of dissimilar uphol- 
stery materials when tested in the form of prototype 
mock-up furniture systems. In addition, the positive 
flammability effect of using filling materials which comply 
with California furniture regulations versus conventional 
filling materials is indicated. 

c. FLOW OF COMBUSTION PRODUCTS 

707. Brown VL 

THE NATURE OF SMOKE AND ITS SIGNIFICANCE IN 

A FIRE; Paper No. 1 

Control of Smoke Movement in Building Fires Symp, CIB, 

Proc, Vol 1 - Papers; 1975, Nov 4-5, Garston, Watford, 

UK, pages 5-11 

Sponsor: Fire Res Sta, Building Res Estab (UK) 



Smoke is probably the most significant and dangerous 
phenomenon associated with fires in buildings. It poses 
serious problems for persons trying to escape and for 
firefighters who may need to rescue people as well as 
fight the fire. In designing new buildings, therefore, it 
is of vital importance from a safety viewpoint to make 
effective arrangements both to contain smoke and extract 
it. It is essential that architects and engineers have a 
good basic understanding of smoke behavior and of the 
advantages and disadvantages of the various existing con- 
trol methods. (Author) 

708. Archer AJ 

SMOKE AND ITS PROBLEMS IN THE FIRE STATION; 

Paper No. 2 

Control of Smoke Movement in Building Fires Symp, CIB, 

Proc, Vol 1 - Papers; 1975, Nov 4-5, Garston, Watford, 

UK, pages 13-19 

Sponsor: Fire Res Sta, Bldg Res Estab (UK) 

Fire situations present a hazard to life both when mem- 
bers of the Fire Service are engaged in fire fighting or 
members of the pubUc are making their way to safety 
when danger arises. The rapid buildup of heat and smoke 
which can occur in these situations demands that attention 
should be paid to a more positive approach to smoke 
control. Common features can be identified in a cross 
section of different fires; one concludes that these 
problems can be resolved and, furthermore, that the future 
concepts of building developments should give smoke con- 
trol a high priority at the design stage. (Author) 

709. Robertson AF 

ESTIMATING SMOKE PRODUCTION FROM ROOMS 

AND FURNISHINGS; Paper No. 3 

Control of Smoke Movement in Building Fires Symp, CIB, 

Proc, Vol 1 - Papers; 1975, Nov 4-5, Garston, Watford, 

UK, pages 21-32 

Sponsor: Fire Res Sta, Bldg Res Estab (UK) 

In the absence of specific analytical methods for mea- 
suring the hazards of fire gases, there is a trend towards 
the use of smoke production as a partial measure of this 
hazard. It is suggested that present smoke test methods 
may be best used to provide indications of the possible 
smoke production, i.e., product of specific optical density 
and fire exposed area, characteristic of fuUy involved 
furnishing and interior finish products. It is demonstrated 
that very large quantities of smoke will result from com- 
bustion of only small quantities of most combustibles. 
Because of this there is UtUe opportunity for eUmination 
of the smoke hazard during fires through estabUshment 
of any but the most drastic limitations on the smoke 
development characteristics of materials considered ac- 
ceptable. Measures for Umiting ignition and development 
of fires, together with containment and disposal of smoke 
when fires occur, appear the most promising methods for 
reducing hazards due to smoke. 2 figs, 5 tables, 10 refs. 
(Author) 

710. McCaffrey BJ and Quintiere JG 

FIRE-INDUCED CORRIDOR FLOW IN A SCALE 
MODEL STUDY; Paper No 4 

Control of Smoke Movement in Building Fires Symp, CIB, 
Proc, Vol 1 - Papers; 1975, Nov 4-5, Garston, Watford, 
UK, pages 33-47 
Sponsor: Fire Res Sta, Bldg Res Estab (UK) 



151 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



2. DYNAMICS AND MECHANICS OF FIRE 
c. Flow of Combustion Products — Continued 



The airflow induced within a corridor by a room fire 
was studied for a scale model configuration. The effect 
of corridor exit opening was determined for a fixed room 
door opening and temperature gradient. Velocity and tem- 
perature measurements were made. At the room doorway 
and corridor exit the thermally stratified flow would enter 
and leave with a sharp boundary between the counter- 
current flows. However, within the corridor the flow was 
more complex, giving rise to a large recirculating zone 
traversing the corridor length and trapped between the 
hot ceiling jet and entering cold flow. Smoke tracer 
visualization techniques illuminated these complex flow 
patterns along with mixing caused by shedding vortexes. 
These flow results are quantitatively presented and their 
nature is discussed. The total mass flow rate induced 
into the corridor was measured and compared to theoreti- 
cal results. At this time, the implications of these complex 
corridor flows in a scale model must be limited until they 
are verified in similar full-scale experiments and their na- 
ture is more thoroughly understood. 5 figs, 8 refs. 
(Author) 

71 1 . Wakamatsu T 

UNSTEADY-STATE CALCULATION OF SMOKE MOVE- 
MENT IN AN ACTUALLY FIRED BUILDING; Paper No. 

8 

Control of Smoke Movement in Building Fires Symp, CIB, 

Proc, Vol 1 - Papers; 1975, Nov 4-5, Garston, Watford, 

UK, pages 81-97 

Sponsor: Fire Res Sta, Bldg Res Estab (UK) 

We have already developed three calculation methods 
for predicting smoke movement and designing smoke con- 
trol systems; these are (1) simplified steady-state, (2) 
steady-state (on a whole system of a building) and (3) 
unsteady-state method. The methods of (1) and (2) have 
been developed mainly for designing smoke control 
systems. The unsteady-state calculation method could be 
useful in checking reliabilities of predicting smoke move- 
ment by the former methods, or in analyzing fLe and 
smoke behavior in actually fired buildings. In this method, 
pressures, air and smoke flow quantities, concentrations 
of smoke or gases and temperatures, which are variant 
with time, can be calculated for every compartment in 
a building. We have checked and discussed reUabilities 
or accuracies of the methods stated above by means of 
field experiments or cross comparisons of calculated 
results by these methods. Furthermore, we have analyzed 
smoke movement in two actually fired buildings by the 
unsteady-state calculation method. One of them has been 
pubUshed in the Occasional Reports of JAFSE, No. 1 
(CIBAV14/60/74(J)). This paper presents another example 
as an application of analyses by the calculation method 
for a five-story hospital building. In the example analysis, 
air and smoke flows are considered along approximately 
440 flow paths, and concentrations of smoke or gases 
and temperatures are calculated for approximately 120 
compartments, including the fire compartment. 8 figs, 1 
table, 1 ref. (Author) 

712. Shannon JMA 

COMPUTER ANALYSIS OF THE MOVEMENT AND 
CONTROL OF SMOKE IN BUILDINGS WITH 



MECHANICAL AND NATURAL VENTILATION; Paper 

No. 9 

Control of Smoke Movement in Building Fires Symp, CIB, 

Proc, Vol 1 - Papers; 1975, Nov 4-5, Garston, Watford, 

UK, pages 99-126 

Sponsor: Fire Res Sta, Bldg Res Estab (UK) 

The method predicts smoke flow in naturally ventilated 
and/or air-conditioned buildings. The program simulates 
the building as a complete pressure/smoke flow system. 
Being a simulation, it is capable of not only the conven- 
tional constant pressure/temperature/flow 'steady state' 
analysis, but also a 'dynamic' analysis in which the tem- 
perature and pressure distributions vary appropriately with 
time throughout the building. The fire is described in 
terms of its volume, temperature and smoke production 
characteristics with time. The usual factual tabular results 
are augmented by graphical output. The resulting pollutant 
concentration is shown on a Visual Display Unit (VDU) 
as a number of dots (proportional to the concentration) 
in the appropriate parts of each room of a schematic 
section of the building. This visual aspect considerably 
aids a proper understanding of the building operation. The 
VDU output completes a feedback loop and the program 
can be run in an interactive mode also. The characteristics 
of any air path and/or fan system can be changed and 
fire^s) can be started in as many rooms and at any time 
desired through the calculation. Thus, the designer can 
investigate, in detail, for this particular building, the 
results of several approaches to controlling smoke move- 
ment. 12 figs. (Author) 

713. Appleton IC 

A MODEL OF SMOKE MOVEMENT IN BUILDINGS; 

Paper No. 10 

Control of Smoke Movement in Building Fires Symp, CIB, 

Proc, Vol 1 - Papers; 1975, Nov 4-5, Garston, Watford, 

UK, pages 127-137 

Sponsor: Fire Res Sta, Bldg Res Estab (UK) 

For some time investigations have been continuing at 
FRS (the Fire Research Station (UK)) into the physics 
of the movement of smoke in buildings and the effective- 
ness of various smoke control measures. To coordinate 
this work, FRS commissioned SCICON (Scientific Control 
Systems Ltd (UK)) to develop a model of smoke in 
buildings, based on physical equations derived at the sta- 
tion and to write a computer program. This paper is a 
summary of the SCICON reports of the computer model 
and its subsequent usage. 6 refs. (Author) 

714. Pyle WC 

SMOKE CONTROL BY MECHANICAL VENTILATION; 

Paper No. 1 1 

Control of Smoke Movement in Building Fires Symp, CIB, 

Proc, Vol 1 - Papers; 1975, Nov 4-5, Garston, Watford, 

UK, pages 139-148 

Sponsor: Fire Res Sta, Bldg Res Estab (UK) 

A look is taken at the current trends and the present 
state-of-the-art of smoke control technology in the UK 
from the viewpoint of the Building Services Engineer, 
involving a general consideration of the principles and 
concepts for the control of smoke in buildings by mechani- 
cal ventilation and, in particular, related to engineering 
aspects of primary concern to the engineer responsible 



152 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



2. DYNAMICS AND MECHANICS OF FIRE 
c. Flow of Combustion Products— Continued 

for the design of building services. The review is confined 
to the aspects of smoke control as distinct from preven- 
tion, and to smoke control by mechanical ventilation as 
distinct from natural ventilation. The principal aspects 
under consideration are the factors on which the require- 
ments for smoke control are based, and the possible 
methods for achieving these requirements by mechanical 
ventilation by the implementation of measures such as 
dilution of smoke, pressure differentials, smoke removal, 
but excluding examination of the mechanism of smoke 
spread and the related principal factors involved in the 
motivating force of the fire, buoyancy effect, weather 
effect and air-handling effect, all of which are outside 
the scope of this particular paper. 7 refs. (Author) 

715. GUbert L 

THE nREMAN'S VIEWPOINT ON THE CONTROL OF 

SMOKE MOVEMENT; Paper No. 22 

Control of Smoke Movement in Building Fires Symp, CIB, 

Proc, Vol 1 - Papers; 1975, Nov 4-5, Garston, Watford, 

UK, pages 299-306 

Sponsor: Fu-e Res Sta, Bldg Res Estab (UK) 

On the basis of personal fireground experience, the 
author proposes seven points for close examination on 
a research project to combat the problem of smoke as 
a killer in fires: the need for more research to replace 
the smoke-producing materials; the need for legislative 
control over the building contents and for international 
standards of reasonably safe materials; the urgent need 
for a simple, cheap, and effective home smoke detection 
system; in public places automatic smoke detection should 
be regarded as an integral part of escape means and a 
legislative requirement; the need for a small, compact 
breathing apparatus for firemen and others; the need to 
bring the home under the scope of fire safety legislation; 
and the need for a distinctive fire alarm signal which 
would be standard throughout the world. 3 figs, 1 table. 

716. Silcock A 

SOME PRACTICAL PROBLEMS OF SMOKE MOVE- 
MENT IN BUILDINGS; Paper No. 23 
Control of Smoke Movement in Building Fires Symp, CIB, 
Proc, Vol 1 - Papers; 1975, Nov 4-5, Garston, Watford, 
UK, pages 307-316 
Sponsor: Fire Res Sta, Bldg Res Estab (UK) 

Outlined in this paper are problems relating to the less 
predictable ways in which smoke can travel through 
buildings. These problems may arise owing to concealed 
voids and cavities in the structure, or may result from 
the particular circumstances of fire development, the per- 
formance of the building and its components in the fire, 
and also from the actions of the occupants. 6 figs, 1 
table, 3 refs. (Author) 

d. INSTRUMENTATION 

717. Greenberg S 

QUANTITATIVE DETERMINATION OF SMOKE AND 
TOXIC PRODUCT POTENTIAL OF MATERIALS WITH 



THE AMINCO-NBS SMOKE DENSITY CHAMBER; 

NASA Spec Publ No. 379 

Space Simulation Conf, 8th, Proc; 1975, Nov 3-5, Silver 

Spring, MD 

The Aminco-NBS Smoke Density Chamber is discussed 
in terms of design and appUcation. The instrument uses 
a collimated vertical light beam in conjunction with an 
ultra-linear photomultiplier microphotometer to measure 
quantitatively smoke obscuration produced by standard 
area samples under high-energy pyrolysis. Results are ex- 
pressed in dimensionless Specific Optical Density. 48 refs. 
(Author) 

718. Martin SB 

CHARACTERIZATION OF THE STANFORD RESEARCH 
INSTITUTE LARGE-SCALE HEAT-RELEASE 

CALORIMETER. Stanford Res Inst, Menlo Park, CA; NBS 
GCR-76-54, 81 pages, 22 figs, 6 tables, 8 refs, Oct 1975 
AvailabiUty: NTIS 

A scaled up version of the NBS heat release rate 
calorimeter was constructed at SRI. It can measure 
specimen sizes up to 18 x 24 inches over an incident 
radiant flux range of 1.5 to 7.0 W/crn^. The performance 
of the instrument is evaluated and various cahbration 
procedures are described. The effect of specimen size 
and irradiance is investigated and data are compared with 
those taken in the NBS instalment. The use of the heat 
release rate calorimeter as a research tool is discussed. 
In particular a "limiting thermal index" and a "thermal 
sensitivity index" are defined. (Author) 

e. METEOROLOGY 

f. RADIATION 

719. Tamanini F 

THE PREDICTION OF REACTION RATES AND ENER- 
GY TRANSFERS IN TURBULENT FIRE PLUMES. Facto- 
ry Mutual Res Corp, Basic Res Dept; FMRC 22360-3, 
44 pages, 5 figs, 3 tables, 22 refs, May 1976 

An improved version of the k-e-g model of turbulence 
is applied to the case of buoyancy-controlled turbulent 
diffusion flames. The model accounts for the generation 
of turbulence due to the gravity field and describes the 
fluctuations of a conserved scalar quantity by introducing 
a polynomial probability density function (PDF). The 
polynomial PDF has the advantage of being much easier 
to handle numerically than a Gaussian. A combustion 
model is assumed which postulates infinitely fast chemical 
kinetics and determines the local burning rate by solving 
for the source term thfe fuel conservation equation in 
which convection and diffusion of fuel have been deter- 
mined from calculated profiles of mean fuel mass fraction. 
The local emission of radiation by the flame is assumed 
to be proportional to the local volumetric burning rate. 
Predictions of the radiation emitted by horizontal shces 
of the flame agree with experimental measurements. While 
flame heights are correctly predicted, the model underesti- 
mates the lateral spread of the flame, despite the fact 
that total agreement between experiment and model pre- 
dictions was obtained in an earlier study for a non-reacting 
thermal plume. The flame result is attributable to lack 
of modeling of the large-scale eddies and their control 



153 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



2. DYNAMICS AND MECHANICS OF FIRE 

f. Radiation— Continued 



over transition to turbulence. Model predictions of an ef- 
fective flame radius, which is representative of the net 
width of the region where reaction is taking place, agree 
with the values of the same quantity obtained from radia- 
tion measurements. Areas in which the modeUng technique 
needs to be improved are also discussed. (Author) 

720. Modak AT 

THERMAL RADIATION FROM POOL FIRES. Factory 
Mutual Res Corp, Basic Res Dept; FMRC 22361-5, 56 
pages, 6 figs, 17 refs, Aug 1976 

For an axisymmetric horizontal pool fire of specified 
flame shape, effective flame radiation (Schmidt) tempera- 
ture and a gray flame absorption coefficient, this analysis 
computes 1) radiative energy fluxes to surfaces located 
external to the fire in any arbitrary orientation, 2) varia- 
tions of radiative heat flux along the fuel surface, from 
fire center to fire edge, 3) the total radiative heat transfer 
from the flames to the fuel surface, 4) forward radiative 
heat transfer from the fire to the virgin fuel bed external 
to the fire, 5) the angular distribution of the radiative 
flux emitted by the pool fire and 6) the total radiative 
power output of the fire. The calculations are in excellent 
agreement with experimentally measured radiative fluxes 
at different locations on the pool surface and outside the 
fire. The radiative flux from the flames to the burning 
fuel surface is shown to be maximum at the center of 
the fuel bed and to decrease markedly toward the edge 
of the fire. The forward radiative heat transfer from the 
flames, to the virgin fuel bed external to the fire, is shown 
to be highest at the leading edge of the fire and to decay 
rapidly with increasing distance from it. Necessary condi- 
tions for validity of isotropic flame radiation are also 
established. (Author) 

g. THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY 



3. BEHAVIOR AND PROPERTIES OF 

MATERIALS 

[For literature on fire and flame retardants, fire and 
flame proofing, etc see Chemical Abstracts.] 

a. CHARACTERISTICS AND THERMAL 
BEHAVIOR OF MATERIALS 

721. Thomsen AB 

THE DETECTION OF THERMAL INCLUSIONS IN 

MINERAL WOOL 

Brandforsvar, FoU-Brand; (1):13-15, 1976 

The cause of most fires in mineral wool factories is 
unknown. It is assumed that 60% are caused by 
processing, during fabrication, included particles which are 
still hot from the production Hne. The manufacturing 
process and some fires are described. The goals of in- 
vestigation, the manner of testing, the reflection method, 
stationary measurements, ambient effects and tempera- 
tures are discussed. These are the aspects used by the 
author to get at the heart of the problem. 5 figs, 2 tables. 
(Fachdok 12/0681) 



722. Lee CK 

FLAME PROPAGATION CHARACTERISITCS OF 
CYLINDRICAL PMMA RODS 

J Fire Flammability; 7(1):104-111, 1976 

Flame velocity measurements were made on cylindrical 
PMMA rods of diameters from 3/4 to 1-1/2 inch burning 
vertically downward and horizontally. Pyrolysis zone 
lengths were also measured to calculate pyrolysis zone 
surface regression rates and gaseous fuel velocities. The 
present experimental data together with the flame spread 
data of M Sibulkin and CK Lee on burning PMMA rods 
of diameters from 1/16 to 1/2 inch showed that the flame 
spreading process could be divided into an intermediate 
thermal regime and a thermally thick regime which were 
defined by their individual burning characteristics. The 
non-dimensional parameters derived by FA Lastrina et 
al, which characterized the thermal thickness of a fuel 
bed, was verified by the present experimental data. 3 
figs, 8 refs. (Author) 

723. Quinn EJ and Dieck RL 

FLAME AND SMOKE PROPERTIES OF FILLED AND 
UNFILLED POLY(ARYLOXYPHOSPHAZENE) 

HOMOPOLYMERS 

J Fire Flammability ; 7( 1 ) : 5- 1 8 , 1 976 

A large number of filled and unfilled 
poly(aryloxyphosphazene) homopolymers were tested 
using the oxygen index and a NBS smoke density test 
method. They did not bum when exposed to air, but 
tended to melt and evolved smoke when exposed to flame. 
The behavior of three different mixtures of 
poly(aryloxyphosphazenes) and aluminum trihydrate, 
CaCOa, and silica hydrate at various mixing ratios (10, 
25 and 50 phr) is described. The values are compared 
in tables. Polymers with alcoxy-substituted phenols on a 
phosphor-nitrogen base exhibited striking reductions in 
smoke evolution compared to the alkyl-substituted 
polymers. 6 tables. (Fachdok 12/0824) 

724. Moulder JL 

METAL FIRES - SCIENCE AND SAFETY 

Dimensions I NBS; 60(1):10-11, 1976 

Metals will burn, usually with destructive force, generat- 
ing large amounts of heat and Ught. The National Bureau 
of Standards has undertaken a study of the basic 
mechanisms of metal combustion to help prevent ac- 
cidental metal fires. Research results of the NBS Boulder 
laboratory team are reported in brief. 1 photo. 

725. Woolley WD, Ames SA, Pitt AI and MureU JV 
FIRE BEHAVIOR OF BEDS AND BEDDING MATERI- 
ALS Q%'. 

Fire Mater; l(2):63-73, 1976 

Full-scale fire tests on domestic beds fully equipped 
with bedding materials have been carried out in an experi- 
mental compartment-corridor facility at the Fire Research 
Station, Borehamwood, UK. Mattresses made of hair, 
spring interior, foam rubber and polyurethane of various 
types, together with mattress covers of cotton, flame- 
retarded cotton or proofed nylon were studied. The effec- 
tiveness of protective hair or glass fibre interlining was 
examined. The study has shown that a rapid development 
of fire in bed and bedding materials can take place with 



154 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



3. BEHAVIOR AND PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS 

a. Characteristics and Thermal Behavior of Materials— Continued 



certain combinations of mattresses and their covers. The 
type of cover is extremely important in overall fire 
development, particularly with polyurethane mattresses. 
A substantial improvement in the fire behavior of many 
of the principal types of beds tested can be achieved 
by a careful selection of bedding materials, such as the 
type of mattress cover, and in certain cases by the use 
of protective interlinings. 13 figs, 7 tables, 3 refs. (Author) 

726. Gumbrecht K 

FIRE PERFORMANCE OF CONVEYOR BELTS 

Glueckauf Forschungsh; 37(4): 142- 147, 1976 (German) 

Major fire experiments in the large fire tunnel of the 
Tremonia experimental mine (FRG) revealed fire-response 
differences between SBR, PVL and CR behs. On the 
basis of these large-scale tests a laboratory method was 
developed. This test in the so-called laboratory fire tunnel 
was incorporated into standard DIN 22118 for belts with 
two textile liners. A committee of experts specified two 
test methods for member couriries of the European com- 
munity, the friction drum and the propane rust tests. An 
effort is being made to develop a laboratory method which 
would yield the same results for belts with steel wire 
liners as the fire tunnel test. 15 figs, 10 refs. (Fachdok 
12/1030) 

727. Modak AT and Croce PA 

PLASTIC POOL FIRES. Factory Mutual Res Corp; FMRC 
22361-3, 39 pages, 7 figs, 4 tables, 20 refs, Jun 1976 

Experimental results relating flame radiation feedback 
mechanisms to the burning behavior of 51 mm-thick, solid, 
horizontal, square, polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) 
pools are discussed. Data for sizes ranging from 25 mm 
x 25 mm (1 in. x 1 in.) to 1.22 m x 1.22 m (4 ft x 
4 ft) show that the burning rate per unit surface area 
of plastic pool fires increases with scale and is dominated, 
at the larger scales, by thermal radiation from the flames. 
The total radiative power output of the flames represents 
42 percent of total heat release rate of the larger PMMA 
fires. Local burning rates for the larger plastic pools are 
maximum at pool center, corresponding to maximum 
radiative heat transfer from the flames, and decrease 
monotonically to the edge of the pool. Relatively long 
time periods are required to establish steady burning in 
the intermediate sized pools. The long "bum-in" time 
to reach steady state is associated with increasing radiative 
heat flux from the flames to the pool with time. The 
magnitude of the time-dependent radiative heat flux to 
the pool is calculated on the basis of a one-dimensional 
analysis for a semi-infinite slab. The variation of local 
burning rates along the pool surface is formulated in terms 
of a cylindrical flame model. Physical implications of the 
assumptions made in the analysis and their limitations 
are reviewed critically. (Author) 

728. Alderson SE and Breden LH 

EVALUATION OF THE FIRE PERFORMANCE OF CAR- 
PET UNDERLAYMENT. Nat Bureau of Standards, Center 
for Fire Res; NBSIR 76-1018, 69 pages, 40 figs, 2 tables, 
7 refs, Sep 1976 
Availability: NTIS 



A series of carpet underlayments was evaluated for fire 
performance in a coiridor configuration using the same 
carpet corridor tests. In a series of small-scale tests, such 
as the smoke density chamber and the radiant panel, the 
flammability properties of the carpet tended to mask the 
flammability properties of the underlayment. The excep- 
tion to this masking effect was the results from the floor- 
ing radiant panel test, where the thermal conductivity of 
the underlayment influenced the burning characteristics 
of the carpet. High concentrations of toxic combustion 
products were observed at the time of flashover in the 
corridor, with both cellulosic and synthetic underlayments. 
Smoke optical density values for the various carpet-plus- 
underlayment combinations were approximately the same 
in the flaming mode, except for the integral pad system, 
which has a higher value. (Author) 

729. Rogowski BFW 

PLASTICS IN BUILDINGS - FIRE PROBLEMS AND 
CONTROL. Building Res Estab (UK), Fire Res Station; 
BRE CP-39-76, 14 pages, 4 tables, 14 refs, Jun 1976 

This paper reviews the more common apphcations of 
plastics as sheets and films, composites, and individual 
components in building construction and discusses the ef- 
fect of their fire performance on factors such as density, 
thickness and method of use. Test methods appropriate 
for assessing the probable fire performance of construc- 
tional elements or lining materials incorporating plastics 
are hsted and the possibility of different types complying 
with current Building Regulations requirements is in- 
dicated in the tables. (Author) 

b. COMBUSTION, EXPLOSION, AND 

FLAMMABILITY TESTS AND METHODS 

730. Bemskiold A 

IGNITION AND BURNING PROPERTIES OF TEXTILES 
- A STUDY OF TEST METHODS 

Brandforsvar, FoU-Brand; (l):l-6, 1976 

After evaluating international cooperation in the field 
of test methods, the author reviews kinds of textiles, pro- 
perties to be examined, methods for determining ignition 
time, classification of textiles on this basis, flame, parame- 
ters, melting points, smoke emission, then flame propaga- 
tion, methods of determining propagation and determina- 
tion of burned areas on textiles impregnated with fire- 
resistant agents. In so doing, the author investigates all 
aspects and evaluates their significance. 22 figs, 24 refs. 
(Fachdok 12/0752) 

731. Damant GH 

FLAMMABILITY ASPECTS OF UPHOLSTERED FURNI- 
TURE, PART I 

Fireline; :8-10, May 1976 

This paper summarizes some of the work performed 
by the California Bureau of Home Furnishings on furni- 
ture composites, indicating the interactions of dissimilar 
upholstery materials when tested in the form of furniture 
cushions. 15 refs. 



155 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



3. BEHAVIOR AND PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS 

b. Combustion, Explosion, and Flammability Tests and Methods— Continued 



732. Damant GH 

FLAMMABILITY ASPECTS OF FLEXIBLE POLYU- 
RETHANE FOAMS COMMONLY USED IN UPHOL- 
STERED FURNITURE 

J Consumer Prod Flammability; 3(2):73-127, 1976 

Some flammability characteristics were investigated in 
detail. Smoldering tendencies were investigated using 
burning cigarettes, smoldering fabric strips, and combina- 
tions of the two. Flammability characteristics under a 
variety of conditions were investigated. The flammability 
tests included the methenomine tablet, vertical flame, 
horizontal flame, 450 flame, and the oxygen index. In 
addition, an attempt was made to correlate the test values. 
The test apparatus, procedures and results are illustrated 
in figures; the data and values are compared in tables. 
14 figs, 37 tables, 54 refs. 

733. McCarter RJ 

SMOLDERING OF FLEXIBLE POLYURETHANE FOAM 

J Consumer Prod Flammability; 3(2):128-140, 1976 

Various flexible polyurethane foam samples were stu- 
died for their smoldering behavior. All began to smolder 
when exposed to burning cigarettes and smoldering fabric, 
representing hazardous fire sources, some especially so 
because they sustained smoldering. The studies covered 
oxygen index, density, permeability, and charring ten- 
dencies. Correlations between smoldering and charring 
tendencies (as opposed to melting) were noted. Strong 
differences were observed for foams with different base 
polyols and for foams with fire-retardant additives. 1 fig, 
9 refs. 

734. Brauman SK, Fishman N, Brolly AS and 
Chamberlain DL 

SMOKE GENERATION FROM THE BURNING OF 
SOME POLYMERIC MATERIALS 

J Fire Flammability; 7(l):41-58, 1976 

By use of a small-scale, gravimetric collection 
technique, smoke particulates from burning polypropylene, 
polystyrene, and crosslinked polyester samples have been 
collected and analyzed. The effects of fire-retardant addi- 
tives on the smoke particulate yields have been examined, 
and the influences of mass burning rate, oxygen concen- 
tration, thermal environment, and sample geometry on the 
smoke particulate generation have been considered. 
Several conventional fire-retardant additives were found 
to increase the amount of smoke particulates generated 
from the polymer systems studied. Most often these in- 
creases in smoke generation cannot be attributed merely 
to inclusion of the elements of the retardant in the smoke, 
but can be attributed, in some cases, to chemical effects 
in the gas phase due to volatile halogen from the retardant 
additive, and in other cases, to increased mass burning 
rates. 10 figs, 2 tables, 9 refs. (Author) 

735. Fountain R 

HRE RETARDANT ANALYSIS OF AN FRP COMPOSITE 
BEFORE AND AFTER THE TUNNEL TEST 

J Fire Retard Chem; 3(l):22-33, 1976 

Two defined FRP composite systems used in bathroom 
fixture apphcations were subjected to the ASTM E-84 
Tunnel Test. The materials contained flame retardants 



which were measured via elemental analysis before and 
after burning the composite in the tunnel. Comparisons 
were made between (a) the manner in which the 
phosphorus and chlorine elements were distributed and 
consumed by burning and (b) the type of analyses (surface 
or bulk). The two composites had different structural rein- 
forcement and hence different burning rates. 7 figs. 6 
refs. (Author) 

736. Anon 

TESTING PLASTICS FOR FIRE BEHAVIOR: THE 
SMOKE IS BEGINNING TO CLEAR AWAY 

Mod Plast; 53(3):46-48, 1976 

Th^ results of research programs devoted to the study 
of the behavior of plastics products in real fire situations 
are summarized. Research at many levels shows promise 
of practical new ways to evaluate fire performance. The 
needs for future research, especially of the hazards to 
be tested, are considered. A reliable small-scale test and 
the test equipment needed to perform it are outlined. 1 
fig, 3 photos. 

737. Anon 

TESTING PLASTICS FOR FIRE BEHAVIOR: SMOKE 
HAZARDS GET MORE ATTENTION 

Mod Plast; 53(5):47-49, 1976 

Some of the research programs being devoted to the 
smoke hazards from plastics, including the bio-assay ap- 
proach of the University of Utah's Flammability Research 
Center, the sensory-pulmonary effects of smoke being stu- 
died at the Johns Hopkins University's Applied Physics 
Laboratory, and others, are reviewed within the 
framework of the fire behavior of plastics. This is the 
second part of an article on this theme; part 1 appeared 
in Mod Plast, 53(3):46-48, 1976 (see the source index). 
1 fig, 1 photo. 

738. Finck HW 

PROBLEMS INVOLVED IN MEASURING THE SMOKE 
DENSITY OF PLASTICS 

Kunstst; 66(6): 375 -378, 1976 

The operation of most smoke-density measurement in- 
struments is based on the principle of smoke-particle at- 
tenuation of the light beam of a photometer. The factors 
which influence the measured values of the device are 
listed, including ventilation, ambient temperature, and 
weight of the specimen; the latter is well suited for 
delineation of a suitable measurement range for compara- 
tive investigations. The melting viscosity of the plastics 
being investigated does not exert any measurable influence 
on the results. The article concludes with a survey of 
the smoke generated by some important thermoplastics. 
4 figs, 3 tables, 13 refs. (Author) 

739. Segal L and Drake GL 

THE HORIZONTAL FLAME-PROPAGATION RATE OF 
UNDYED COTTON FABRICS 

Text Res J; 46(4):238-246, 1976 

Differentiation of the flammabihties of nonflame-retar- 
dant, all-cotton fabrics cannot be accomphshed by the 
usual test procedures, as these merely provide the means 
for determining when a fabric exceeds a certain set stan- 
dard. The desired differentiation, however, can be ob- 



156 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



3. BEHAVIOR AND PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS 

b. Combustion, Explosion, and Flammability Tests and Methods— Continued 



tained by measurement of the flame-propagation rate using 
the Ahiba Flammability Tester with the sample in the 
horizontal position. Eight nonflame-retardant, undyed cot- 
ton fabrics of different constructions were studied. The 
weights of the fabrics fell into four groups: 3.1, 3.6-3.8, 
4.1-4.4, and 7.5 oz/yd^ Specimens were cut from the 
warp and filling directions of the fabrics; one set of 
specimens was oven-dried prior to testing, while another 
set was conditioned to equilibrium moisture content at 
65% relative humidity and 70° F. Burning was different 
in the warp and filling directions. Differences in flame- 
propagation rates were found that were not weight-depen- 
dent. In general, flame-propagation rate was not constant 
over the length of the specimen; in the warp direction 
the rates increased with distance from point of ignition, 
while in the fiUing direction constant and decreasing rates 
were also found. Flame-propagation rate was not effected 
to the extent expected by changing from oven drying to 
conditioning to equilibrium moisture content; only four 
of the eight fabrics showed significant changes. Burning 
in the filling directions of two fabrics was markedly 
changed; smaller differences were found in the warp 
direction only of a third fabric and in both the warp 
and filling directions of a fourth fabric. 10 figs, 3 tables, 
17 refs. (Author) 

740. Buckland IG, Butlin RN and Annable DJ 

GAS EXPLOSIONS IN BUILDINGS. PART VI. REMOTE- 
LY CONTROLLED GAS SAMPLING PROBE AND CLO- 
SURE VALVES FOR A GAS EXPLOSION CHAMBER. 

Dept of the Environ and Fire Offices' Committee (UK), 
Fire Res Station; Fire Res Note 1052, 11 pages, 9 figs, 
4 refs, Jun 1976 

The Engineering Services Section have designed, in col- 
laboration with ITH Section, a new Sampling Probe 
System for the 28-m-' explosion chamber at Cardington. 
The system is remotely operated with digital indication 
of the probe position. The gas mixture in the cell can 
be sampled at any point between the ceiling and the bot- 
tom of the extended probe. After filhng the chamber the 
probe is retracted, thus avoiding the possibility of the 
probe affecting the characteristics of an ensuing explosion. 
All the gas inlet and exhaust valves on the rig are remotely 
operated using the same power source, for reasons of 
safety and convenience. See also Fire Res Note 988. 
(Author) 

741. Butlin RN 

PRODUCTION OF GAS LAYERS FOR LARGE-SCALE 
GAS EXPLOSION STUDIES. PART 1. PRELIMINARY 
INVESTIGATIONS. Dept of the Environ and Fire Offices' 
Committee (UK), Fire Res Station; Fire Res Note 1004, 
16 pages, 20 figs, 1 1 refs, Apr 1976 

A series of experiments on the formation of roof layers 
of buoyant flammable gas, using mixtures of natural gas 
and air and also 100% natural gas, is described in which 
both vertical and horizontal distribution of gas concentra- 
tion were determined. 

Mixing of the introduced flammable gas with air in the 
explosion chamber was reduced by the adoption of ap- 
propriate input conditions. The distribution of gas in 
horizontal planes in all mixtures was found to be uniform, 
but the vertical distribution of gas indicated the formation 



of diffuse layers, particularly when introducing 100% natu- 
ral gas. The effects of filling rate and also the change 
of concentration with time in a quiescent layer are 
described. (Author) 

742. Kline GM 

FACTS BEHIND THE 'CONSPIRACY' IN FLAMMABILI- 
TY - TEST TERMINOLOGY 

ModPlasf, 53(6):64-66, 1976 

Civil suits emanating from Federal Trade Commission 
proceedings in 1973 imply that industry and ASTM con- 
spired to write standard methods to make plastics look 
good in laboratory tests. The historical truth is, however, 
that even in the earliest days of test development printed 
instructions cautioned against correlating these laboratory 
results with real fire situations. Some of the history of 
the development of the flammability test methods for 
plastics is reviewed here to refute these charges. 3 refs. 

c. FIRE AND EXPLOSION HAZARDS OF 
MATERIALS 

743. Woolley WD and Ames SA 
EXPLOSION HAZARD OF FOAMS 

Brandaus; 84(7):247-251, 1976 (German) 

In November 1974 an explosion and fire in a warehouse 
for foam mattresses in Chatham, England, claimed four 
lives and four injured persons. The explosion occurred 
when firemen were looking for the cause of the heavy 
smoke in the storage area. As a result of this event, 
ignition tests were carried out at the Fire Research Station 
in Borehamwood with specimens of this and a similar 
foam; the tests are reported on in detail in this article. 
The specimens were heated with small ignition sources 
(matches, cigarettes) and studied with respect to flamma- 
bility and behavior under smoldering conditions. The in- 
completely burned gases (smoldering) were tested for com- 
bustibility and explosivity. 4 figs. (Fachdok 12/0979) 

744. Hackstaff BW 

FIRE HAZARDS WITH FOAMED PLASTIC INSULA- 
TION 

Brauwelt; B115(38):1247-1249, 1975 

Polyurethane foam insulation is probably the most effec- 
tive and efficient insulation presently known to man. 
When properly formulated and applied, and protected 
against accidental ignition and the weather, it should func- 
tion very well. Burning characteristics of polyurethane 
foams had not been fully delineated by earHer laboratory 
tests and test methods which had determined that many 
foams were of "non-burning" or "self-extinguishing" 
character. That the earlier tests were totally inadequate 
is well known to a number of brewers who suffered from 
disastrous and costly fires. New test methods, formula- 
tions and application procedures are being or have been 
developed to permit polyurethane foams to be used with 
safety and assurance. 5 figs, 5 tables. (Author) 

745. Krzystolik P and SUz J 

EVALUATION OF THE DUST EXPLOSION HAZARD IN 
THE WOOD INDUSTRY 

Arch Termodyn Spal\ 7(2):243-253, 1976 (Polish; English 
and Russian summaries) 



157 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



3. BEHAVIOR AND PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS 
c. Fire and Explosion Hazards of Materials — Continued 



The flammability and explosivity of three kinds of dust 
formed by the grinding of wood industry products, name- 
ly, wood dust, fiberboard dust, and dust from lacquer 
coatings, are compared. Despite the difference in grain 
material, the explosion dynamics of these dusts are 
similar. Wood-dust explosions were found to spread easi- 
ly, and therefore appropriate safeguards must be provided 
for in plants of the wood-processing industry. 6 figs, 4 
tables, 6 refs. (Author) 

746. Factory Mutual 

METAL DECK ROOFS AND FOAMED PLASTIC INSU- 
LATION 

Constr Specifier, 29(5):46-53, 1976 

Reviewed in this paper are the test programs conducted 
by Factory Mutual to determine the fire hazard of roof 
coverings over metal roof decking and of foamed plastics 
in rigid form as building insulation. These extensive test 
programs have produced new information that has led 
to the development of adequate protection standards, 
which are identified and recommended to designers and 
contractors. 6 figs. 

747. King RW 

THE DANGERS OF SUDDEN BOILING OF SUPER- 
HEATED LIQUIDS 

Fire Prev Sci Technol; (15):17-21, 1976 (English; German 
and French summaries) 

This paper examines physical explosions caused by the 
sudden boiling of superheated liquids. It shows how two 
immiscible liquids, such as water and benzene, neither 
of which are boiling, can produce a superheated mixture 
which "explodes" when the two come together. The 
phrase "latent superheating" is coined to describe the 
phenomenon. 8 figs, 4 refs. (Author) 

748. Dobrovol'skiy IP, Belov VA and Zuev AS 

THE FIRE HAZARD OF SOME PRODUCTS OF THE 
PAINT AND VARNISH INDUSTRY 

Lakokrasoch materialy i ikh primenenie; (6):77-l%, 1975 
(Russian) 

The fire hazard characteristics of 19 varnish and paint 
products are given, such as the flash point, ignition and 
self-ignition temperatures of vapors in air, the ignition 
temperature hmits for vapors in air, and the combustibility 
classification and the nature of burning substances in- 
teracting v/ith water-and-foam extinguishants. A method 
of processing experimental data is described. 1 table. 
(RZh) 

749. Carhart HW, Alroth F, Burgess DS, Hoy HC and 
Leonard JT 

HRE HAZARD CLASSIFICATION OF CHEMICAL 
VAPORS RELATIVE TO EXPLOSION-PROOF ELECTRI- 
CAL EQUIPMENT (FINAL REPORT). Nat Acad Sci, 
Committee on Hazardous Materials, Washington, DC; 
USCG D-71-76, 52 pages. May 1976 
Availability: NTIS AD-A026 215/4GA 

At the request of the US Coast Guard, a detailed study 
of flammabUity has been made by the Electrical Hazards 
Panel of the Committee on Hazardous Materials in order 
to assign tentative classifications to 388 chemicals of com- 



merce according to the classification groups given in the 
National Electrical Code, NEC 500. The method used 
was based on available physical and flammabihty proper- 
ties, and chemical structure as an adjunct (by homology 
and analogy) where data were limited. (Author) 

750. Gouldson EJ, Woolerton GR and Checkland JA 
FIRE HAZARD EVALUATION OF CABLES AND 
MATERIALS 

International Wire and Cable Symp, 24th, Proc; 1975, Nov 

18-20, Cherry Hill, NJ, pages 6-36 

AvailabiUty: NTIS AD-A017 787/3GA 

Sponsor: US Army Electron Command, Fort Monmouth, 

NJ 

Test methods currently used for testing cables and cable 
materials are discussed and improved techniques are 
proposed. The virtues of the proposed techniques are illus- 
trated by means of a typical fire-retardant cable-compound 
development. Finally, the concept of a fire hazard rating 
system is introduced as a rationahzation of the interpreta- 
tion of cable and materials flammability testing. 19 refs. 
(Author) 

d. NATURE OF COMBUSTION PRODUCTS 

751. Manley TR and Glennie BR 

MEASUREMENT OF SMOKE FROM SMOULDERING 
POLYMERS 

SPE Annua! Technical Conf, Proc; 1976, Apr 26-29, Atlan- 
tic City, NJ, pages 396-397 
AvailabiUty: NTIS AD-A017 787/3GA 

Plastics are being used increasingly in furnishings and 
buildings. They are sometimes blamed for the increasing 
number of casualties from the ingestion of smoke. Several 
test methods have been devised to measure the amount 
of smoke produced when materials bum, but the related 
problem of smoke produced in the early stages of a fire 
from smoldering materials has received less attention. An 
apparatus for the measurement of smoke from smoldering 
materials, with provision for analysis of the toxic gases 
concomitantly produced, has been constructed. Some 
preliminary results are presented and compared with those 
from a commercial burning test apparatus. The apparatus 
developed is described along with its operation techniques. 
(Author) 

752. Hilado CJ and LaBossiere LA 

EVALUATION OF SOME COMMERCIAL MATERIALS 
USING THE USF/NASA FIRE TOXICITY SCREENING 
TEST METHOD 

J Consumer Prod Flammability; 3(2):141-149, 1976 

Twenty commercial materials, including polyurethane 
foams, neoprene foam, cotton fibers, polyester fibers, 
wool fibers and fabrics, were investigated for their toxic- 
gas emission hazard by the USF/NASA fire toxicity 
screening test method, in order to determine the best- 
suited test method for characterization of these materials. 
The procedures developed for this purpose are described, 
and the results are presented in the form of tables. Wool 
turned out to be the most toxic, followed by cotton, 
polyester, and neoprene. The aromatic polyamides and 
polyurethane were the least toxic. 1 fig, 3 tables, 9 refs. 



158 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



3. BEHAVIOR AND PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS 
d. Nature of Combustion Products — Continued 

753. MuUer R and Couchoud P 

ANALYSIS OF THE PYROLYSIS AND COMBUSTION 

GASES OF TEXTILE FIBERS 

Melliand Textilber; 57(10):807-810, 1976 (German) 

The formation of the "main toxins" (CO, HCl, HCN) 
and the O2 consumption when the most important textUes 
are treated in an air stream at 400 to 1000i"C was deter- 
mined by comparison. The IR method selected makes it 
possible to determine both the developmental kinetics of 
these gases and the total quantity. All natural and 
synthetic textile fibers, except for heat-resistent fibers, 
exhibit a high tendency to decompose at temperatures 
between 500 and 1000° C and, in general, the behavior 
of wool is not very different from that of nylon 6.6. 
At 400°C the kinetics are low and the gas evolution con- 
sists mainly of CO with high O 2 consumption in the case 
of cellulosic fibers, of HCl in the case of chlorine-contain- 
ing fibers, and HCN for acrylic fibers. 1 table, 1 ref. 
(Author) 

754. Kracklauer J, Sparkes C and Legg R 

NEW SMOKE TEST - FAST, SIMPLE, REPEATABLE 

Plast Technoi, 22(3):46-49, 1976 

After reviewing the three dominant optical tests and 
some of the problems that can be encountered, the authors 
introduce a new smoke test for plastics designed for prac- 
tical use in lab screening of large numbers of samples. 
The new test differs from those most commonly used 
in the plastics industry in that it measures smoke evolution 
gravimetrically, by the weight of the smoke particulates 
produced, rather than optically, by the light obscuration 
caused by the particulates. 2 figs, 4 tables, 5 refs. 

755. Nikitina NS, Turkov AS and Saranchuk AD 
METHOD OF DETERMINING THE SMOKE-GENERAT- 
ING CAPACITY OF CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS 

USSR Patent No. 463,900; CI GOln 25/24, GOln 21/12, 
Appl 5 Apr 1973, Disci 4 Sep 1975, Assignee: VNII 
protivopozhar oborony 

The method consists in burning specimens of the materi- 
al under study, measuring its burning rate, tapping a mix- 
ture of the combustion products and air into a pipeline, 
measuring the flow rate and optical density of the mixture, 
and determining the smoke-generating capacity of the 
material from the measurement data. The distinctive fea- 
ture of this method is that, to increase the accuracy of 
determination of the smoke-generating capacity, the 
specimens are burned in an air flow, while the mixture 
of combustion products and air must be drawn out into 
the pipeline. 1 drawing fig. (RZh) 

756. Watts PR and Goldstone B 

THE ASSESSMENT OF SMOKE PRODUCTION BY 
BUILDING MATERIALS IN FIRES. PART 4. LARGE- 
SCALE TESTS WITH WALL LINING MATERIALS. Dept 
of the Environ and Fire Offices' Committee (UK), Fire 
Res Station; Fire Res Note 1013, 9 figs, 4 tables, Jun 
1976 

Quantitative measurements have been made of the 
smoke production, in vision-obscuring terms, of 5 materi- 
als exposed both in the Fire Propagation Test Apparatus 
and also in much larger quantities (8 m^) as the linings 



of a compartment containing a substantial fire, itself 
producing little or no smoke. 

The range of smoke production was very large, extend- 
ing over three orders of magnitude. Both methods gave 
similar values for the smoke production of materials 
producing much smoke, but for materials producing little 
smoke the large-scale tests registered less smoke than the 
Fire Propagation test method. Nevertheless, there was a 
strong correlation between the values of smoke production 
from the two methods under the conditions examined. 
(Author) 

e. PROTECTION AND MODIFICATION OF 
MATERIALS 

757. Hanshn R 

PRINCIPAL FEATURES OF FIREPROOFING IN 
GENERAL. INTUMESCENT COATINGS: WHAT CAN BE 
EXPECTED OF THEM: THEIR LIMITATIONS 

Apave; 57(193):89-91, 1976 (French) 

The entire problem of fire-resistance of materials and 
structures with fire -proof coatings and sheaths, especially 
intumescent systems, is reviewed, including the effects 
of building fires on structures, the outlook for intumescent 
systems, the cost of a three-layer system, the unknown 
features of present-day insulating coatings, lifetime of 
coatings, and experimental fire studies. 6 refs. 

758. Hill BJ 

FLAME-RESISTANT FIBRES AND FABRICS: A REVIEW 
OF THE WORK AT LAMBEG INDUSTRIAL RESEARCH 
ASSOCIATION 

Fire Mater, l(2):52-56, 1976 

This paper discusses the relative merits of a number 
of flame-resistant fabrics. The information quoted draws 
heavily from a five year program of research carried out 
on the subject by Lambeg Industrial Research Association 
(Northern Ireland). The fabrics concerned were made 
either from flame-resistant fiber or by flame-resistant 
treatment of fabrics. The textile problems which can arise 
in the production of these fabrics are considered and 
means of avoiding them suggested. Test methods for 
flammability are discussed briefly and the subject of toxic 
gases generated from flame-resistant materials in fire 
situations is introduced as an area which needs further 
study. The paper is essentially a situation report describing 
the present state of knowledge, indicating gaps therein, 
the limitations of the fibers, fabrics and finishes available 
and hence areas for future work. 7 tables, 1 ref. (Author) 

759. Plate W, Lorenz W and Harder A 

ECONOMIC USE OF MATERIALS FOR STRUCTURAL 
FIRE PROTECTION ON SHIPS 

5eew/mc;i; 7(1 1):684-686, 1975 (German) 

Steps for reducing the fire hazard on ships and the 
toxicity of synthetic materials are considered. Particular 
attention is devoted to problems of manufacturing 
plywood boards with different layers of veneer coatings. 
Requirements with respect to esthetics, fire safety and 
human health when using various kind of materials in 
construction are discussed. It is emphasized that standards 
for the use of no more than 45 kgs/m^ of combustible 
materials in living and service quarters on ships have been 



159 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



3. BEHAVIOR AND PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS 

e. Protection and Modification of Materials — Continued 



established in some countries. The requirements that must 
be met by composite materials manufactured for ships 
are enumerated. 

760. Anon 

A NEW FIRE-RESISTANT BUILDING MATERIAL 

Technocrat (Japan); 8(10): 72-73, 1975 

A new material based on calcium silicate is being used 
in construction for walls and ceilings as having good ther- 
mal-insulation properties and heat stability. The material 
is produced in rather thick slabs because of the production 
techniques, although it is more economical to produce 
slabs with a thickness of 5-10 mm. The State Industrial 
Research Institute of Japan in Osaka has developed a 
production technique for slabs of the desired thickness 
which have, in addition, increased strength owing to the 
addition of a polymer resin. The calcium silicate is mixed 
with a resin emulsion, is shaped and molded at a tempera- 
ture of 180°C and a pressure of 20-30 kg/cm^ yielding 
a homogeneous material. When 20% PVC resin is added, 
a material is obtained with a bending strength of 50 
kg/cm^, compression strength of 70 kg/cm 2, and shock 
strength of 517 kg/cm 2 at a specific volumetric weight 
of 0.5-0.7 and is not subject to self -ignition. Increasing 
the PVC content to 30% increases the strength of the 
material, but also increases the specific weight. The shock 
resistance can be increased by a factor of five by adding 
10% fiber glass and by a factor of 10 by adding 5% 
vinyl fiber. The mechanical strength of the material can 
be doubled by adding 20-30% gypsum when mixing the 
PVC resin and calcium silicate. 2 tables. (RZh) 

761. Taubkin SI, Katts NV, Kolganova MN, Kochura 
ST and Rychikhina SE 

METHOD OF PRODUCING A METALLIZED FABRIC 

USSR Patent No. 329,814; CI D06m 15/24, Appl 22 Apr 
1969, Disci 16 Sep 1975, Assignee: VNII protivopozhar 
oborony, Mosk tekstil'n in-t 

A method of producing a metallized fireproof fabric 
for the manufacture of special clothing is described. The 
method consists in transferring metal onto the fabric from 
a vacuum-metallized film coated with a nonpolar com- 
pound. What is different in this method is the use of 
an aqueous solution of methyl cellulose as the nonpolar 
compound to simplify the manufacturing process. (RZh) 

762. Louzon E 

PROCEDURE FOR PRODUCING AND EMBELLISHING 

A FLAMEPROOF OR INCOMBUSTIBLE COMPLEX TO 

BE USED FOR DECORATING OR STRUCTURAL WALL 

FINISHINGS 

French Patent No. 2,251,183; CI B44C 3/02, E04F 13/08, 

Appl 14 Nov 1973, Disci 6 Jun 1975 

A patent is disclosed for a composite material to be 
used for decorative finishing of walls inside buildings. 
The base is to be made of glass fabric or some other 
mineral fabric. A decorative layer consisting of glass 
fibers, paints, and various kinds of binders is applied 
to the fabric by various methods (sewing, cementing, hot 
calandering). Three examples are given for the production 
of the material along with a description of the components 
used and the different features of the technological 



process. The material is manufactured by a continuous 
method and is put out in the form of 30-m packaged 
rolls. 

763. Hugh A, Robinson G and Morley W 
IMPROVEMENTS IN OR RELATING TO FIRE RETAR- 
DANT MATERIALS 

UK Patent No. 1,401,634; CI B5L, (B32B 33/00), Appl 
30 Jun 1972, Disci 30 Jul 1975 

Sandwich materials consisting of alternating layers of 
wood (paper, plastics or metal) and of a material capable 
of sublimating or sublimating and swelling, e.g., the 
product with the trade name of Thermo-lag, are described. 

764. Abbott NJ, Schoppee MM and Skelton J 

HEAT RESISTANT AND NONFLAMMABLE MATERI- 
ALS. Fabric Res Labs, Dedham, MA; AFML TR-76-47, 
127 pages, 68 figs, 19 tables, 8 refs, Apr 1976 

The tensile properties of spun-yam, fUght-suit weight 
HT-4, Durette, Nomex I, Kynol, cotton, nylon and 
polyester fabrics have been measured during exposure to 
bilateral radiant heat fluxes in the range 0.2 to 0.9 
cal/cm^/sec. Specially designed test equipment allows test- 
ing at times as short as a few seconds after initiation 
of exposure. All fabrics tested lost at least 50% of their 
strength in the first 6 seconds of exposure at flux levels 
of 0.4 cal/cmf/sec and at least 75% of their strength after 
6 seconds at 0.7 cal/cm^/sec and above. Of those fabrics 
tested, HT-4 provides the greatest degree of protection 
and polyester provides the least protection against a high 
heat flux. 

Studies were also made of launderability of HT-4 fabric, 
abrasion of Kevlar webbing, weaving of BBB fabric, and 
other analyses requested by AFML. (Author) 

f. STABILITY OF MATERIALS AT ELEVATED 
TEMPERATURES 

765. Meyer-Ottens C 

SPALLING OF CONCRETE STRUCTURAL COM- 
PONENTS EXPOSED TO FIRE 

Dtsch Ausschuss Stahlbeton; (248): 1-40, 1975 (German, 
English summary) 

An effort is made to review the causes of explosive 
spalling in dense concrete exposed to fire. Spalhng due 
to steam flux in wet concrete when heated, to thermal 
stress, and to the mineralogical structure of the aggregates 
is considered. Tensile stresses resulting from the escape 
of steam by friction at the walls of pores in heated 
concrete are found to be the most important reason for 
explosive spalling. Spalling does not occur if steam does 
not escape. The second reason for spalling is thermal 
residual and composed stresses. The resultant sudden sur- 
face cracking has a considerable influence on spalling. 
Normally, however, stresses and surface cracking do not 
produce spalling. Spalhng from the mineralogical structure 
of aggregates is of minor importance. Physical and chemi- 
cal variations in aggregates and cement stone during fire 
exposure always lead to concrete fatigue, when structural 
disintegration occurs regardless of explosive spalhng. 
Knowing the causes of spalling makes it possible to take 
measurements to reduce or prevent spalling. The minimum 
dimensions required to prevent destructive spalhng are 



160 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



3. BEHAVIOR AND PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS 

f. Stability of Materials at Elevated Temperatures— Continued 



compared with those proposed by Kordina and by the 
CEB/F/P commissions to obtain a definite fire resistance 
time. 46 figs, 13 tables, 94 refs. (Author) 

766. Contini P 

THE FIRE RESISTANCE OF NORMAL REINFORCED 
AND FRESTRESSED CONCRETE STRUCTURES AND 
RELATED FIB/CEB RECOMMENDATIONS. PART 2. 

Not AICAP; 3(4):2-8, 1976 (ItaUan) 

The recommendations mentioned in the title, in the form 
of tables, permit the design of both cross- and parallel- 
reinforced ceihngs, both simple and continuous support 
beams, and both stressed structural members, as well as 
columns and partitions. For their use the designer does 
not need to know the high-temperature behavior of the 
concretes and steels, or the heating and heat-transfer 
phenomena in bearing structures. The values given in the 
tables correspond to the present state of knowledge in 
the field of fire-behavior research, which is adequate for 
the present. The progress of inquiry and study will make 
it necessary to revise the data and values indicated in 
the tables, which are applicable, with prudence, to current 
cases. In order to stabilize the fire-resistance charac- 
teristics, analytical methods have been developed that take 
into account interaction between framework members, 
which will result in a certain economy. Finally, as regards 
specific cases, test results of the fire resistance for sample 
structures are taken into account for entry into the tables. 
4 figs, 6 tables. 

767. Sahota MS 

HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER IN POROUS CONCRETE 
STRUCTURES SUBJECT TO FIRE. Univ of California 
(Berkeley), Fire Res Group; UCB FRG 76-^15, 155 pages, 
18 figs, 4 tables, 52 refs, Sep 1976 

The transient solution of two-phase, two-component 
flow in one-dimensional or axisymmetric porous concrete 
structures exposed to time-dependent nonlinear mixed 
boundary conditions has been obtained. The basic 
mechanisms considered in the theory are: heat conduction 
through all the components, the molecular diffusion of 
the gaseous components, and the pressure-driven convec- 
tive flow governed by Darcy's law. The governing heat- 

and mass-transfer equations are solved numerically by 
an impUcit finite-difference scheme. A simplified 
technique for calculating the temperature field is 
developed and the results compare favorably with the 
complete analysis. The temperature fields for dry and wet 
cases do not differ significantly for normal amounts of 
moisture content in concrete. The two-dimensional 
transient solution for a rectangular element with heat con- 
duction alone for time-dependent nonlinear mixed bounda- 
ry conditions was also obtained using a minimum of nu- 
merics. General results are given for two limiting fire 
histories, the American Society for Testing and Materials 
E-119 time-temperature curve and a short-duration high- 
intensity time-temperature curve. Comparisons are made 
between experimental and theoretical temperature fields 
in a wet, porous, alumina powder system for the heat 
and mass transfer. (Author) 



768. Bresler B 

RESPONSE OF REINFORCED CONCRETE FRAMES TO 
FIRES. Univ of California (Berkeley), Fire Res Group; 
UCB FRG 76-12, 20 pages, 8 figs, 3 tables, 12 refs, Aug 
1976 

Mathematical models developed for predicting the ther- 
mal and structural response of reinforced and prestressed 
concrete frames in fire environments are substantiated by 
laboratory tests and case studies. Suggestions for a more 
rational design of structures for fire resistance are in- 
cluded. 

This paper was published in a preUminary report of 
the Tenth Congress of the International Association for 
Bridge and Structural Engineering, Tokyo, September 
6-11, 1976. 

See also UCB FRG 76-12. (Author) 

769. Bresler B, Thielen G, Nizamuddin Z and Iding R 
LIMIT STATE BEHAVIOR OF REINFORCED 
CONCRETE FRAMES IN FIRE ENVIRONMENT. Univ 
of California (Berkeley), Fire Res Group; UCB FRG 76- 
12, 25 pages, 8 figs, 3 tables, 13 refs, Aug 1976 

A fire-safe design procedure, with special emphasis on 
defining damage levels and on assigning limit states of 
structural behavior to these damage levels, is presented 
and discussed. A prototype reinforced concrete frame is 
analyzed for two time-temperature actions, and the result- 
ing thermal and structural responses of selected beam and 
column elements are discussed. These results are used 
to illustrate the development of hmit state design criteria. 

This paper was submitted for pubhcation in the 
proceedings of the Regional Conference on Tall Buildings, 
Hong Kong, September 20-22, 1976. 

See also UCB FRG 76-12. (Author) 

770. Ellingwood B and Shaver JR 

ANALYSIS OF REINFORCED CONCRETE BEAMS SUB- 
JECTED TO FIRES. Nat Bureau of Standards, Center for 
Bldg Technol; NBS BSS-76, 83 pages, 23 figs, 20 refs, 
July 1976. 
Availability: GPO 

Methods for analytically predicting the behavior of 
simply supported reinforced concrete beams subjected to 
fire are presented. This is generally a two-step process 
involving a thermal analysis followed by a stress analysis. 
This study emphasizes the latter, wherein the determina- 
tion of moment-curvature-time relationships for the beam 
cross section incorporates the temperature-dependent 
strength degradation in the steel and concrete as well 
as thermal and creep strains. The sensitivity of the predic- 
tions to various phases of analytical modeling is in- 
vestigated to establish the parameters most important for 
the predictions of beam behavior and to indicate where 
additional data should be gathered. A comparison of pre- 
dicted behavior with that observed in fire tests shows 
excellent agreement when reahstic reinforcement tempera- 
ture histories are used. (Author) 



161 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



3. BEHAVIOR AND PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS 

f. Stability of Materials at Elevated Temperatures — Continued 



771. Anon 

FIRE RESISTANCE OF PRESTRESSED CONCRETE 
BEAMS. Netherlands Committee for Concrete Res, Zoeter- 
meer; CUR Rapport 68, 56 pages, 1975 (Dutch) 

Research being carried out on prestressed concrete 
beams is continued in this report, in which a method 
is developed to calculate the endurance of a fire-exposed 
prestressed concrete beam before the prestressing steel 
fails after reaching critical temperature. Some beams did 
not conform to standard conditions, failing prematurely 
and suddenly (so-called "rogue" beams). The cases of 
premature failure in fire tests is considered in this paper. 
Failures are classified as "rogues", encountered mainly 
in I-beams, in which continuous horizontal cracks develop 
in the web, and cases where shp of the pretensioned 
1-1/2-inch strand tendons initiates premature failure. The 
failure is related to shear problems, while the attainment 
of critical temperatures is related to bending moment. 

The principal unsolved problem is that of bond strength 
of the steel and concrete in fire environments. Apparently, 
however, the use of 3/8-inch strands or a helix of reinforc- 
ing steel around 1/2-inch strands in a concentrated ar- 
rangement delays failure from deficient bond strength. 
(Author) 



4. FIRE MODELING AND TEST BURNS 

a. FIELD EVALUATION 

772. Williams FW, Indritz D and WeUs E 
FULL-SCALE SHIPBOARD FIRE TEST: COMPARISON 
OF THREE PARAMETERS VIA PERSPECTIVE 
PLOTTING 

J Fire Flammability; 7(l):59-70, 1976 

Fires as they occur in nature are exceedingly complex. 
For one to gain insight into the intricate physical and 
chemical parameters which control fires, one builds vary- 
ing-size fires and controls as many variables as possible. 
In an attempt to overcome the problem of the larger 
number of variables, large-scale tests are highly instru- 
mented, resulting in a large number of discrete data points 
which ultimately have to be related to the overall test. 
Perspective plots of three parameters, fire test area and 
temperature, have been developed to gain better insight 
into the overall aspects of large-scale fire tests. 10 figs, 
1 table, 7 refs. (Author) 

773. Wilson WJ 

LARGE SCALE FIRE TESTS 

J Fire Flammability] 7(1): 1 12-124, 1976 

Laboratory fire tests are economical, but never fully 
satisfactory, because they can exhaust only limited possi- 
bilities. Large-scale tests are unavoidable and were carried 
out on a broad scale. Described are the fire test house 
used for the large-scale tests, its floor plan and interior 
finishing, various kinds of furnishings, and the practical 
tests with different kinds of fires, once with toxic gases 
as test basis, once with medium ventilation. The materials 
inside the house have the greatest influence on the fire 
intensity. 6 figs, 2 tables, 6 refs 



774. Stuckey RN, Bricker RW, Kuminecz JF and Supkis 
DE 

FULL-SCALE AIRCRAFT CABIN FLAMMABILITY 
TESTS OF IMPROVED FIRE-RESISTANT MATERIALS. 
TEST SERIES 2. Nat Aeronautics and Space Admin, LB 
Johnson Space Center; NASA TM-X-58172, JSC-10613, 
62 pages, Apr 1976 
AvaUabiUty : NTIS N76-23 1 8 1 /OG A 

Full-scale aircraft flammability tests in which the effec- 
tiveness of new fire-resistant materials was evaluated by 
comparing their burning characteristics with those of other 
fire-resistant aircraft materials were described. New fire- 
resistant materials that are more economical and better 
suited for aircraft use than the previously tested fire- 
resistant materials were tested. The fuel ignition source 
for one test was JP-4; a smokeless fuel was used for 
the other test. Test objectives, methods, materials, and 
results are presented and discussed. The results indicate 
that, similar to the fire-resistant materials tested previ- 
ously, the new materials decompose rather than ignite 
and do not support fire propagation. Furthermore, the 
new materials did not produce a flash fire. (Author) 

b. FIRE TESTING, STRUCTURES 

775. Anon 

FRS LARGE-SCALE FIRE TEST ON ALUMINUM ROOF- 
ING 

Fire; 69(853):82, 1976 



e:i'. 



The Aluminum Federation (UK) showed a film of the 
large-scale test carried out by the Fire Research Station. 
The film demonstrated how an aluminum sheeting roof 
vented rapidly in the test fire and minimized damage to 
the test building's interior structure and cladding materials. 
The venting also had a significant effect on temperature 
distribution within the building. 1 photo. 

c. MODELING AND SCALING 

776. Smith EE 

RELATION OF PERFORMANCE TESTS TO ACTUAL 

FIRES 

Fire Technoi, 12(l):49-54, 1976 

"Hazard load" calculations have been proposed which 
use exposed surface area and release rate data for the 
control of, or to measure, loading. Release rate values 
can be used to rate and specify materials and products 
as a function of location in the fire system and the nature 
of the occupancy. In theory, predictive methods based 
on release rate data offer an approach by which the per- 
formance of materials and products can be determined 
under any fire exposure. The advantage of this approach 
is the ability to look at a number of combustion charac- 
teristics, rather than just one attribute, to describe the 
fire safety of a material. No one characteristic, nor one 
exposure, can adequately describe the performance of an 
item in a fire. Release rate data give a more complete 
evaluation of combustibility characteristics and a more 
relevant description of a material's or product's per- 
formance. 2 tables, 3 refs. (Author) 



162 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



4. FIRE MODELING AND TEST BURNS 

c. Modeling and Scaling— Continued 



777. Dean RK 

A FINAL REPORT ON FIRE TESTS INVOLVING 

STORED PLASTICS 

Fire Technol; 12(l):55-65, 1976 

This paper highlights the final report of a five-year fire 
test program to determine how plastic commodities com- 
pared to ordinary combustibles and to determine sprinkler 
protection requirements for stored plastic goods. Tests 
were conducted on three scales - laboratory, small, and 
large. Laboratory tests analyzed thermal characteristics 
of plastic materials used in the program. Small-scale tests 
were run to determine the burning characteristics of 
plastic commodities, and large-scale tests provided data 
used in the development of some fire protection standards. 
The program was a generahzed one; therefore, the solu- 
tions to fire protection problems that came out of it are 
also generalized. 17 figs. (Author) 



778. Svetashov I and Bunin E 
STAIRWELL PRESSURIZATION 
BUILDINGS 

Pozhar delo; (6):26-27, 1976 (Russian) 



IN 



HIGHRISE 



In order to determine the degree of pressurization 
required in stairwells of highrise buildings for heat and 
smoke removal during fires, a model of a stairwell of 
a 16-story residential building was built and tested at the 
All-Union Fire-Engineering Academy of the USSR. On 
the basis of calculations it was found that the pressure 
and air flow must be determined successively for each 
floor taking into account not only gravitational and wind 
pressures, but also the hydraulic resistance of the steps 
and landings. The model is illustrated in a diagram, the 
calculations in graphs. 3 figs. 

779. Alpert RL 

PRESSURE MODELING OF TRANSIENT CRIB FIRES. 

Factory Mutual Res Corp, Basic Res Dept; FMRC 22360- 
2, 38 pages, 1 1 figs, 4 tables, 7 refs, Dec 1975 

It has previously been demonstrated that free-burning 
fires in solid fuels can be modeled by increasing the am- 
bient air pressure while reducing all length scales with 
the two-thirds of pressure. The-modeling concept has been 
tested, up till now, for steady or quasi-steady aspects 
of fires in simple, isolated fuel elements of wood or solid 
plastic. The current study is concerned with testing the 
pressure-modeling concept for the important transient 
processes of fire growth and delay in pine-wood cribs 
ignited at the center of the crib base. In addition, the 
validity of pressure-modeling compartment fires is tested 
by burning cribs within simplified, vented enclosures. 
Measurements of crib burning rates for a ten-to-one range 
of length scale show that pressure modeling of portions 
of the burning rate time history is indeed feasible. While 
modeling of ventilation-controlled crib fires is highly suc- 
cessful, it appears that a lack of modeling of the rate 
of radial fire spread within the crib allows only peak 
burning rates and the fire decay process to be modeled 
in the fuel-surface-controlled regime. For the specific crib 
geometries considered, the effect of an enclosure on fire 
intensity is measurable and can be pressure-modeled. 
(Author) 



780. Furukawa K 

MODEL EXPERIMENTS ON NA POOL FIRE. Japan 
Atomic Energy Res Inst, Tokai Res Establ, Tokai, Japan; 
JAERI M-6073, 176 pages. Mar 1975 (Japanese) 
AvaUability: NTIS 

In an Na-cooled Fast Breeder Hazard Analysis for an 
Na pool fire in the reactor containment vessel, Na fire 
model experiments have been carried out with a 3.2 m^ 
closed vessel of height 2 m and diameter 1.5 m. The 
burning areas used are 0.3, 0.15 and 0.075 m^ For the 
different initial Na temperatures, initial oxygen contents 
and atmospheric humidities, the burning rate was esti- 
mated from change of the oxygen content in the at- 
mosphere, gas density or generated heat. The Na surface 
burning rate of initial temperature 500° C in the closed 
air with 21 v/o oxygen depends strongly on the ratio of 
Na surface area and sectional (bottom) areas of the reac- 
tion vessel. The apparent burning rate is nearly constant. 
Below 5 v/o oxygen, at least, the mild oxidation without 
brightness proceeds in first-order reaction with the oxygen 
content. (Author) 

781. Clark RK 

ANALYTICAL MODEL FOR CABLE TRAY FIRES. San 

dia Labs, Albuquerque, NM; SAND 75-0288, 23 pages, 
Sep 1975 
Availability: NTIS 

A model for cable tray fires based on buoyant plume 
theory is presented. Using the model in conjunction with 
empirical data on size of natural fires and burning rate 
of cellulosic materials, estimates' are made of the heat 
flux as a function of vertical and horizontal distance from 
a tray fire. Both local fires and fires extending along 
a significant length of tray are considered. For the particu- 
lar set of fire parameters assumed in the calculations the 
current tray separation criteria of five feet vertical and 
three feet horizontal are found to be marginal for local 
fires and too small to prevent fire spread for extended 
tray fires. 8 refs. (Author) 

782. Boehm L and Jordan S 

AEROSOL GENERATION AND FILTER BEHAVIOR IN 
SODIUM FIRES. Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe, FRO, 
Lab fuer Aerosolphys und Filtertech; KFK-2202, 43 pages, 
23 figs, 9 refs, Nov 1975 (German) 

Within the scope of a long-term program, the authors 
investigated a) aerosol formation rates during Na fires, 
b) behavior of Na aerosols in a closed system, and c) 
filtration of Na aerosols. These experiments in the 
ABRAUS facility were intended to simulate the behavior 
of Na aerosols after an accident in the inner and outer 
sheaths of the sodium-cooled SNR 300 fast breeder reac- 
tor. A sand-bed filter arrangement was developed which 
is better than the fiberglass filters. Sand-bed filters resist 
high pressure and temperature peaks. Liquid Na aerosols 
are filtered with an efficiency of better than 99.9%. A 
physical model was evaluated to explain pressure increase 
at the sand-bed filter under load conditions with filter 
penetration. Calculated values were in good agreement 
with experimenai results. 



163 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 
4. FIRE MODELING AND TEST BURNS 



d. SYSTEMS BEHAVIOR 



5. FIRE PROTECTION PRINCIPLES 

a. BUILDING DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION 
PRINCIPLES 

783. Pettersson O and Thor J 

FIRE ENGINEERING DESIGN OF STEEL STRUCTURES 

Swedish Institute of Steel Construction; 232 pages, 1976 

This handbook describes a national fire engineering 
design process for loadbearing structures and steel parti- 
tions based on performance requirements. The design 
methods presented here are based on the regulations, ad- 
visory notes, and recommendations given in the Swedish 
Building Regulations and on a separate publication on na- 
tional fire engineering design compiled from instructions 
of the National Swedish Board of Physical Planning and 
Building. The handbook discusses the principles governing 
national fire engineering design and also gives a detailed 
method for practical application. The handbook can also 
be used for courses of instruction in technical schools. 

784. Anon 

UNPROTECTED STEEL CONSTRUCTION PROVES IT- 
SELF IN A FIRE 

Brandaus; 84(7):266-267, 1976 (German) 

A fire in a one-story workshop in Wuppertal (FRG) 
which contained large quantities of highly combustible 
semifinished and finished products served as the stimulus 
for a discussion of the resistance of unprotected steel 
constructions. The shop was built as an unsheathed rigid 
frame structure made of 5-mm hollow sections. The smoke 
and heat removal possibilities were good. Despite a fully 
developed fire and one-and-a-half hours of exposure, only 
3 of 40 columns were destroyed. Then a description of 
structural application of water-filled hollow section 
columns is given, not only representing a preventive struc- 
tural fire protection measure, but also permitting the 
erection of less massive facades. The article was taken 
from Stahlbau-Nachrichten, Nos. 1/2, 1976, of the Ger- 
man Steel Association. (Fachdok 12/1003) 

785. Hopp H 

THE INTERMEDIATE SCHOOL CENTERS IN BERLIN 

Brandschutz; 30(6): 158-161, 1976 (German) 

The program to integrate the traditional school system 
in Berlin led to the construction of intermediate school 
centers, which were intended to be used also for extracur- 
ricular activities. The arrangement of space in these 
buildings is loose and flexible. The general design of these 
buildings is described and illustrated. The main portion 
of the article deals with the cooperation of the Berlin 
Fire Department in the building permit process. The com- 
petent judgement of the Department was solicited with 
respect to the supply of water for firefighting, accessibili- 
ty, freedom of action and safety for firefighting systems 
and rescue equipment, smoke removal systems, detection 
and alarm equipment, operational fire-protection regula- 
tions. 8 figs. (Fachdok 12/0775) 



786. Anon 

SCHOOLS - A REAPPRAISAL 

Fire Prev; (115):21-22, 1976 (English; French and German 
summaries) 

A further look is taken at fire protection for schools 
with particular references to construction, especiaUy ceil- 
ing voids, and arson, in the light of recent pubhcations 
from the Building Research EstabUshment (UK) and the 
Department of Health and Social Security. School fire 
statistics, including damage, causes, date of school con- 
struction, and time of call to the fire brigades, are sum- 
marized in four tables. 4 tables. 

787. Carroll JL 

COMBINATION AIR CONDITIONING AND FIRE PRO- 
TECTION SYSTEM FOR A BUILDING 

US Patent No. 3,939,914- CI 169/16, (A62C 35/00), Appl 
26 Apr 1974, Disci 24 Feb 1976 

A combination air-conditioning and fire protection 
system for a building including a heat exchanger through 
which fluid may pass under pressure, a fluid conditioning 
unit operable to bring fluid to a desired temperature for 
passing through the heat exchanger, and fluid supply and 
return conduits interconnecting the heat exchanger and 
fluid conditioning unit for circulating fluid therebetween. 
The supply and return conduits have discharge heads 
spaced therealong which are openable in case of fire to 
discharge fluid therefrom to extinguish a fire in the vicini- 
ty of the head. The conduits may include risers in the 
form of hollow, fluid-tight structural columns which also 
act to provide structural support for the building. Flow 
control devices and check valves in the system assure 
that pressure will be maintained in either the supply or 
return conduits to discharge fluid onto a fire if the other 
conduit is damaged and loses pressure. 6 claims, 6 drawing 
figs. (Author) 




i6- 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



5. FIRE PROTECTION PRINCIPLES 



b. DETECTION AND ALARM EQUIPMENT 

788. Anon 

WIDE-RANGE AIRBORNE INFRARED PHOTO- 
GRAPHIC FIRE SENSING SYSTEM 

Technocrat (Japan); 8(10):53, 1975 

The Fire Research Institute, Fire Defense Agency, 
Ministry of Home Affairs (Japan) is developing a remote 
sensing technology for fire detection based on the fact 
that infrared rays from fires readily pass through smoke. 
An airborne infrared camera rapidly and accurately shows 
where fires are and is expected to prove particularly use- 
ful in case of earthquake or simultaneous outbreak of 
fires in many places. A two-year study on development 
of this technique is to be initiated. 2 photos. 

789. Bachmann F and Elias S 

PROBLEMS IN THE USE OF AUTOMATIC FIRE PRO- 
TECTION EQUIPMENT 

Vnser Brandschutz; 26(5):29-31, 1976 (German) 

The necessity of using automatic fire protection systems 
is governed primarily by economic viewpoints. The targets 
to be protected present comphcated evacuation conditions, 
have a high fireload or contain fire-hazardous materials, 
or rapid fire buildup must be expected. The type of 
system to be used (fire alarm, detector, etc.) is determined 
on the basis of a fire-hazard analysis. The information 
systems (including automatic fire alarms) are classified 
on four levels and the appropriate system for each level 
is adopted. The construction and operating modes of 
level-I fire alarms are described. 2 figs, 1 table. (Fachdok 
12/0691) 

790. Lein H 

FIRE PROTECTION AND SMOKE CONTROL. DETEC- 
TORS: FIRST LINE OF DEFENSE 

ASHRAEJ; 18(2):26-28, 1976 

Four stages of a fire are described, from a nascent 
fire without visible smoke or apparent flame or heat to 
the heat stage of a fire with heat and toxic fume emission. 
Different types of detectors, adapted to different situa- 
tions, suitable for one or other of the four stages, are 
presented, namely: fixed-temperature thermal detectors 
and thermal compensation detector, in which the rate of 
temperature rise is measured; flame detectors, which mea- 
sure the hght of the flame in the visible or UV range; 
photoelectric-cell smoke detectors; combustion detectors, 
which pick up the combustion products; and finally some 
new types, more sophisticated, such as laser beam. The 
type, number, and location of detectors relative to the 
ventilation system are discussed. 

791. Anon 

MINI FIRE ALARMS: MODELS CF 2, DCF 10, SF 200 

Protivpozarna Zastita; 16(2):58-59, 1976 (Serbocroatian) 

Three types of mini fire alarms which emit a buzzing 
signal when the temperatures reaches 57 °C are described. 
The CF 2, DCF 10, and SF 200 fire alarms are operated 
either by batteries or by the electric power supply line. 
The dimensions of the alarms are 5.1 x 4.4 x 3.15 cm 
and 12.7 x 7 x 3.8 cm in the prismatic versions (CF 
2, SF 200) and 11.4 x 3.8 cm in the bell-shaped version. 
(Fachdok 12/0926) 



792. Moor W 

ALARM FACILITIES OF THE FIRE DEPARTMENT, PO- 
LICE AND SECURITAS PROTECTION COMPANY IN 
BASEL 

PTT Tech Mitt; 54(4): 126-1 34, 1976 (German) 

A new electronic alarm signal system and new alarm 
systems for the municipal fire department and medical 
services were introduced in 1970 in conjunction with an 
overhaul of the municipal fire service in Basel. At the 
same time, additional alarm systems for the fire depart- 
ments of suburban communities of the Canton of Basel 
were integrated into the municipal alarm center. In view 
of the similarity of interests and the possibility of 
economizing costs of central control points, the police 
and the Securitas Protection Company were also included 
in the alarm system. The author outlines the structure, 
arrangement and operation of the system. 14 figs. (Author) 

793. Lundstrom I, Shivaraman MS, Stiblert L and 
Svensson C 

HYDROGEN IN SMOKE DETECTED BY THE Pd-GATE 
FIELD-EFFECT TRANSISTOR 

Rev Scilnstrum; 47(6):738-740, 1976 

A recently developed hydrogen-sensitive Pd-gate MOS- 
transistor was used to detect small amounts of hydrogen 
in smoke. It is shown that the device can be used to 
detect a fire before it has really started and therefore 
has a potential application as a fire alarm. 2 figs, 1 table, 
3 refs. (Author) 

794. Stoib W 

SRS 150, A NEW CENTRAL STATION FOR COMPLEX 
FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 

Siemens Rev; 43(8):351-353, 1976 

Complex fire protection systems, i.e., systems with au- 
tomatic and manual alarm signaling, different types of 
alarms, control of fire protection facihties and plants, in- 
cluding automatic fire-extinguishing systems, required cen- 
tral stations with capabilities greater than simply receiving 
and transmitting alarms. They should be suitable for 
signaling alarms and for controlling external devices 
without human manipulation, and full programming flexi- 
bility in the allotment of tripping to tripped components 
should be provided for. Those qualities are incorporated 
in the SRS 150. 2 figs. (Author) 

795. Hakino A and Takeda M 
FIRE WARNING SYSTEM 

Ohm: denki zasshi; 62(13):46-51, 1975 (Japanese) 

The design, block diagram and operating principle of 
a modem electronic fire warning system for highrise plant 
administration buildings are described. The system is 
semiautomatic, because it provides for a human operator 
at the control panel. The panel is provided with communi- 
cation, control and indicating equipment, including a 
cathode-ray tube which makes it possible to switch in 
to and supervise at will different sections of the area 
being protected via a closed TV system. The operation 
of the system under various conditions is examined. A 
particular feature of the system is that it is all-purpose, 
as compared with the peripheral devices, in that it can 
operate normally with any type of fire detector. The 
characteristics, tactical features and specifications are 



165 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



5. FIRE PROTECTION PRINCIPLES 

b. Detection and Alarm Equipment— Continued 



given, and the electrical circuitry, design and operating 
principle of the four types of most up-to-date fire detec- 
tors used in such systems in Japan are described. The 
advantages and deficiencies of each detector are noted; 
recommendations for their most efficient use are given. 
It is reported that one of the modifications of this system 
provides for an improved closed-circuit TV system which 
combines color and black and white channels. This feature 
will improve the man-machine characteristic of the control 
panel to an appreciable degree. 18 figs, 1 table. (RZh) 

796. Kato S and Ohashi Y 

nRE EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM 

Ohm: denki zasshi; 62(13):52-56, 1975 (Japanese) 

A description is given of the design, operating principle, 
block diagram, and results of testing an automatic fire 
detection and extinguishing system for use in relatively 
small municipal installations. All the control and signal 
components of the system have leads to the control panel, 
which is a comparatively small vertical console-type stand. 
The combination of assembUes and subassembles within 
the stand is analyzed. A large reserve of blank boards 
in the printed and volumetric mounting of the electric 
components as well as free space in the forward panel 
of the console permit free planning of further system 
improvements in the sense of a more complicated struc- 
ture. The extinguishing agent is Halon 1301, which is con- 
tained under high positive pressure in a hermetically 
sealed cylinder and is distributed via a grid of sprinkler 
heads. Experimentally obtained graphic relations illustrate 
the efficiency of system operation. 11 figs, 3 tables. (RZh) 

797. Simon FN and Rork GD 
IONIZATION -TYPE SMOKE DETECTORS 

Rev Scilnstrum; 47(l):74-80, 1976 

A simple model is developed to determine quantitative 
relations among operating parameters applicable to the 
design of ionization-type smoke detectors. The model per- 
mits the adjustable parameters of operating current, 
radioisotope source intensity, and cell geometry to be 
specified for ambient pressure response and optimum sen- 
sitivity to smoke particulates. Specific ionization has been 
measured for two sources (^H and * ^Ni) as a function 
of pressure as required by the model. Experimental agree- 
ment with the model presented shows its validity for 
design evaluation of ionization cells for smoke detection 
and possibly other special applications with particulates. 
12 figs, 8 refs. (Author) 

798. Nash P and Theobald CR 

THE USE OF AUTOMATIC SPRINKLERS AS FIRE SEN- 
SORS IN CHEMICAL PLANTS 

Fire Prev Sci Technol; (15):11-18, 1976 (English; German 
and French' summaries) 

Automatic sprinklers in chemical plants may be used 
in two main ways. First, they may be used as closed 
sprinklers in sprinkler systems in buildings, e.g., in control 
rooms, offices, etc. In the event of fire they will respond 
to the convected hot gas layer beneath the ceiUng of 
the room in which the fire occurs. Second, they may 
be used in the open air as "detectors" or "detectors" 
for triggering a supply of water to a series of open water 

166 



spray nozzles designed to control flammable liquid fires 
or to provide a degree of cooling of vulnerable areas 
of the plant which might be subjected to intense heat 
radiation from a nearby fire. Where the sensor is likely 
to be immersed in rapidly-developing flames, e.g., when 
sited above an oil-cooled transformer, it will operate 
quickly by conduction of heat from the flames. Where 
it has to depend upon the incidence of thermal radiation 
alone, however, it has been found that its operation may 
be long delayed unless the size and temperature of the 
radiator is such that radiant intensities of not less than 
1.5 W/cm[ are available. These points must be considered 
when siting sensors in chemical plants. 7 figs, 8 refs. 
(Author) 

799. Sharovar F and Metelkin G 
NEW ELECTRIC FIRE ALARM SYSTEM 

Pozhar delo; (5):26-27, 1976 (Russian) 

A new type of electric fire alarm receiving system has 
been developed by the All-Union Fire Protection Research 
Institute of USSR. The system permits discrimination of 
signals from fire detectors and '■ensors combined in one 
beam. A distinctive feature of the system is monitoring 
of the operational status of all wire communication Unes 
with automatic determination of line damages. The system 
is described on the basis of two circuit diagrams. 2 figs. 

800. MatobaK - -A 
FIRE ALARM " 

Swiss Patent No. 566,602; CI G08B 17/10, Appl 14 Jun 
1974, Disci 15 Sep 1975, Assignee: Cerberus AG 

The fire alarm consists of a pickup sensitive to signs 
of fire and an integral electric circuit for signal transmis- 
sion when a limit monitoring level is exceeded. The 
proposed detector is different in that the circuit contains 
at least one voltage-sensitive member with resistance vary- 
ing as a function of the voltage of the communications 
line and controlling the resistance of the element which 
determines the threshold value of the variable being mea- 
sured. 4 drawing figs. 

801 . Jacoby S 

COMBINATION SMOKE AND HEAT DETECTOR 
ALARM 

US Patent No. 3,938,115; CI 340/237S, (G08B 17/04), Appl 
13 June 1974, Disci. 11 Feb 1976, Assignee: Evergard 
Fire Alarm Co, Inc, Philadelphia, PA 

A combination smoke and heat detector alarm including 
a self-contained stored energy source in the form of a 
cylinder of compressed gas. A T-fitting connects to the 
cylinder and feeds separate conduit systems leading to 
individual sounding devices. A fusible element is inter- 
posed in one of the conduit systems to automatically per- 
mit transfer of the compressed gas to a first sounding 
device upon the presence of elevated temperatures. A 
solenoid operated switch is interposed in the other conduit 
system to normally prevent the flow of gas. The solenoid 
is responsive to a smoke detector and is wired to open 
the solenoid valve upon sensing the presence of a 
predetermined concentration of smoke. 12 claims, 1 draw- 
ing figure. (Author) 



■^mww 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



5. FIRE PROTECTION PRINCIPLES 

b. Detection and Alarm Equipment — Continued 



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802. Rims L 

ALARM DEVICE, PREFERABLY FOR FIRE ALARMS 

FRG Patent No. 2,408,129; CI G08B 23/00, G08B 17/06, 
Appl 20 Feb 1974, Disci. 21 Aug 1975, Assignee: Preussag 
AG Feuerschutz 

The patent device is designed for single-wire connection 
of sets of signal devices, regardless of what kind, 
preferably fire detectors, to a central control panel or 
some other kind of commutator. 5 drawing figs. 

803. Mueller P 

DETECTION OF PRESENCE OR ABSENCE OF FLAMES 

US Patent No. 3,940,753; CI 340/227 R, (G08B 21/00), 
Appl 13 Sep 1974, Disci 24 Feb 1976, Priority: Switzer- 
land, Appl No 13722/73, 25 Sep 1973, Assignee: Cerberus 
AG, Mannedorf, Switzerland 

At least two photoelectric sensors, sensitive to different 
spectral ranges of incident light, provide two sensed out- 
put signals; the relationship of the a-c components of 
the sensed output signals is evaluated, and it is determined 
if these a-c components fall within predetermined low- 
frequency ranges, for example, 2 to 50 Hz, preferably 
5 to 25 Hz; if so, a "flame present" signal is provided, 
for example to give a fire alarm, or to indicate that a 
burner is operating. Preferably, the relationship of the 
signals is such that a different signal is provided between 
one of the sensed signals and a fraction of the other, 
and conversely, and the sensitivity of the sensors is ad- 
justed to have the same output signals at a predetermined 
color temperature, for example about 1400°K. Illumina- 
tion signals incident on the sensors due to other sources 
than flames then are reliably eliminated while still provid- 
ing the "flame present" signal upon coincidence of the 
appropriate difference signals, which coincidence 
preferably is determined by analyzing the phase relation- 
ships of the resulting difference signals in a phase com- 
parator. 20 claims, 1 drawing fig. (Author) 




804. Anon 

FIRE DETECTION DEVICE CONSISTING OF AN 

IONIZATION DETECTOR 

Swiss Patent No. 563,044; CI GOSb 17/10, Appl 1 Dec 
1972, Disci 13 Jun 1975, Assignee: Universal Det 

This ionization fire detector design permits elimination 
of the major deficiency of existing ionization detectors, 
which is actuation by an air stream without a fire hazard. 
The detector (see the drawing) is mounted on an insulation 
base 1, which is equipped with pins for insertion into 
holes in the pedestal 3. AU the parts are enclosed in 
a cowl 4. Above the base is a sheet with a printed circuit 
8 containing all the components of the alarm circuit. A 
closed calibration ionization chamber 5 is found above 
the sheet. Its positive electrode 6 is connected to the 
positive pole of the alarm circuit. The radioactive source 
7 can contain Pu^ 3 ' which emits alpha particles with 
an activity of 4-8 microcuries. The space between the 
negative electrode 9 of the calibration chamber and the 
cowl forms an open ionization measurement chamber 10 
connected to the negative pole of the alarm circuit. The 
radioactive source 14 of the measurement chamber has 
an activity of 10-18 microcuries. The chamber is open 
to the atmosphere through holes 12 and slots 13 in the 
cowl. The detector is supplied from a d-c source (24V). 
The common electrode 9 of the ionization chamber is 
connected to the gate of a field transistor whose outlet 
is connected via a potentiometer and zener diode with 
a thyristor which cuts in current in the circuit of a signal 
lamp 5 (or some other signal device). Under normal condi- 
tions the diode is blocked and the signal circuit open. 
When smoke reaches the measuring chamber, the potential 
at the outlet of the field transistor rises, the diode opens, 
the thyristor is actuated and transmits an alarm signal. 
To eliminate signals from strong air currents the openings 
and slots in the cowl are dimensioned for minimum pertur- 
bation in the measuring chamber. In addition, by regulat- 
ing the distance between electrodes 9 and 11 as a function 
of the radioactive source, the field transistor outlet poten- 
tial can be reduced when exposed to an air current. For 



W--: 












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167 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



5. FIRE PROTECTION PRINCIPLES 

b. Detection and Alarm Equipment — Continued 

example, a decrease of about 2V is obtained with an 
electrode spacing of 10-20 mm. This measure excludes 
the possibility of triggering the diode and issuing a false 
alarm. In the presence of smoke the potential increases 
by 8-9V, which is sufficient for reliable alarm signaling 
even with the above-mentioned drop in potential. Also 
provided for are signal lamp triggering circuits in case 
of failure of the detector or supply system. 3 drawing 
figs. (RZh) 



805. Nagakura M 
FLAME SENSING UNIT 

Japanese Patent No. 50-16179; CI 111F19, GOIJ 5/36, 
Appl 3 Sep 1969, Disci 11 Jun 1975, Assignee: Nippon 
Pajrotekuta kk 

A patent is disclosed for a block diagram and operating 
principle of a complex fixed installation based on the 
capacity of heated objects and flame to radiate elec- 
tromagnetic oscillations in the IR range for the detection 
and timely warning of the outbreak of fire in a protected 
area. The device consists of a sensitive IR element 
responding to radiation in the 1700-2900 A wavelength 
range; a standard pulse-count generator operating from 
an external potential input and having a monostable mul- 
tivibrator, a coincidence circuit operating on a logic "and" 
element, a multiple-discharge fUp-flop pulse counter, a 
video pulse ampMier, and a warning circuit with acoustic 
and visible signal system. In case of fire, if radiation 
in the given range appears in the field of vision of the 
IR element, the element is actuated and a control voltage 
is applied to the external triggering input of the pulse 
generator, resulting in a sequence of counting pulses, 
highly stable in length and frequency, at the generator 
output, with external characteristics variable by means 
of generator control levers, depending on the nature and 
value of the desired threshold. The generator pulse 
sequence is appUed to the counting input of the multiple- 
discharge flip-flop pulse counter which makes a binary 
count. The coincidence circuit is connected in parallel 
to the output of the pulse counter in such a way that 
each discharge of the counter is commutated with the 
corresponding discharge of the coincidence circuit. The 
pulse counter and coincidence circuit must be in the 
system to implement the threshold detection, principle in 
which a decision as to the presence of fire is made by 
the device only when the control voltage at the output 
of the IR unit persists longer than a certain predetermined 
threshold period. This prevents an alarm from random 
effects. The control circuit permits arbitrary selection of 
threshold length within a broad range by appropriate ad- 
justment of the coincidence circuit. 2 drawing figs, 2 refs. 
(RZh) 

806. Sullivan JT 

GAS-POWERED ALARM WITH PRESSURE RESPON- 
SIVE REMOTE INDICATOR CIRCUIT 

US Patent No. 3,938,114; CI 340/227.1, (G08B 17/02), 
Appl 5 Apr 1974, Disci 10 Feb 1976, Assignee: Standard- 
Farrington Alarm and Signal Corp, Trevose, PA 

The passageway between a freon cylinder and a freon- 
powered horn is plugged by a eutectic metal plug. When 



sufficient heat loosens the plug, the horn is activated. 
A switch in the passageway senses the back pressure 
from the freon gas flow and activates a remote electrical 
indicator which can be used to determine which of a 
plurality of horns has been activated. 3 claims, 3 drawing 
figs. (Author) 

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807. Hunzeker CJ 
ALARM DEVICE 

Swiss Patent No. 564,809; CI G08h 19/00, Appl 21 Feb 
1974, Disci 31 Jul 1975, Assignee: Raymond Lee Org 

The device consists of a radio transmitter with a heat 
detector, a photocell and a tilt sensor, and a portable 
radio receiver. When the temperature increases near the 
point where the transmitter has been located, when the 
light beam incident on its photocell is intercepted, or when 
the object to which the transmitter-detector is fixed tends 
to move or tilt, the detector begins to transmit radiowaves 
and an acoustic signal is emitted in the portable receiver. 
The heat sensor is set at a specific temperature. A mercu- 
ry circuit breaker is used as the tilt sensor. 3 drawing 
figs. . • 

808. Dunphy MJ 
PORTABLE FIRE DETECTOR 

US Patent No. 3,943,499; CI 340/227R, (G08B 21/00), Appl 
16 Apr 1974, Disci 9 Mar 1976, Assignee: Pyrotector, 
Inc, MA 

A portable fire alarm device comprising fire detecting 
means and alarm means powered from a self-contained 
power supply. The power to the detector and alarm is 
through a normally closed switch of the type such as 
a mercury switch which may be opened by tilting the 
device to a predetermined angle from the vertical so that 
the alarm may be shut off. A second normally open switch 
of the mercury type connects the power supply directly 
to the alarm device and is so oriented that tilting the 



168 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



5. FIRE PROTECTION PRINCIPLES 

b. Detection and Alarm Equipment— Continued 

device to a predetermined angle from the vertical closes 
said switch and energizes the alarm to test the condition 
of the battery. 3 claims, 2 drawing figs. (Author) 




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809. Duggan J 
nRE DETECTOR 

UK Patent No. 1,402,783; CI G4N, (G08B 17/04, HOIH 
37/40), Appl 11 Apr 1973, Disci 13 Aug 1975, Assignee: 
Fire Devices Mfg, Ltd 

A patent is disclosed for a device to be used in various 
fire alarm systems to determine when the permissible rate 
of heating of an object being monitored is exceeded. The 
system must contain means for sensing the heat on the 
object and transmitting data to the detector. The sensor 
consists of a housing and pickup connected in such a 
way as to form an air chamber with an outlet, so that 
when a flame appears or fire breaks out the air can escape 
from the chamber. The chamber contains a thin flexible 
membrane (about 0.06 mm thick) over an electric contact. 
When the pressure increases, the membrane closes the 
contact. The membrane has a stiffening rib along its edge 
and a special plastic coating of a certain distinctive 
strength, elasticity and electrical resistance. Membrane 
properties are maintained up to +750°C . The rate of 
escape of air from the chamber can be regulated to adjust 
the detector to various rates of temperature increase of 
the ambient air. 4 drawing figs. 

810. Matoba K and Iwami F 
IONIZATION FIRE DETECTOR 

Swiss Patent No. 569,335; CI G08B 17/10, Appl 23 Sept 
1974, Disci 14 Nov 1975, Assignee: Cerberus AG 

The distinguishing feature of this ionization fire detector 
is that the common point of the fire detector's series 
connected ionization chambers is connected to the control 
electrode (gate) of the field transistor with a voltage di- 
vider or, in another version, a stabilizer in the output 
circuit. The output circuit of the field transistor contains 
a resistor and the control electrode of the thyristor which, 
when actuated, short circuits the supply and signal circuit. 
2 drawing figs. 



811. Broadbent A and Frost P 
IMPROVEMENTS IN FIRE DETECTION APPARATUS 

UK Patent No. 1,410,482; CI GIA, (G08B 17/12), Appl 
20 Jan 1972, Disci 15 Oct 1975, Assignee: Talentum 
Development Ltd 

A patent is granted for an improved fire detector con- 
sisting of a photo-receiver sensitive to IR-radiation having 
a spectral characteristic of 1.5-3 microns and a selective 
frequency amplifier with a maximum frequency charac- 
teristic of about 10 Hz and a cutoff frequency of 20 
Hz. The actuator relay is a thyristor which responds when 
a signal of the appropriate strength impinges on the con- 
trol electrode and shorts the signal circuit. The alarm 
signal receiver can be located at some distance from the 
detector. This detector is designed to work in combination 
with a smoke detector. 

812. Peberdy WT 
FIRE ALARMS 

UK Patent No. 1,455,615; CI G4N, (G08B 17/10), Appl 
11 Aug 1972, Disci 10 Sep 1975 

A patent is disclosed for an alarm system which uses 
the change in transmission and scatter of a gaseous light 
medium when strongly heated or when smoke appears 
to detect fire. The system consists of a pulse source which 
generates a broad light beam and a detector, so arranged 
that the light beam between them passes through a con- 
trollable gas medium, means for transforming light signals 
into electric signals, devices for the extraction of signals 
with frequency corresponding to the source frequency, 
and the alarm itself, which is triggered when the light 
signal is modulated in amphtude by heating the gas medi- 
um. An infrared gallium-arsenide semiconductor radiator 
is used as the light source. The Ught-radiation detector 
is a phototransistor to which a constant positive bias is 
applied by bias lighting. A pulse radiator is used to reduce 
the influence of the ambient light, a broad light beam 
to reduce the influence of wall oscillation, etc. 6 drawing 
figs. 

813. Keeley JR and Everson R 
AUTOMATIC FIRE ALARM 

US Patent No. 3,931,785; CI 116/106, (G08B 17/00), Appl 
18 Nov 1974, Disci 13 Jan 1976 

This device comprises an audible alarm member ar- 
ranged to be sounded by spring operated clapper means 
which is normally held inoperative by temperature-respon- 
sive devices, all in a perforated housing suitable for instal- 
lation in a room. The temperature-responsive devices in- 
clude a body of wax-like material disposed between two 
cup-shaped members of good heat-conductive material and 
holding said members apart at all ordinary room tempera- 
tures. If the temperature surrounding the device is raised 
to a predetermined limit, as by a fire in the room, the 
wax body will soften or melt and this will permit the 
cup-shaped members to be moved and cause the alarm 
to be sounded. 4 claims, 4 drawing figs. (Author) 



169 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



5. FIRE PROTECTION PRINCIPLES 

b. Detection and Alarm Equipment — Continued 




^2 



814. Charles SJ 

A LIGHT OBSCURATION METER. Telecomm Australia 

Res Lab, Melbourne, Australia; REFT 6953, 9 pages, Jun 

1975 

Availability: NTIS N76-22513/5GA 

The light obscuration meter described is an instrument 
in which smoke is produced and its light obscuration mea- 
sured. It is primarily designed for the testing and calibra- 
tion of smoke-operated fire detectors. (Author) 

815. Pistor M 

ON A SCATTERED-LIGHT MEASURING DEVICE FOR 
USE IN TESTING TYPES OF SMOKE DETECTORS. 

Rheinisch-Westfalian Tech Coll, Inst Electron Commun 
Technol, Aachen, FRO; NBSIR 76-1087, 35 pages, 9 figs, 
16 refs, Jul 1976 
Availability: NTIS 

Generally, the response threshold value of fire detectors 
is tested with measuring instruments which operate on 
the same physical principle as the detectors to be tested. 
For example, this means that the response threshold value 
of an ionization measuring chamber and the response 
threshold value of an optical-type smoke detector operat- 
ing on a light extinction principle is checked using an 
extinction measuring instrument. However, optical-type 
smoke detectors operating on a light-scatter principle 
(photoelectric in U.S. parlance) have also been checked 
using an extinction measuring instrument. 

Since the light-scatter type of smoke detector is by far 
the most commonly used of the optical type of smoke 
detector it seems appropriate to use a light-scatter measur- 
ing instrument to check the response threshold value of 
these detectors. In addition, the need for such a measuring 
instrument is emphasized by the fact that both the parame- 
ters of the smoke aerosol and the design features of the 
measuring instrument are affected in different ways by 
light scatter and hght extinction. 

The author describes the technical features and design 
details of a newly developed, light-scatter measuring in- 
strument along with some experiments to determine its 
response to artificially-generated aerosols. (Author) 



816. Aarts HF, Evans WB and Utley LW 
RADIO-FREQUENCY INDUCTION FOR CHECKING 
FIRE DETECTORS. Atomics Internat Div, Golden, CO; 
TID-26978, 10 pages, Jan 1976 

Availability: NTIS 

A new method of testing fire detectors in the glove- 
box lines has been developed. The method includes heat- 
ing the fire detector by a strong electromagnetic field 
which induces eddy currents in the metal case of the 
fire detector. Developed as a radiofrequency induction 
heating system, a prototype was designed and built for 
use with fire detectors installed at the Rocky Flats Plant. 
The system has been tested and operates satisfactorily. 
It is concluded that the system could be installed in glove 
boxes and could easily be automated from a central point. 
Applications exist for glove-box lines on site or for facili- 
ties off site. (Author) 

c. FIRE AND EXPLOSION RISKS 

817. Laufke H 

A METHOD FOR THE EVALUATION OF RISKS 
CAUSED BY ELECTROSTATIC CHARGING AND 
FLAMMABLE ATMOSPHERE IN INDUSTRY 

Acta Univ Upsaliensis; (356):l-49, 1976 

This thesis aims at shedding light on injuries and damage 
caused by electrostatic discharges in connection with 
flammable mixtures and at developing a method for quan- 
titative calculation of the risk for simultaneous fire 
damage. It consists of an introduction and four papers 
by the author, in collaboration with others, as follows: 
static electricity in industry -introductory investigations; 
static electricity in industry-risk for personal injuries and 
property damage in conjunction with the simultaneous 
presence of electrostatic charging and a flammable at- 
mosphere; equipment for measuring flammable at- 
mospheres and static electricity in industry; and measure- 
ments of flammable atmospheres and static electricity in 
industry. 21 figs. 

818. Anon 

A LOOK AT AVIATION HAZARDS 

Fire Internat; 5(52):57-66, 1976 (English, French, German; 
Spanish summary) 

This is an edited extract from the new 14th edition 
of the National Fire Protection Association Handbook. 
Methods to reduce the post-crash fire hazard are enu- 
merated. Considerable attention is devoted to the codes 
for aircraft power plants of the U.S. Federal Aviation 
Administration and to their basic fire prevention funda- 
mentals for the design of reciprocating engine power 
plants. The types of failures and hazards considered basic 
to gas turbine engines are hsted and described, along with 
the fire prevention design features, which apply to both 
turbine and reciprocating engines. Summary data on the 
fire hazard properties of aviation fuels are presented in 
table form. Other hazards identified and discussed are 
cabin materials. The problems of fire detection and extin- 
guishing and the provision of emergency exit facihties 
are emphasized. 3 figs. 



170 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



5. FIRE PROTECTION PRINCIPLES 
c. Fire and Explosion Risks — Continued 



819. Anon 

SPECIAL HAZARDS OF MILITARY AIRCRAFT 

Fire Internal; 5(52):69-72, 1976 (English, French, German; 
Spanish summary) 

The special military aircraft hazards facing rescue and 
firefighting crews are discussed, including ejection seats 
and canopy ejectors, armament, bombs, rockets, 
pyrotechnics, missile propellants, rockets and space vehi- 
cles, and missile launch sites. The article is an edited 
abstract from the new 14th edition of the National Fire 
Protection Association Handbook. 

820. Petrov I and Belozerov N 

FIRE SAFETY OF A CLUSTER OF OIL AND GAS 
WELLS 

Pozhar delo; (4):18-19, 1976 (Russian) 

A detailed description is given of tests made in 1975 
at the Nizhnevartovsk (USSR) testing grounds to extin- 
guish fires in a cluster of ten wells. The results of the 
tests showed that a cluster of eight oil wells exceeds 
fire safety requirements and that the number of clustered 
well drillings cannot be increased before fire suppression 
techniques and equipment or drilling and oil well operation 
techniques are improved. 1 photo. 

821. Jorgensen M 

nRE HAZARD OF BUCKET ELEVATORS 

Brandvaern; 2(2):20-22, 1976 (Danish, English summary) 

The slowdown or stopping of a bucket elevator because 
of overloading or jamming is the usual reason for fires 
in mills, grain elevators, drying plants, and the like. There- 
fore, fire engineering regulations require that such eleva- 
tors be equipped with devices which cut off the supply 
of power to their motors when the rate of motion 
decreases or when they stop. The design principles of 
such devices are briefly examined. 8 figs. 

822. Gregersen fnu 

THE FIRE HAZARD OF TEXTILE FLOOR COVERINGS 

Feuerwehr; 26(3):67-68, 1976 (German) 

Differing opinions as to the fire hazard of textile floor 
coverings and as to suitable test methods typify the situa- 
tion with regard to evaluation of carpeted floors. Two 
fire accidents with serious consequences, resulting in 
human fatalities (carpeted floors contributing principaUy 
to the spread of the fire), have led the author to believe 
that laying carpeted floors in halls and stairwells in dense- 
ly occupied buildings is hazardous. Opinions also differ 
as to the correct hazard evaluation by standard DIN 
54332. In contrast, the corresponding standards in the 
USA consider two different risk situations, (pill test for 
a small ignition source and radiant panel test for a major 
primary fire), which take better account of the actual 
situation. (Fachdok 12/0651) 

823. Anon 

SPECIAL FIRE HAZARD IN MAJOR INDUSTRIAL 
PLANTS 

Brandverhuetung; (118):59-61, 1976 (German) 

A major fire in a chipboard factory with property 
damage of 60,81 1,(X)0 Austrian shillings illustrates once 



again that inadequate fire protection measures, especially 
in plants with a high fire risk, have serious consequences. 
Following a description of the work processes and the 
outbreak of the fire, the cause of the fire is discussed, 
namely, abnormal operation of the chip drier, whereby 
glowing chips reached the bunker, triggering an explosion 
and fire. 2 figs. (Fachdok 12/1001) 

824. Anon 

TAR VAPOR HAZARDS TO ELECTRICAL WIRING 

Brandverhuetung; (ll8):61-62, 1976 (German) 

A usiially ignored possibility of fire occurring in tar- 
paper factories can sometimes lead to damages of major 
proportions. It was possible to pinpoint the source of 
the fire incident discussed in this paper. The fire broke 
out solely because of a short circuit in the Ughting installa- 
tion. Hot bitumen generates fumes; the condensate of 
the fumes affects the synthetic insulation of the electric 
wiring. The insulation of the electric wiring consists of 
soft PVC, which is not particularly resistant to napthenes 
such as benzene, naphthaline, etc. In the course of time, 
therefore, the insulation is destroyed. 2 figs. (Fachdok 
12/1025) 

825. Vinter FW 

FIRE HAZARDS IN THE PAPER AND BOARD INDUS- 
TRY 

Paper Technol; 16(6): 36 1-367, 1975 

Causes of fires, such as faulty building construction, 
and fires resulting from dust, pulpwood storage areas, 
waste paper storage areas, and storage of rolled stock 
in inadequately ventilated areas are discussed. Properly 
planned maintenance can be a strong preventive measure 
in fire control; sprinkler systems for extinguishing fires 
are also evaluated. 5 figs, 2 tables, 2 refs. (Author) 

826. Anon 

WASHING MACHINE EXPLOSIONS 

Protivpozarna Zastita; 16(2):59, 1976 (Serbocroatian) 

This brief note reports on explosions and fires that may 
occur when washing clothing soiled with oil. The gases 
and vapors that form when clothing is cleansed with 
gasoline and other solvents can sometimes cause explo- 
sions. The cause of the explosion is electric sparks that 
are Generated when the washing machine is turned on. 
Incidents from Switzerland and Yugoslovia are cited. 1 
fig. (Fachdok 12/0950) 

827. Koprivica B 

CAN FIRES AND EXPLOSIONS OCCUR IN HEATING 
OIL CONTAINERS? 

Protivpozarna Zastita; 16(5):47-48, 1976 (Serbocroatian) 

An explosion which took place in a heating oil tank 
is reported. The cause of the explosion was an excessively 
low oil level in the tank, which was not provided with 
an oil level gauge, resulting in empty heating elements. 
It was discovered that oil-level gauges are not prescribed 
in the safety regulations. The author demands that the 
regulations be modified. 2 figs. (Fachdok 12/0973) 



171 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



5. FIRE PROTECTION PRINCIPLES 



d. FIRE LOADS 

e. HEAT AND PRESSURE LOAD EFFECTS ON 

STRUCTURES 

828. Anon 

nRE ENDURANCE OF BUILDING STRUCTURES 

(OGNESTOYKOST STROITEL'NYKH KONSTRUKTSIY) 
VNII Protivopozhar oborony, Moscow USSR; 115 pages, 
1975 (Russian) 

This digest, No. 3 in the series Sbornik trudov VNII 
protivopozharnoy oborony, contains articles on the results 
of theoretical and experimental investigations of building 
and ship structures. The thermal engineering problem of 
calculating the fire endurance of structures is solved using 
a computer. Recent data on the change in strength and 
in the deformation of concrete and steel at high tempera- 
tures as well as on the causes of explosive spalling of 
concrete during fires are cited. Information is given on 
the fire endurance of laminated protective structures, 
fiberglass cladding, and suspended fireproof ceihngs. The 
fire endurance of a ship bulkhead with an air layer in 
the insulation is calculated for the first time. (RZh) 

829. Barthelemy B 

HEATING CALCULATION OF STEEL MEMBERS 

ASCEProc. J Struct Div; 102(ST8):1549-1558, 1976 

A method of calculation of fire resistance of steel struc- 
tures has been developed in France by the Technical 
Center for Steel Construction. The main parts of this 
method are the determination of critical temperature and 
heating-up behavior of steel structures. This second part 
is developed in detail. It takes into account the steel pro- 
tection by dry, wet, form-fitting, or sprayed protecting 
materials, but not by intumescent paints. Flow charts 
make the use of theoretical calculations easier. Thermal 
properties of some well-known materials are listed. 7 figs, 
2 tables, 14 refs. (Author) 

830. Lee BT 

FIRE PERFORMANCE TESTING OF BULKHEAD INSU- 
LATION SYSTEMS FOR HIGH STRENGTH TO 
WEIGHT SHIP STRUCTURES. Nat Bureau of Standards, 
Center for Fire Res; NBSIR 76-1012, 63 pages, 8 figs, 
28 tables, 12 refs, Aug 1976 
Availability: NTIS 

Sixteen insulated aluminum bulkhead specimens were 
subjected to a material screening process as well as evalu- 
ated for their comparative fire performance with a 2-foot 
horizontal slab furnace. Two insulated and two unpro- 
tected glass-reinforced plastic specimens were also tested 
to obtain fire performance data on these structural materi- 
als. In addition, painted aluminum and steel panel 
specimens were included to determine the fire protective 
merits of two types of intumescent paints. Potential heat 
release, smoke, and combustion gas generation were also 
determined for the insulation and coating materials. 
Specimens insulated with organic base foams released high 
levels of combustion gases and could contribute considera- 
ble heat to an on-going fire. Specimens insulated with 
either refractory fibrous material or with mineral wool 
gave the best overall performance. The same thickness 
of insulation needed to protect an aluminum panel for 



over an hour can provide up to 20 minutes of protection 
for a glass-reinforced plastic panel of the same thickness. 
The intumescent paints did little to protect the specimens 
during the fire exposure. Parameters of insulation 
thickness, heat capacity, density, and thermal conductivity 
as well as fire duration on specimen temperature were 
analytically investigated. (Author) 

831. Butlin RN and Finch CP 

GAS EXPLOSIONS IN BUILDINGS. PART V. THE MEA- 
SUREMENT OF SOUND LEVELS AND PRESSURES 
OUTSIDE A VENTED GAS EXPLOSION CHAMBER. 

Dept of the Environ and Fire Offices' Committee (UK), 
Fire Res Station; Fire Res Note 988, 9 pages, 7 figs, 7 
refs. May 1976 

The methods of measuring the external pressure and 
sound levels resulting from vented gas explosions in ex- 
periments by the Fire Research Station at Cardington are 
described, together with the methods of calibration. Exam- 
ples of the oscilloscope traces for sound and pressure 
are given. See also Fire Res Note 1052. (Author) 

f. PREVENTION AND HAZARD REDUCTION 

832. Smith FJ 

DEVELOPMENT OF FIRE RESISTANT ELECTRONIC 
CONFIGURATIONS FOR USE IN OXYGEN ENRICHED 
ENVIRONMENTS 

Space Simulation Conf, 8th, Proc; 1975, Nov 3-5, Silver 
Spring, MD 

The flammability requirements of the various manned 
space programs required development of electronic con- 
figurations that would eliminate any flammability hazard 
to crews or missions. Initial test and development efforts 
were directed at the development of nonflammable or 
self -extinguishing materials. Design concepts for electronic 
black boxes and modules were tested in oxygen-enriched 
atmospheres, and it was found that various types of sealed 
configurations would generally eliminate any flammability 
hazard. The type of configuration and its construction 
was found to be of more importance in the elimination 
of flammability hazards in electronic configurations than 
the types of materials utilized in them. The design con- 
cepts developed for fire-hazard-free electronic configura- 
tions for use in manned space programs are applicable 
for the design of electronic hardware for any use or en- 
vironment. (Author) 

833. Stefancic S 

FIRE HAZARDS AND FIRE-PROTECTION MEASURES 
IN THEATERS 

Sigurnost; 18(l):27-54, 1976 (Serbocroatian) 

Fires in theaters are characterized by several particular 
features, viz., numerous rooms, special equipment, etc. 
The author reports on fire protection in the Zagreb 
(Jugoslavia) theater and music hall. The indispensible 
guidelines for the organization of fire protection in 
theaters are also discussed. The author presents the results 
of his dissertation on fire protection in theaters. 2 figs. 
(Fachdok 12/0877) 



172 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



5. FIRE PROTECTION PRINCIPLES 

f. Prevention and Hazard Reduction— Continued 



834. Kawashima K 

INCREASING THE FIRE SAFETY OF HYDRAULIC 
LIFTS 

Yuatsuka sekkei; 13(10):65-69. 1975 (Japanese) 

A fire-safety study is made of the four basic designs 
of hydraulic lifts used in Japan and other countries as 
tools to mechanize laborious loading and unloading tasks: 
lift with a one-section telescopic cylinder; lift with a 
three-section telescopic cylinder; lift with one cable as- 
sembly (cable reduction gear); and lift with a system of 
cable assemblies. The first two lifts represent an increased 
fire hazard, because the working pressure developed in 
the cylinder is approximately four times greater than that 
developed in lift cylinders with cable reduction gears. The 
temperature conditions in the two types of lift cylinders 
also differ by about the same factor. It is concluded that 
it is necessary to develop mineral oils with a higher igni- 
tion temperature, considerably greater than 270° C (this 
is the temperature reached in such types). In addition, 
it is recommended that monitoring and measuring devices 
(manometers) and the automatic safety devices (valves) 
on the Uft compressors and motors be improved. Given 
in tabular form are the reasons and various combinations 
of circumstances that lead to oil overheating in the lifts. 

2 figs, 1 table. (RZh) 

835. Jowett CE 

CONTROL OF STATIC ELECTRICITY 

Fire Prev Sci Technoi, (15):4-10, 1976 (EngUsh; German 
and French summaries) 

Electrostatic charges are a threat to safety, and to the 
reUability of plants, and they can exist without their 
presence being reaHzed, due to the ease with which they 
are generated and their inconspicuous nature. As they 
are always present in the manufacturing environment, and 
often act as the "match" which causes the blaze or explo- 
sion, they must be controlled. In this article some ways 
in which static electricity is generated are described and 
the appropriate safe working practices which should be 
adopted in order to minimize this generation are outlined. 
Methods of increasing the rate of dissipation of charge 
such as the use of conductive clothing, flooring and other 
materials, bonding and grounding, and the formation of 
surface films, for example of moisture, carbon or metals, 
are described. 10 figs, 2 tables. (Author) 

836. Kul'pin SE, Panazdyr VV, Red'kin VV, Zhilenko 
IM and Borisov AN 

METHOD OF STORING NATURAL GAS 

USSR Patent No. 453,224; CI F17c 5/02, C07c 9/04, Appl 

3 Feb 1971, Disci 4 May 1975 

A method of storing natural gas in the liquified state 
using absorbents is described. The novelty of the method 
consists in the use of carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, or 
formaldehyde as absorbents to reduce the fire hazard and 
cost of storage. 1 drawing fig. (RZh) 

837. Kirby WE and Ruggles BE 

CONCEPT STUDY: FEASIBILITY OF CHARACTERIZ- 
ING AIRFIELD FIRE HAZARDS AND OF DEVELOPING 
ASSIGNMENT CRITERIA FOR FIRE SUPPRESSION 
RESOURCES (FINAL REPORT). Wright-Patterson AFB, 



DoD Aircraft Ground Fire Suppression and Reserve Office, 
OH; DoD AGFSRS-76-4, 49 pages. Feb 1976 
AvailabiUty: NTIS AD-A024 449/lGA 

This report presents the results of a project that was 
undertaken to correlate aircraft fire hazards aground with 
some quantified airfield parameters involving aircraft 
operations. The feasibiUty of: (1) correlating aircraft ac- 
cident/incident history data with airfield operations data 
in order to characterize aircraft fire hazards which exist 
in aircraft operations on airfields and (2) developing the 
criteria needed to assign crash fire suppression equipment 
to airfields in a manner that reflects the level of an aircraft 
fire hazard which exists at a given airfield and the capa- 
bility of specific equipment to deal with the hazards that 
actually exist was studied. 

838. Woods JF 

SMOKE HAZARD IN BUILDING FIRES; Paper No 25 
Control of Smoke Movement in Building Fires Symp, CIB, 
Proc, Vol 1 - Papers; 1975, Nov 4-5, Garston, Watford, 
UK, pages 343-351 
Sponsor: Fire Res Sta, Bldg Res Estab (UK) 

It is important when formulating building regulations 
to recognize that smoke is also a primary life hazard. 
This review of methods for reducing the smoke hazard 
in building fires has indicated areas where research and 
cost benefit studies are necessary in order to evaluate 
future code requirements. These include smoke detection 
and the coupling of detector systems to doors and dam- 
pers, the effectiveness of roof venting, lobby ventilation 
requirements, and the determination of which test methods 
are best suited for New Zealand, to Umit the use of 
materials according to their smoke emissions. 22 refs. 
(Author) 

g. PROTECTIVE DEVICES AND EQUIPMENT 

839. Terai T 

THE DESIGN OF FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 

Ohm: denki zasshi; 62(13):21-27, 1976 (Japanese) 

Aspects of the design and use of complex modern fire 
detection and suppression systems embodying both elec- 
tronic equipment for control and measurement and 
mechanical equipment for suppression are analyzed. One 
of the most important developmental tendencies in such 
systems is the standardization of parts, assembhes and 
subassemblies comprising the system. The use of 
completed standardized parts and assembhes will make 
it possible, in the design and development stage, to perfect 
such systems and to increase the number of functions 
they perform without excessive complication of the design 
of the equipment. In this way the reliability of the systems 
will be improved, since standardized apparatus is charac- 
terized by a high level of operational reliabihty, repairabili- 
ty and interchangeability. Some new rehability factors 
used to evaluate such complex fire protection systems 
from a technical and economic standpoint are examined 
on the basis of the MIL STD-882 fire detection, ventila- 
tion and suppression system, which is mass-produced. In 
particular, the concept of systems rehability is introduced, 
which is defined as the product of three factors: opera- 
tional readiness, reliability, and degree of compliance with 
requirements. The first and third factors are measured 



173 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



5. FIRE PROTECTION PRINCIPLES 

g. Protective Devices and Equipment — Continued 



in conventional units. The various influences which affect 
the value of these factors are analyzed. An analytical 
comparison is made by tables which relate the efficiency 
of the system as a whole and the efficiency of the con- 
stituent parts. 5 figs, 2 tables. (RZh) 

840. Hashegawa K, Akaogi I and Kumazawa M 
INFLATABLE SMOKE-CUT SHUTTER, PART 2 

Rep Fire Sci Lab (Japan); (12):68-70, 1975 (Japanese) 

A description is given of the design and operating princi- 
ple of several versions of balloons of varying configura- 
tion to be automatically inflated in the case of fire for 
the purpose of effective localization of smoke sources 
during fires. In particular, the use of inflatable smoke 
barriers is expedient in buildings with forced fresh air 
ventilation systems, especially in the underground floors 
of multistory buildings. The basic version of such barriers 
provides for storage of the deflated balloons in special 
recesses between floors with ceiling panels normally 
closed. When a fire breaks out and smoke appears, the 
smoke detectors are actuated (these detectors may either 
form an integral part of the inflatable smoke barriers or 
may be part of the building net or self-contained fire 
detectors). The ceiling panels of the recesses open auto- 
matically; the smoke barrier balloons drop out, the upper 
edge remaining fixed in the recess; the valves of the com- 
pressed air cylinders in the recesses, which are connected 
to the balloons via flexible hoses, open, filhng the sheOs 
with air and thus making them operable. The balloons 
take on the form of inflated barriers of a size commensu- 
rate with the size of the corridor in which the smoke 
barrier is located. The barriers partition the building cor- 
ridors and other enclosures into isolated sections, thus 
barring the propagation of smoke. The barriers have spe- 
cial apertures, hatches, permitting people to crawl through 
them unhindered in case of necessity. To prevent the 
passage of smoke through the hatches, an elastic sleeve 
is attached along the perimeter; the outlet of the sleeve 
can be easily closed off by applying a little tensile force. 
(RZh) 

841. PoweU ADWT 

FIRE-RESISTING FIRE-CHECK SELF-CLOSING DOORS 

Fire; 68(85 1):600, 1976 

Defective installation and maintenance and neglect in 
the daily use of fire doors cancel their effectiveness. The 
author suggests methods of correcting these defects, par- 
ticularly the self-closing aspect, by improving the 
mechanics and efficiency of the method. 

842. Voellinger H 

nRE-PROTECTION CLOSURES: STANDARDIZATION 
AND LICENSING 

Brandschutz; 30(7):186-191, 1976 (German; 

A survey of the existing supply of "genuine" fire-pro- 
tection seals as stipulated in German standard DIN 4102, 
page 3, and as hcensed for use by the building inspec- 
torate is given in this article. A distinction is made 
between three kinds of "genuine" fire-protection doors: 
standard doors, licensed doors, and doors licensed for 
use in certain cases. The most flagrant infringements and 
defects that appear time and again in the installation of 



fire protection seals are shown. A Ust of fire -protection 
seals presently licensed by the building inspectorate is 
given in the appendix. 7 figs, 3 refs. (Fachdok 12/0907) 

843. Hijirikawa I 

DESIGN OF FIRE AND DISASTER PREVENTION 
SYSTEM AND ITS CONSTRUCTION 

Densetsu kogyo; 21(ll):82-98, 1975 (Japanese) 

A survey is made of the automatic fire detection and 
suppression systems used in Japan. The organizational and 
technical problems facing the designers of such systems 
are discussed. The tactical characteristics and specifica- 
tions, the organizational principle, the construction and 
operation of several systems are considered. The technical 
parameters and the special system design features are 
given in the form of comparative tables. Deficiencies are 
noted and recommendations are made as to the arrange- 
ment of system components during installation and their 
location relative to standard building assembhes. A 
method of calculating the emplacement of fire detectors, 
sprinkler extinguishing devices, ventilation anc* smoke- 
removal systems, and public warning devices is given. 
A method for selecting the parameters and dimensions 
of emergency elevators as well as of emergency elevator 
shafts is examined in detail. The specifics of using dif- 
ferent kinds of fire detectors are analyzed separately. It 
is noted that the demands imposed on the reliability and 
capacity of energency power-supply systems are particu- 
larly high: gas-driven generators, batteries, etc. The or- 
ganization of specialized governmental agencies em- 
powered to check, repair and perform other technical ser- 
vicing tasks of a regulatory nature for large fixed systems 
is outUned. Up to the present time such work has been 
performed, as a rule, by the personnel of the organizations 
that are using the equipment. 26 figs, 8 tables, 1 ref. 
(RZh) 

844. SaitoH 

FIRE PROTECTION OF VENTILATION SYSTEMS 

Kuki tyowa to reito; 15(ll):61-66, 1975 (Japanese) 

A survey is made of the existing methods of preventing 
fire break-out and spread through ventilation and smoke- 
removal ducts in large buildings. The types of fire-and 
heat-resistant varnishes and coatings used in combination 
with various materials from which the ducts and other 
system components are made are classified. Recommenda- 
tions are given for optimum selection of such combina- 
tions. It is emphasized that the hazard of fire ignition 
and spread through the ventilation ducts depends in large 
measure on the configuration and cross-sectional area of 
the duct. The results of experimental investigations of 
this relationship are presented using as an example three 
circular ducts made of fiberboard, cotton felt, and par- 
ticleboard. It is noted that the temperature at which 
favorable conditions for fire break-out and spread are 
created decrease from 330 to 130°C when the cross-sec- 
tional duct area increases from 0.25 to 250 cm (which 
is the average for all types of ducts). A formula is given 
which estabhshes an optimal relationship between the 
geometrical dimensions of a rectangular duct, smoke tem- 
perature, and the rate of smoke removal. The formula 
also takes into account the properties of the duct material. 
The formula is recommended for use in calculating the 
capacity of ventilation systems. 2 figs, 6 refs. (RZh) 



174 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



5. FIRE PROTECTION PRINCIPLES 

g. Protective Devices and Equipment — Continued 



845. Medlock LE 

AUTOMATIC FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM FOR 
DIESEL-ENGINED VEHICLES 

Fire Internal; 5(52):89-93, 1976 (English, French, German; 
Spanish summary) 

This article is a reprint of an article appearing in Fire, 
68(848):449-50, 1976. For the abstract consult the entry 
for the journal in the Source Index. 5 figs. 

846. Nakanishi H 
EMERGENCY LIGHTING 

Ohm: denki zasshi; 62(13):67-72, 1975 (Japanese) 

A survey is made of the types of emergency lighting 
systems used in Japan and of the different kinds of signs 
used to aid in evacuating people via emergency exits, 
stairwells, elevators, etc., in case of fire. These aids are 
classified in several categories, depending on the specific 
purpose. They are principally verbal or symboUc signs, 
either suspended from the ceiling or attached to the walls; 
they are made in the form of semi-transparent materials 
with internal fluorescent lighting. Some of the more suc- 
cessful designs are illustrated. The technical requirements 
relating to size, configuration and other parameters of 
the statements and symbols used in these signs are 
discussed. Recommendations for the optimal location of 
all types of signs at different places in buildings are made. 
Of considerable interest is the method used to install flat 
illuminated signs flush with the floor in corridors. For 
this purpose, the framework of the signs is of optimum 
mechanical strength. An example of the use of such signs 
in combination with fire warning devices (visual and 
acoustic) in complex fire safety systems is given and ex- 
amined. 10 figs, 1 table, 6 refs. (RZh) 

847. Kletz TA 

THE PROTECTION OF PRESSURE VESSELS AGAINST 
FIRE 

Fire Internal; 5(53):18-30, 1976 (English, French, German; 
Spanish summary) 

This article explains how pressure vessels can be pro- 
tected against the effects of fire by sloping the ground 
so that spillages of flammable materials do not accumulate 
under the vessel, thermal insulation, water cooUng, and 
reducing pressure in a vessel. Particular attention is paid 
to the rate at which the pressure should be reduced and 
the methods of reducing it. (Author) 

848. Anon 

FLAME AND SMOKE INTERCEPTING WALL IN FLEX- 
IBLE CONSTRUCTION 

Technocrat {Japan); 8(9):52, 1975 

The automatic flame and smoke intercepting wall is 
designed as a two-layer net with gap which is dropped 
from the ceiling when a fire breaks out. Foam fills the 
gap between net layers, the net intercepts the heat and 
smoke emitted by the fire and, by preventing oxygen 
supply, stifles the fire. The system consists of a smoke 
detector, an actuator panel, solenoid valve, pump, un- 
diluted solution (surfactant), tank, mixer, synchronized 
valve, foam maker, piston damper, foam container and 
net. 



849. Levoy RP 

FIRE INSURANCE IS NOT ENOUGH 

Vet Med Small Anim Clin; 7 1(4): 520-521, 1976 

The author recommends that hospital records, important 
papers, and accounts receivable be stored in fire-insulated 
cabinets to ensure coverage of losses not included in fire 
insurance. 2 figs. 

850. Sterling WK 

PREVENTIVE FIRE PROTECTION BY MEANS OF A 
SELF-CLOSING SAFETY CABINET 

Zentralbl Arbeitsmed Arbeitsschulz; 25(12):373-374, 1975 
(German) 

A fire-resistant, automatically closing steel-plate cabinet 
for the storage of readily combustible or very sensitive 
materials, such as critical liquids, chemicals, antibiotics, 
or documents, magnetic tapes and the like, is described. 
1 fig. 

851. Schmidt WA 

FIRE PROTECTION AND SMOKE CONTROL HVAC 
SYSTEMS CAN SAVE LIVES 
ASHRAEJ; 18(2):17-19, 1976 

The problems of firefighting in highrises are briefly 
reviewed along with the fire regulations, which were 
aimed at blocking the ventilation system responsible for 
the spread of fire and asphyxiating those in a hospital, 
for the development of a controlled ventilation system 
which could produce negative pressures in the fire zone 
and positive pressures elsewhere, thus permitting smoke 
evacuation from zones not yet touched by the fire. This 
system is not compatible with the stipulations of the 
NFPA code, and therefore a new code draft is presented. 
7 refs. 

852. Rozotte R 

SMOKE-VENTING FIREBREAK HATCHES 

French Patent No. 2,242,845; CI A62C 2/02, Appl 28 Aug 
1973, Disci 28 Mar 1975, Assignee: Caprec 

A smoke hatch with a fire endurance of two hours 
for installation in partitions between compartments is 
patented. The opening is spanned by two small doors 
whose connecting portions are canted in such a way that 
one door restrains the other. The spring-loaded doors 
strive to rotate through 180°, but the restraining door 
is fixed in position and is remotely controlled by means 
of an electromagnet. The doors are hollow and have an 
inorganic filling to increase the fire resistance. 7 drawing 
figs. 

853. Marois J 

FIRE RESISTANT WALL AND ENCLOSURE WITH 
SUCH A WALL 

French Patent No. 2,248,722; CI E05G 1/02, Appl 17 Oct 
1973, Disci 16 May 1975 

Ordinary safes frequently do not provide adequate 
security for valuable papers and documents in case of 
fire. The proposal relates to reliable safe-keeping by fitting 
out a room partitioned off from the rest of the building 
with hollow walls, ceihng and floor within which water 
pipes with sprinklers are laid. In case of fire, the readily 
fusible plates blocking the sprinkler valves melt and the 



175 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



5. FIRE PROTECTION PRINCIPLES 

g. Protective Devices and Equipment — Continued 



heated portion of the structure is cooled with water, 
providing a high degree of fire resistance to the structure 
and, consequently, security to the valuables stored in the 
room. 8 drawing figs. 

854. Meshman LM, Kuznetsov NP, Rode AA, Grunenkov 
VS and Veselov AI 

DEVICE FOR DETECTING DEFECTIVE STATES IN 
FIRE AND EXPLOSION PROTECTION SYSTEMS 

USSR Patent No. 451,111; CI G08b 17/10, Appl 25 Jul 
1973, Disci. 29 Apr 1975, Assignee: VNII protivopozhar 
oborony 

The patented device relates to an automatic alarm and 
is suitable for detection of UV flame radiation of mixtures 
of gas, vapor, and airborne dust against background and 
industrial noise. 1 drawing fig. (RZh) 

855. Mikovich P 

HRE PROTECTION AND SMOKE DAMPER 

Austrian Patent No. 324,631; C^ 36 E 009, (F24F 013/08), 
Appl 4 Oct 1972, Disci 10 Sep 1975, Assignee: Peter 
Mikovich oHG 

The damper is intended for automatic closing of air- 
conditioning ducts when the hot gases generated by a 
fire enter the ducts. A toothed segment and a pulley for 
a rope and weight extend outward from the axis of the 
housing. An open pipe with a piston is fixed inside the 
housing perpendicular to the wall. The piston rod also 
projects outside, where a small gear-wheel is press-fitted 
on it. In the normal open damper position the pulley 
cannot turn, since the toothed segment on its axis is 
locked to the gear wheel on the piston rod. The other 
(inner) end of the hollow pipe is filled with a low-melting 
metal, to which the piston is held by a spring. When 
the metal melts because of rising temperature, the piston 
ejects it from the pipe and withdraws inside, pulling in 
the gear wheel, which unlocks from the toothed segment. 
The weighted rope pulley turns the axle with the damper, 
closing the duct. 3 drawing figs. 

856. Barbarin J 
FIRE DAMPER 

French Patent No. 2,233,549; CI F16K 17/38, A62C 3/14, 
Appl 14 Jun 1973, Disci 10 Jan 1975 

The damper is designed to prevent fire from spreading 
from the area in which it breaks out into a ventilation 
duct. The damper is made in the form of a shutter which, 
under the pressure of two springs, is restrained from slid- 
ing over the plane of the wall by a fusible lock. When 
the temperature rises, the lock melts and the shutter is 
released by the springs, closing the opening of the ventila- 
tion shaft. The advantage of this configuration is that 
the shutter panel is made of an incombustible material 
of low thermal conductivity. The thickness of the material 
can be increased, if necessary, to provide greater fire 
resistance. 6 drawing figs. 

857. Novikov VN 

DEVICE FOR AUTOMATIC CONTROL OF A SMOKE- 
REMOVAL SYSTEM 

USSR Patent No. 475,646; CI G08b 17/10, Appl 3 May 
1973, Disci 13 Oct 1975, Assignee: Upr po Proektir 
Obshchestv Zdaniy i Sooruzh Mosproekt-2 



A description is given of an automatic device to control 
a smoke-venting system. The device contains parallel 
beam sets with series-connected sensors, shunted by 
diodes, a supervisory relay and actuator relays. The 
definitive feature of the device is that it is simplified 
by being equipped with make-or-break pushbuttons. The 
make pushbuttons are series connected with the superviso- 
ry relay, the break buttons with the sensors; the super- 
visory relay and the actuator relays are connected to a 
single feed line. 2 drawing figs. (RZh) 

858. Patterson G 

FIELD TRIALS OF A FIRE DOOR CLOSER SYSTEM; 

Paper No. 7 

Control of Smoke Movement in Building Fires Symp, CIB, 

Proc, Vol 1 - Papers; 1975, Nov 4-5, Garston, Watford, 

UK, pages 69-77 

Sponsor: Fire Res Sta, Bldg Res Estab (UK) 

The purpose of the trials was to monitor how people 
behave under normal conditions. The main interest of the 
results lies in the contribution to a better understanding 
of why people wedge fire doors and how a closer system 
might diminish this form of abuse. The system allowed 
the doors to be held open and, if they had latches, to 
be free-swinging under normal conditions. Under fire con- 
ditions, the system ensured the doors automatically 
became self-closing only. The trials demonstrated that the 
additional facilities significantly reduced abuse and in- 
dicated how they might be selected to meet different 
behavior patterns. (Author) 

859. Holt JE 

FIRE VENTILATION POLICY; Paper No 12 

Control of Smoke Movement in Building Fires Symp, CIB, 

Proc, Vol 1 - Papers; 1975, Nov 4-5, Garston, Watford, 

UK, pages 149-169 

Sponsor: Fire Res Sta, Bldg Res Estab (UK) 

The two documents given here are Colt International's 
Fire Ventilation Policy Document and a quarterly test 
record book. The policy document was produced for inter- 
nal use and gives, what is in the Company's view, the 
obligations of a company designing and supplying heat 
and smoke exhaust schemes. The quarterly test record 
is an endeavor to obtain cooperation from the user to 
ensure that the equipment is in good working order 
between the annual visits by the Colt representative. 9 
figs. (Author) 

860. Morgan J and Marchant EW 

SOME EFFECTS OF NATURAL WIND ON VENT 
OPERATION IN SHOPPING MALLS; Paper No. 13 
Control of Smoke Movement in Building Fires Symp, CIB, 
Proc, Vol 1 - Papers; 1975, Nov 4-5, Garston, Watford, 
UK, pages 171-183 
Sponsor: Fire Res Sta, Bldg Res Estab (UK) 

In town center redevelopments the wind pressures 
developed on the upper surface of the mall roofs, due 
to the presence of taller buildings close to the mall, may 
have an adverse effect on the operation of smoke vents. 
An experimental investigation was carried out in a wind 
tunnel using nineteen building geometries in an attempt 
to quantify the problem. The results from four geometries 
are discussed. Criteria for vent failure are defined and 



176 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



5. FIRE PROTECTION PRINCIPLES 

g. Protective Devices and Equipment— Continued 



calculated probabilities of failure are presented. 5 figs, 
6 tables, 7 refs. (Author) 

861. Heselden AJM 

STUDIES OF SMOKE MOVEMENT AND CONTROL AT 

THE FIRE RESEARCH STATION; Paper No. 14 

Control of Smoke Movement in Building Fires Symp, CIB, 

Froc, Vol 1 - Papers; 1975, Nov 4-5, Garston, Watford, 

UK, pages 185-195 

Sponsor: Fire Res Sta, Bldg Res Estab (UK) 

Recent studies of smoke movement and control at the 
Fire Research Station (UK) are described. These have 
included: (a) the movement of a buoyant smoke layer 
in a channel and its implications for smoke control in 
certain types of buildings, notably shopping complexes, 
(b) the entrainment of air into a smoke plume rising within 
a shopping complex, (c) the production of smoke by a 
sprinklered fire, (d) the efficient extraction of smoke from 
a thin ceiling layer, (e) smoke extraction by a ducted 
water spray, and (f) the effect of sprinklers on smoke 
layering. These have involved both model and large-scale 
experiments, and the development of instrumentation and 
experimental methods. 4 figs, 18 refs. (Author) 

862. Butcher EG 

THE DESIGN OF PRESSURIZATION SYSTEMS - A SUR- 
VEY OF CURRENT CODES AND DISCUSSION OF DIF- 
FICULTIES; Paper No. 15 

Control of Smoke Movement in Building Fires Symp, CIB, 
Proc, Vol 1 - Papers; 1975, Nov 4-5, Garston, Watford, 
UK, pages 199-208 
Sponsor: Fire Res Sta, Bldg Res Estab (UK) 

In this paper the requirements of the Codes or Regula- 
tions relating to the use of pressurization in various coun- 
tries are compared and their main differences discussed. 
The desirable features of a pressurization system are 
stated and a brief discussion of how these can be incor- 
porated in a building design is given. The difficulties aris- 
ing and the criticisms commonly made are indicated. 
(Author) 

863. Leworthy LR 

CONTROL AND PREVENTION OF SMOKE MOVE- 
MENT AND ENTRY INTO BUILDINGS BY MECHANI- 
CAL VENTILATION; Paper No. 16 

Control of Smoke Movement in Building Fires Symp, CIB, 
Proc, Vol 1 - Papers; 1975, Nov 4-5, Garston, Watford, 
UK, pages 209-218 
Sponsor: Fire Res Sta, Bldg Res Estab (UK) 

An essential part of a scheme to control smoke move- 
ment by mechanical ventilation is a release vent or 
evacuation valve to vent or release air pressure from the 
protected cube. The earhest schemes known to its author 
were the wartime report and control centers (circa 1940) 
which were designed to keep war gases, as well as smoke 
from adjacent fires, from the protected accommodation. 
The paper briefly describes the plant, the air distribution, 
the return air path and the final evacuation valve venting 
to atmosphere. 6 figs, 1 ref. (Author) 



864. Fung FCW 

SMOKE CONTROL BY SYSTEMATIC PRESSURIZA- 
TION; Paper No. 17 

Control of Smoke Movement in Building Fires Symp, CIB, 
Proc, Vol 1 - Papers; 1975, Nov 4-5, Garston, Watford, 
UK, pages 219-235 
Sponsor: Fire Res Sta, Bldg Res Estab (UK) 

An experimental investigation of smoke control in 
highrise buildings by the "Systematic Pressurization" con- 
cept is presented here. This concept of smoke control 
involves the utilization of a modified buUding air-handling 
system. The building is generally divided vertically into 
several horizontal smoke control zones, each containing 
a predetermined number of floors. Upon smoke alarm 
the airhandling system is programmed to switch to smoke 
control mode by providing 100% exhaust to the smoke 
zone and 100% supply to the other zones. The idea is 
to simultaneously exhaust smoke from its zone of origin 
and prevent smoke propagation to the other zones by 
pressurization. 9 figs, 2 tables, 10 refs. (Author) 

865. Moulen AW 

FIRE PRECAUTIONS IN BUILDINGS WITH AIRHAN- 
DLING SYSTEMS; Paper No. 1 8 

Control of Smoke Movement in Building Fires Symp, CIB, 
Proc, Vol 1 - Papers; 1975, Nov 4-5, Garston, Watford, 
UK, pages 237-243 
Sponsor: Fire Res Sta, Bldg Res Estab (UK) 

The purpose of a mechanical smoke control system in 
the event of fire in a building is to prevent the recycling 
of combustion products through the building, to prevent 
smoke and hot gases from entering fire escape routes, 
and to avert the spread of fire by way of the air-handhng 
ducts to other stories or other parts of the building. 
Results of field surveys of pressures measured in multisto- 
ry buildings are reported. These pressure measurements 
were made to forecast the likely smoke movement, the 
effectiveness of air-handling systems in exhausting decom- 
position products from possible fire areas, and whether 
escape routes would be kept smoke-free when air-handling 
plants are operated as specified by Australian Standard 
1668, Part 1 - 1974, Mechanical Ventilation and Air-condi- 
tioning Code Part 1, Fire Precautions in Buildings with 
Air-handling Systems. 1 fig, 1 table, 4 refs. (Author) 

866. Minne IR 

SMOKE INFILTRATION IN THE FIRE ESCAPE 

ROUTES OF TALL BUILDINGS; Paper No. 19 

Control of Smoke Movement in Building Fires Symp, CIB, 

Proc, Vol 1 - Papers; 1975, Nov 4-5, Garston, Watford, 

UK 

Sponsor: Fire Res Sta, Bldg Res Estab (UK), pages 

245-265 

During the time required for evacuation, fire escapes 
must remain free of smoke. Tests were done in the 
Government Administrative Center in Brussels, a highrise 
building, in which lock chambers are present between each 
compartment and the staircase. In each lock chamber, 
an overpressure is reaUsed by means of a blower system. 
It is shown that this procedure can insure that no smoke 
comes into the staircase even through a lock chamber 
with open doors, when the air supply is a SOOm^hunit 
and the blower duct is provided with an efficient diffuser. 



177 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



5. FIRE PROTECTION PRINCIPLES 

g. Protective Devices and Equipment — Continued 



The solution "staircase in overpressure" seems to be less 
advantageous. 6 figs, 1 table, 4 refs. (Author) 

867. Ferrie M 

SMOKE REMOVAL IN HIGHRISE BUILDINGS; Paper 

No. 20 

Control of Smoke Movement in Building Fires Symp, CIB, 
Proc, Vol 1 - Papers; 1975, Nov 4-5, Garston, Watford, 
UK, pages 267-279 (French, English Summary) 
Sponsor: Fire Res Sta, Bldg Res Estab (UK) 

As a sequel to his previous report in April 1969 at 
Watford (UK), the author begins by explaining experi- 
ments made in actual buildings. After a brief summary 
of the possible solutions for making stairways smoke- 
proof, the author compares the three systems currently 
adopted in France: systems with 0, 1, 2 ducts per lobby 
(security and rehability, ease of adjustment of ventilating 
systems). This is followed by an explanation of the 
problems raised by the adjustment, service control and 
maintenance of these installations. The financial aspect 
is also considered both at the stage of construction and 
in use. The writer than outlines the energy savings which 
can be made by the use of automatic systems in high 
buildings, for which a mechanical smoke proofing system 
is not imposed by French regulations (buildings less than 
28 m high or less than 50 m). The report closes with 
a presentation of the current level of technology of the 
automatic materials which ensure the smooth running of 
these installations. In particular, two innovations are 
presented, the first concerning doors, trapdoors, dampers 
and gates which open and/or close automatically; the 
second concerning the working reliability: the "Positive 
Safety" floor by floor. 2 figs, 4 tables, 7 refs. (Author) 

868. Kohno M and Kasahara I 

SMOKE MOVEMENT CALCULATION FOR SEVERAL 
CONTROL SYSTEMS IN A HIGH-RISE BUILDING; 

Paper No. 21 

Control of Smoke Movement in Building Fires Symp, CIB, 

Proc, Vol 1 - Papers; 1975, Nov 4-5, Garston, Watford, 

UK, pages 281-295 

Sponsor: Fire Res Sta, Bldg Res Estab (UK) 

The behavior of smoke during a fire is determined by 
such meteorological conditions as temperature and wind 
direction as well as by the height and floor plan of the 
building, by window status (open or closed), etc., factors 
which are particular for each building. In order to decide 
on a smoke control system that is optimum for a certain 
building, therefore, it is necessary that a simulated circula- 
tion of air flow be made by varying these factors; that 
is, determine whether the building is capable of withstand- 
ing these conditions. Air flow calculations in full-scale 
buildings require much time, even when a computer is 
used, so that it is almost impossible in practice to calculate 
aU the conditions involved. For this reason, the authors 
prepared a rough calculation program to take into account 
these conditions and carried out a calculation for about 
1(X) cases. The present paper gives the results of these 
calculations. 2 figs, 11 tables, 2 refs. (Author) 

178 



h. SUPPRESSION DEVICES AND EQUIPMENT 

869. Stevens RE 

THE NEED FOR SPRINKLERS IN HIGH-RISE 
BUILDINGS 

Constr Specifier; 29(l):36-40, 1976 

The author points out the advantages of sprinkler 
systems in terms of influencing the cost of insurance rates 
and life safety in conjunction with an active fire safety 
program. Some NFPA standards and codes having a direct 
bearing on certain phases of sprinkler protection are cited 
in the bibliography. 7 tables. 

870. Jiromaru M 

CONSOLIDATION OF THE FIRE EQUIPMENT OF 
HIGHRISES IN CENTRALIZED SYSTEMS 

Ohm: denki zasshi; 62(13):17-20, 1975 (Japanese) 

In multistory residential and plant administrative 
buildings, a natural way of increasing the effectiveness 
of fixed fire equipment is to consoUdate it into systems 
and to centrahze control of the systems. An ideal tool 
for controlhng and coordinating such systems is a mul- 
tipurpose computer. The comparative simplicity of the 
tasks involved in automatic detection of a fire source 
and in controlhng the suppression process make it possible 
to use obsolescent and unused third- and even fourth- 
generation computers, regardless of whether they are 
analog or digital. Considered is a block diagram and 
operating principles of a computer used for this purpose, 
combining both analog and digital information processing 
methods. The computer tasks include the following: col- 
lection, conversion and processing of information arriving 
in the form of d-c signals from peripheral sensors, fire 
detectors; making a decision as to whether a fire has 
broken out; determination of the location and boundary 
lines of the fire sources; generation of a visual and ac- 
coustic emergency alarm signal; transmission of control 
signals to magnetic starters or directly to the actuators 
of the foam extinguishing system through a branching net- 
work of sprinkler heads; transmitting an alarm signal to 
the control panel of the municipal fire protection office; 
providing for emergency telephone and TV (local) commu- 
nication, and other tasks. 2 figs. (RZh) 

871. KitaM 

AUTOMATIC SMOKE REMOVAL SYSTEM IN CASE OF 
FIRE 

Ohm: denki zasshi; 62(13):62-66, 1975 (Japanese) 

A technical description is given of an automatic smoke 
removal system designed for installation and operation 
in case of fire in buildings of complex design, such as 
multistory, factory buildings, etc. The system consists of 
powerful fans and a set of compact smoke removal sec- 
tions of varying cross-section and configuration. The 
design of the sections is such that they can be joined 
to each other for easy construction of a smoke removal 
line to conform to the particular features of the building 
design. Several ways of joining smoke removal sections 
to form Unes of a given configuration are illustrated. The 
operation of the system is examined using interaction with 
a complex automatic fire detection and sprinkler suppres- 
sion system as an example. The fire detection signals, 
which correspond to outbreak of a fire, automatically 



wmt 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



5. FIRE PROTECTION PRINCIPLES 

h. Suppression Devices and Equipment — Continued 

trigger the magnetic starters, actuating the fans and also 
opening the smoke intake holes of the smoke removal 
system. The holes, with shutters normaUy closed, are in 
the end panels of the system, either in the side walls 
of the smoke removal system, flush with the walls or 
ceiling of the enclosure. The system is self -supervisory 
owing to several control points along the line provided 
with draft sensors, which transmit telemetric information 
on the level of rarefication at these points over wire com- 
munications lines to the control panel. 9 figs, 6 refs. (RZh) 

872. Anon 

AUTOMATIC EXTINGUISHMENT OF FIRES 

(AVTOMATICHESKOE TUSHENIE FOZHAROV) 

VNII Protivopozhar oborony, Moscow, USSR; 112 pages, 

1975 (Russian) 

Various aspects of automatic detection and suppression 
of combustible liquid fires are presented in this digest 
of papers of the All-Union Fire Protection Research In- 
stitute in its series Sbornik trudov VNII protivopozharnoy 
oborony. This digest contains the results of research into 
determining the mass flow into a nitrogen-Freon mixture 
required to extinguish combustible liquid fires in an enclo- 
sure. A solution is given of one of the problems of heat 
exchange between a protective surface and a heated gas. 
Data are presented on the temperature conditions in enclo- 
sures, on determining tolerable distances, on methods of 
locating detectors and on their time of actuation as a 
function of the fire buildup conditions. (RZh) 

873. Shimanuki T 

SELECTION OF EQUIPMENT IN DESIGNING SMOKE- 
REMOVAL AND FIRE-EXTINGUISHING SYSTEMS 

Kuki tyowa to reito; 15(11):110-112, 1975 (Japanese) 

Problems connected with the optimum method of select- 
ing the technical parameters and types of mass-produced 
equipment and accessories in the design and calculation 
of large-scale automatic fire-extinguishing and smoke - 
removal systems are discussed. AU-purpose indexes 
governed by some Japanese and US standards, estabhsh- 
ing a relationship between the characteristics of the pro- 
tected installations and the parameters of the smoke- 
removal and fire-extinguishing systems, are presented. In 
addition, data from the results of experiments carried out 
by the Tokyo Laboratory of Microclimatic Devices are 
cited. These data establish a relationship between the 
capacity of ventilators of smoke-removal systems, on the 
one hand, and the volume as well as relative geometric 
dimensions of enclosures, on the other hand. Also 
established is an optimum relationship between the capaci- 
ty of the ventilators and the cross-sectional area of the 
smoke-removal ducts. A block diagram is shown, and the 
operating principle of an all-purpose automatic fire-extin- 
guishing system combined with smoke-removal equipment 
is analyzed. 1 fig, 1 table. (RZh) 

874. Oda K 

FIRE EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM 

Yuatsu gijutsu; 14(13):57-62, 1975 (Japanese) 

The structure and operation of some new automated 
fire-extinguishing systems for use in various branches of 
industry are described. A component part of one of these 



systems is a subsystem, an emergency system for protec- 
tion against the formation of e> plosion- and fire-hazard 
gas concentrations in air. The system consists of a photo- 
calorimetric analyzer, a relay, a magnetic starter, an elec- 
tric motor, and a high-powered fan. The system operates 
as follows: from the analyzer vessel a reagent is piped 
continuously to a liquid pump, which serves to pump 
into the analyzer a gas mixture which blends with the 
reagent and goes into a glass cuvette. The latter is illu- 
minated by a gas-discharge lamp with a special reflector 
to ensure uniform illumination over the entire volume. 
The beam of hght passes through the solution and hits 
a photocell. When the color of the solution or its optical 
properties change, so does the current intensity of the 
photocell, which is recorded instantaneously by electrical- 
contact galvanometers. If the gas concentration in the 
medium under study exceeds the maximum permissible 
concentration, the photocell current causes the galvanome- 
ter needle to close the terminals of the relay circuit, which 
in turn closes the terminals of the magnetic starter, trans- 
mitting voltage of industrial frequency to the electric 
motor of the high-power fan. After the fan has run for 
some time, the gas concentration in the medium drops, 
the galvanometer needle changes position and opens the 
terminals of the relay. The fan motor is disconnected 
from the power supply. The industrial production-line 
processes that are recommended to be carried out in con- 
junction with automatic gas analyzers are listed. It is 
pointed out that secondary devices, such as visual and 
acoustic signalling devices, various indicators, communica- 
tions devices, power packs, etc., should be located in 
adjacent premises, or in premises where explosion- and 
fire-hazard concentrations of vapors and gases cannot 
form with air. The operationa^ and technical parameters 
of this and the other systems are given. 11 figs, 3 tables, 
2 refs. (RZh) 

875. Korzhov VT 

UVS AUTOMATIC FIREFIGHTING SYSTEM 

Bezop tr prom-sti; (4):20-21, 1976 (Russian) 

A report is made of fire suppression tests with the 
UVS automatic extinguishing system constructed by the 
Donetsk mine rescue equipment factory. The extinguisher 
nozzles operate at a pressure of 6-35 atm and form a 
water curtain which wets down the entire cross section 
of the mine area. The nozzles can be actuated automati- 
cally or manually. The system has proved to be effective 
in coal mines of the Donetsk basin. 1 fig. (Fachdok 
12/0971) 

876. Jiromaru S 

DESIGN OF FIRE-FIGHTING DEVICES AND METHODS 
OF EXTINGUISHING FIRES 

Kuki tyowa to reito; 15(ll):74-80, 1975 (Japanese) 

Aspects of the optimal location and use of mass- 
produced fire-fighting equipment, including large systems 
and individual assemblies, to ensure the fire safety of 
multi-story buildings are discussed. It is pointed out that 
the effectiveness of large complex automatic fire-extin- 
guishing systems depends largely not only on the correct 
distribution of fire detectors and sprinkler heads, but also 
on the correct choice of types and the correct combination 
of detectors and heads in the design and assembly of 
systems. Ideas relating to the choice of detector and sprin- 



179 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



5. FIRE PROTECTION PRINCIPLES 

h. Suppression Devices and Equipment — Continued 



kler head types as a function of the nature and parameters 
of the installations and premises being protected are 
developed. Optimal variants of selection, as well as of 
the combination and distribution of various types of detec- 
tors and sprinkler heads, are illustrated in tabular and 
graphic form as a function of the geometric parameters 
and purpose of the premises, the number and types of 
fire-hazard equipment found in the building, the area of 
the building occupied by people, and how many, the type 
and capacity of the intake and exhaust ventilators, etc. 
Also considered are the design and operating principles 
of some centralized sprinkler extinguishing systems of 
high (nominal) efficiency in various stages of design and 
development. 3 figs, 3 tables. (RZh) 

877. Gulyaev G and Kochnev A 
OPERATION OF FIXED FOAM INSTALLATIONS 

Pozhar delo; (5):24-25, 1976 (Russian) 

One of the most important components of fixed foam 
fire-extinguishing systems is the foam generator. If the 
generator operation is unstable, the expansion ratio and 
stability of the foam are low. The reason may be the 
poor quality of the foam compound, a low foam-com- 
pound concentration in the solution, abnormal operation 
of the spray tip, painting over or clogging the screens 
with rust, trash, etc. Each of these reasons is discussed 
in detail. 

878. Itskov AI 

TECHNICAL MAINTENANCE AND RELIABILITY OF 
AUTOMATIC FIRE EXTINGUISHING SYSTEMS 

Pozhar delo-A4):23-25,\916 

The rehability of automatic fire-extinguishing systems 
depends on correct use and timely and careful technical 
maintenance. Data on statistical analysis, checking and 
reUabiUty of these systems are given with the aim of 
estabUshing servicing techniques and schedules. The relia- 
bihty data were obtained by mathematical formulas. A 
chart is included which lists the methods of improving 
rehability in the design, manufacturing, construction, in- 
stallation and operating stages. 6 tables 

879. Anon 

nRE EXTINGUISHER WITH PROPELLANT-GAS CAR- 
TRIDGE 

Maschinenmarkf, 82(2):29, 1976 (German) 

A description is given of a fire extinguisher containing 
a powder and a compressed gas cylinder. The cylinder 
is placed in a special duct inside the extinguisher. The 
powder fills the space between the walls of the extin- 
guisher and the cylinder ducts. The advantage of this 
extinguisher consists in the fact that the inside of the 
extinguisher is pressurized only when it is used. When 
actuated, the compressed gas cyhnder opens, forcing 
powder into the seat of the fire. The extinguisher is 
recharged by replacing the used cylinder and refilling with 
powder. 1 fig. 

880. Kramer HJ 

DISCHARGE DEVICES FOR WET WATER, HIGH- AND 
MEDIUM-EXPANSION FOAMS AND THEIR OUTPUT 
CAPACITY 

Vnser Brandschutz; 26(4) : 29-3 1 , 1976 (German) 



The effective application of wet water, high- and medi- 
um-expansion foams depends on the discharge devices 
used for them. Precise information on their construction, 
operating method and, above all, on the technical and 
tactical conditions for their use is a prerequisite if effec- 
tive extinguishment is to be achieved. Data are presented 
on the important details of some discharge devices 
produced and used in the GDR. 8 figs, 1 table. (Fachdok 
12/0575) 

881. Kisling HM 

FOAM EXTINGUISHING SYSTEMS FOR DIP-PAINTING 
PLANTS 

Brandvaern; 2(1):17-19, 1976 (Danish) 

Automatic extinguishing systems for special production 
sites where combustible liquids are used normally contain 
carbon dioxide as the extinguishant. In this article a 
description is given of a novel foam extinguishing system 
that uses light water to make the foam and is capable 
of guaranteeing the safety of large dipping tanks in which 
large components and body parts are painted. 1 fig. 
(Fachdok 12/0756) 

882. Tsurumi T 

AUTOMATIC FIRE EXTINGUISHER 

Japanese Patent No. 50-10478; CI 95B3, (A62C 13/50), 
Appl 18 May 1970, Disci. 22 Apr 1975, Assignee: Tyuo 
Kiki Sejsakusyo kk 

A patent is disclosed for a manual fire extinguisher 
equipped with an automatic on-off valve which is triggered 
by a cable with a heat-sensitive head attached to the 
hose of the extinguisher. The head is located near the 
discharge nozzle. The cable consists of a tube housing 
with a flexible movable rod. The head is a plug in the 
housing, one side spring-loaded, the other with a heat- 
sensitive plate. The flexible rod of the cable is fixed to 
the drive mechanism of the valve and the heat-sensitive 
head. When the hose is aimed at the seat of the fire, 
the heat-sensitive plate heats up, deforms and releases 
the plug; the spring forces the plug out of the housing, 
pulling out the rod; the rod actuates the driving 
mechanism, opens the on-off valve, and extinguishant is 
delivered from the extinguisher tank through the hose. 
4 drawing figs. (RZh) 

883. Balagin PG 

DEVICE FOR SPRAYING LIQUIDS 

USSR Patent No. 461,743; CI B05b 1/30, A62C 35/54, 
Appl 14 Aug 1972, Disci 23 Jun 1975, Assignee: VNII 
protivopozhar oborony 

The invention relates to a device for spraying hquids, 
consisting of a container with lateral inlet perforations 
and an outlet. The device also has a stopper with a duct 
and is suitable for spraying atomized liquids onto fast- 
burning materials. The novelty of the device consists in 
the stopper, which can be moved vertically. 2 drawings. 
(RZh) 

884. Sukharenko VI, Mikhedov VG, Zemskiy GT, 
Kupriyanova LI, Tsvetkov MN, Nazarov NI, Sukhov lYa 
and Krutov VA 

EXTINGUISHER FOR ALKALI METAL FIRES 

1755;? Patent No. 326,799; CI A62d 1/00, Appl 29 Oct 
1970, Disci 29 Oct 1975, Assignee: VNII protivopozhar 
oborony 



80 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



5. FIRE PROTECTION PRINCIPLES 

h. Suppression Devices and Equipment— Continued 



A method of extinguishing alkali metals is described. 
The innovation of the method is the addition of 1 to 
15 vol % of COz to the inert gas (nitrogen, argon, helium) 
to increase the extinguishing efficiency. 1 table. (RZh) 

885. Anon 

AUTOMATIC VALVE FOR FIRE EXTINGUISHANTS 

French Patent No. 2,242,847; CI A62C 37/08, Appl 31 
Aug 1973, Disci 28 Mar 1975, Assignee: Soc de Fabrica- 
tion et d'Entretien de Materiel Electrique 

If the fire extinguishant is discharged from the extin- 
guisher as a single conical jet, the desired area of coverage 
is not assured. The valve patented here has a nozzle 
with six openings angled in such a way as to produce 
a spray covering an area considerably greater than with 
one opening. The valve can be actuated automatically, 
when a fixed glass flask is ruptured by the increasing 
temperature, electrically, by special sensors, or manually. 
2 drawing figs. 

886. Anon 

EXTINGUISHER WITH A MANOMETER 

French Patent No. 2,245,163; CI A62C 23/00, GOIL 19/00, 
Appl 27 Jul 1973, Disci. 18 Apr 1975, Assignee: A Werner 
& Co, Spezialfabrik fuer Feuerloeschtechnik 

Manometers are used to check the operational readiness 
of fire extinguishers containing a pressurized extin- 
guishant. The special feature of this version is a manome- 
ter connected to the cylinder via a shut-off valve, per- 
mitting a periodic check to be made of the charging status 
of the extinguisher and replacement of a defective 
manometer without losing pressure in the cylinder. 2 draw- 
ing figs. 

887. Bohme AE 

nRE EXTINGUISHING APPARATUS FOR OXY- 
ACETEYLENE WELDING ASSEMBLIES 

US Patent No. 3,945,440; CI 169/54, (F23D 13/46), Appl 
23 Jun 1975, Disci. 23 Mar 1976 

The fire-extinguishing apparatus for oxyacetylene weld- 
ing assemblies with a cylinder having a free-floating 
piston, over the actuator of a release valve, mountable 
at one end of a pressurized bottle containing a fire-extin- 
guishing fluid and connectable at its opposite end to an 
oxygen return line and a valve assembly connectable 
between the oxygen line and the torch, the valve assembly 
has a through-passage for enabling passage of oxygen 
from the oxygen line to the torch and an intersecting 
passage having a manually operated shutoff valve inter- 
secting the through-passage at one end and having means 
at its opposite end for connection to the oxygen return 
line to the bottle of extinguishing fluid for enabling pres- 
surized oxygen to flow to the cylinder and move the 
piston into operating engagement with the actuator of the 
release valve so as to release the fire-extinguishing fluid 
therefrom. A discharge hose is extended from the fire- 
extinguishing fluid bottle to the operator of the welding 
torch. 4 claims, 3 drawing figures. (Author) 



//. 



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'(57 



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888. Miyazaki T 

HOSE REEL DEVICE FOR FIRE EXTINGUISHING AP- 
PLIANCE 

VS Patent No. 3,935,879; CI 137/355.16, (B65H 75/34), 
Appl 11 Mar 1975, Disci 3 Feb 1976, Assignee: Nomi 
Bosaikogyo Kabushiki Kaisha, Japan 

A hose reel device for a fire-extinguishing apphance 
of the type having a cabinet and a swingable door to 
be horizontally opened so as to provide a vertical rota- 
tional axis for the hose reel mounted on the inside of 
the door in opened position. The device is accordingly 
adapted to use in a highway tunnel so as to be recessed 
into a wall portion immediately over an inspection walk- 
way and is intended to provide, in case of emergency, 
a better mode of opening the door and convenient reach 
of the device by an operator even though remaining under 




181 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



5. FIRE PROTECTION PRINCIPLES 

h. Suppression Devices and Equipment — Continued 

the walkway, while permitting the hose to be run out 
in any direction without any deliberate effort of the opera- 
tor. 6 claims, 4 drawing figs. (Author) 



889. Kinoshita E 

DEVICE FOR THE EXTINGUISHMENT OF FIRES IN 
BUSES 

Japanese Patent No. 50-13598; CI 95B263, (A62C 35/12), 
Appl 12 Feb 1969, Disci 21 May 1975, Assignee: Nissin 
Kogyo kk 

The design and operating principle of a fire-extinguishing 
system for passenger buses are disclosed. The device in- 
cludes the following units: a set of fire detectors located 
at various points in the chassis of the bus and the motor; 
a water tank, a cylinder filled with a powder extinguishing 
agent to form a high-expansion foam when mixed with 
water; sprinkler heads distributed over the chassis of the 
bus, around the motor, and within the passenger compart- 
ment; a pipe system; an inert-gas cylinder under high 
pressure, connected to the pipe system, to extinguish the 
fire when opened by forcing the components of the fire- 
extinguishing solution into the mixing chamber and then 
into the network of sprinkler heads; a system-triggering 
mechanical lever located next to the driver's seat; and 
a visual and acoustic alarm device connected to the fire 
detectors by means of electrical commutators in the instru- 
ment panel of the driver's compartment. The fire in the 
passenger compartment is located visuaUy by the driver. 
Depending on the location of the fire, the driver can 
actuate only some of the sprinkler heads to extinguish 
the fire. 4 drawing figs. (RZh) 

890. Ogino A 

DEVICE FOR EXTINGUISHING A FIRE IN A TUNNEL 

Japanese Patent No. 50-10476; CI 95AO, (B62C 2/00), 
Appl 1 Oct 1969, Disci 22 Apr 1975, Assignee: Nomi 
Bosai Kogyo kk 

A method is patented for suppressing fires in vehicle, 
railroad and other tunnels by means of a complex auto- 
matic system. The system consists of a large number of 
fire detectors uniformly distributed along the inside of 
the tunnel. The system also contains several openings of 
comparatively large diameter in the tunnel roof which are 
usually closed by automatic shutters; a pipe system with 
sprinkler heads distributed along the inner surface of the 
tunnel to extinguish fires with fire-extinguishing foam; a 
system of electromagnetic drive mechanisms which are 
triggered by the fire detectors in case of fire and which 
in turn actuate levers to open the shutters over the 
openings as well as the sprinkler system. In addition, 
the system also provides for ventilators next to the 
openings for rapid removal of smoke. The ventilators are 
also turned on automatically. The system operates by sec- 
tions, that is, when a fire breaks out, a certain number 
of detectors located in the involved tunnel section are 
actuated. The detectors turn on only part of the system, 
each section of which has its own vent, ventilator and 
set of sprinkler heads with individual foam containers. 
See also Japanese patent 50-2960. 2 drawing figs, 2 refs. 
(RZh) 



891. BiroG 

IMPROVED PROCEDURE FOR PRESSURIZING FIRE- 
FIGHTING EQUIPMENT TANKS 

French Patent No. 2,245,162; CI A62C 13/00, Appl 25 
Sept 1973, Disci 18 Apr 1975, Assignee: Biro et Fils, 
Dion 

The patent is for a method of maintaining operating 
pressure in tanks for fire-extinguishing powders. The 
systems usually used to regulate the gas pressure are sub- 
ject to frosting because of the intense cooling caused 
by rapid gas expansion. Considerable deviations from the 
prescribed pressure occur because of the delays involved 
in closing and opening valves. These delays in estabUshing 
operating pressure are due in part to gas entering the 
tank through the regulation system. Since the delivery 
rate depends on the pressure, such delays in the fire- 
extinguishing system can lead to disastrous results. To 
eUminate these deficiencies, it is proposed that a quantity 
of gas sufficient to maintain the required pressure in the 
entire system, except for the control system, be supplied 
directly to the tank. This method ensures almost instan- 
taneous pressurization and preparation of the control 
system for operation before the gas has passed through 
it. The gas required to maintain pressure during operation 
of the fire-extinguishing system passes from a second 
source directly into the control system and through it 
into the tank. The control process begins directly with 
operating, not atmospheric, pressure, and the operating 
pressure differences are minimized. The system, consists 
of the tank, a pressurized gas source connected to the 
tank via a valve and designed to first fill the tank with 
gas, a second source connected to the tank via a valve 
and control system to maintain operating pressure during 
operation of the system as a whole. The control system 
consists of a gas tank supply conduit with a spring-actu- 
ated valve, a membrane connected to the moving member 
of the valve, a gas conduit connecting the membrane cavi- 
ty and the tank to apply pressure on the membrane from 
the tank and to provide for feedback. 1 drawing fig. 

892. Anon 

HERMETIC CONNECTION BETWEEN A FIRE EXTIN- 
GUISHANT CONTAINER AND A SHUT-OFF DEVICE 

FRG Patent No. 2,336,502; CI A62C 23/00, F16L 41/00, 
Appl 18 Jul 1973, Disci 19 Jun 1975, Assignee: R and 
G Schmoelle Metallwerk 

The main component of the hermetic connection 
between a fire-extinguishant container and a shut-off 
device is a seal ring of complex configuration. The inner 
surface of the ring consists of a cylindrical portion 1/5 
to 1/6 the total height of the ring, diameter approximately 
that of the shut-off device, and a conical portion. The 
cone half angle is 10 - 20°. The outer surface of the 
ring also consists of two portions, one adjoining the base 
with a slope of 10 - 20?9. the other some distance from 
the base with a slope of 40 - 50'°, corresponding to the 
slope of the conical surface of the container shaft. In 
the lower portion of the shaft below an adjacent horizontal 
or inclined wall segment is a ring, threaded on the shaft 
side, which is connected to a flange by means of an 
intermediate component. The flange is attached to the 
wall, e.g., by point welding. This coupling provides a 
reliable seal and holds the shut-off device screwed into 
it in a certain position. 8 drawing figs. (RZh) 



182 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



5. FIRE PROTECTION PRINCIPLES 

h. Suppression Devices and Equipment— Continued 



893. Schmidt VG 
FIRE EXTINGUISHER 

French Patent No. 2,249,525; CI A62C 7/00, Appl 29 Oct 
1973, Disci 23 May 1975 

The patent relates to a pad for the suppression of small 
fires in vehicles, living quarters, etc. The pad is made 
of a layer of flexible flameproof material (e.g., fiberglass) 
and a layer of readily fusible material (e.g., a polyethylene 
film) attached to the first layer along the edges. The space 
between the fabric and the film is filled with a layer 
of powder (e.g., bicarbonate of sodium) capable of releas- 
ing incombustible gases during thermal decompositiion. To 
prevent leakage of the powder, the fiberglass layer is 
coated with a poly silicone. The fire is covered with the 
readily fusible film side facing the fire. The film disin- 
tegrates and the powder drops into the fire. The dense 
layer of fireproof fabric prevents escape of the incom- 
bustible gases generated when the powder decomposes 
and supply of oxygen to the combustion zone, effectively 
extinguishing the fire. Also provided is another version 
of the pad in which covers for the powder are placed 
on both sides of the fireproof fabric. So that the pads 
harmonize with the interior of the vehicle or Uving quar- 
ters, they are made in a decorative form, such as rugs, 
coasters, pillows, etc. The results of a number of tests 
demonstrating the efficiency of the invention are 
described. 

894. Anon 

FOAM-WATER SPRINKLER DEVICE 

UK Patent No. 1,412,348; CI BIC, (BOIF 3/04, B05B 7/04), 
Appl 7 Mar 1973, Disci 5 Nov 1975, Assignee: Mather 
and Piatt, Ltd 

A drencher type device is patented for use in fire-extin- 
guishing systems to apply foam (or water) to the seat 
of a fire with the following characteristics. The housing 
of the drencher, open on both sides, consists of a number 
of sections of variable and constant diameter, arranged 
in series, to ensure optimum foam (or water) delivery 
characteristics and better foam-making ratios (from the 
viewpoint of expansion factors). The foam is formed by 
deflecting the flow (foam solution) to the inner walls of 
the drencher by means of a spherical divider fixed by 
two pins at the point of the expanding section of the 
drencher along the axis of symmetry. The diameter of 
the sphere is equal to the minimum diameter of the inlet 
to the drencher housing. Final foam formation occurs 
when the flow hits the deflector located in the lower 
portion of the drencher. In tests of this device foam with 
an expansion factor of 8.5 - 5.7 was obtained at a pressure 
of 2.1 kp/cmf Analogous tests of other drenchers of the 
same type yielded foam with a factor of 7.8-3.9. 8 drawing 
figs. 

895. Grenier WJ 

AUTOMATIC ON-OFF SPRINKLER HEAD 

UK Patent No. 1,408,278; CI A5A, (A62C 37/16), Appl 
6 Nov 1972, Disci 1 Oct 1975, Assignee: General Ind, 
Inc 

The sprinkler head includes two inter-connecting cham- 
bers separated by a spring-triggered movable diaphragm. 
The upper chamber is equipped with a control valve actu- 



ated by means of a bimetallic plate. The lower chamber 
contains an outlet with valve connected to the diaphragm. 
At normal ambient temperature, equal pressure is main- 
tained in the chamber and the head is closed. When the 
ambient temperature rises above a set level, the bimetallic 
plate opens the control valve of the upper chamber and 
part of the fire-extinguishing compound in it escapes into 
the atmosphere. The pressure in the upper chamber drops, 
the movable diaphragm is displaced by the spring, un- 
covering the outlet in the lower chamber. The fire-extin- 
guishing compound is applied to the seat of the fire. When 
the ambient temperature drops, the bimetallic plate 
resumes its original position and the control valve closes. 
Closure of the control valve reestablishes normal pressure 
in the chamber, the movable diaphragm returns to its 
original position, and the outlet of the head closes. 2 
drawing figs. 

896. Govarrubias GS 

STOPPER FOR A HOLLOW BODY CONTAINING A 
FLUID UNDER PRESSURE 

Swiss Patent No. 565,567; CI A62C 37/06, Appl 25 Aug 
1973, Disci 29 Aug 1975, Assignee: CBF Systems, Inc 

The design and operating principles of a shut-off valve 
for a container filled with a pressurized liquid are 
patented. The device can be used in fire extinguishers 
with liquid carbon dioxide, etc. The device answers the 
following needs: quick and easy opening by hand or auto- 
matic mechanism; a straight-line flow of liquid when 
opened; absence of leaks during many years of storage; 
and easy, unambiguous distinction between opened and 
closed position. 5 drawing figs. 

897. Sailar G 

FIRE EXTINGUISHER WITH CONTAINER FOR EX- 
PELLING AGENT, PENETRATOR AND VALVE 

FRG Patent No. 1,559,691; CI A62C 13/42, A62C 23/00, 
Appl 20 Sept 1966, Disci 17 Jul 1975, Assignee: A Werner 
and Co, Spezialfabrik fuer Feuerloeschtechnik 

The extinguisher contains a flask with expelling agent 
inside the container with fire-extinguishing agent. The 
flask is opened by a plunger with a pin to penetrate the 
membrane. The fire extinguishant is discharged through 
a valve with housing rigidly connected to the membrane 
plunger, both in the same axis. 1 drawing fig. 

898. Fletcher F 
TUBULAR BODIES 

UK Patent No. 1,394,680; CI B2F, (B05b 1/00), Appl 20 
Dec 1971, Disci 21 May 1975 

A method is proposed for production of tubular bodies 
working under pressure, e.g., branchpipes, hydrants, shut- 
off caps for fire extinguishers. The method makes it possi- 
ble to reduce the metal content and the cost while preserv- 
ing adequate strength. According to the method, the body 
is cast from a soUd plastic reinforced with a metal lattice 
incorporated in the plastic. The reinforcing lattice is af- 
fixed to a metal ring which permits uniform distribution 
of shocks and facilitates manufacture. An example of 
production of a branchpipe by this method is given. 1 
drawing fig. 



183 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



5. FIRE PROTECTION PRINCIPLES 

h. Suppression Devices and Equipment— Continued 

899. Donner H, Ibgen S and Beyersdorf H 
TEMPERATURE-CONTROLLED TRIGGER FOR AUTO- 
MATIC FIRE-EXTINGUISHING SYSTEMS OR DEVICES 

FRG Patent No. 2,229,620; CI A62C 37/10, Appl 19 Jun 
1972, Disci 3 Jul 1975, Assignee: Minimax GmbH 

A device is patented for actuating automatic fire-extin- 
guishing systems, especially those with liquified gas as 
the extinguishing agent (see the drawing). The device is 
installed in the wall of the extinguishant container, which 
is provided with a metal lock 8 held in place by the 
fusible joint 10 and membrane 4, which is prevented from 
sagging by the loose heat-insulating material 7. Area 7a 
corresponds to a change in volume when the membrane 
sags, area 9 is the heat-insulating section between the 
fire extinguishant and the fusible joint. When the device 
is triggered, the membrane breaks, the fusible joint disin- 
tegrates, the material moves upward, raising the lock with 
overhang 13 beneath the upper edge of the housing 5. 
The extinguishant flows through the duct to the material, 
which in this case acts as a deflector. The device forms 
a good seal over a long period of time under high tempera- 
ture conditions and prevents false triggering. (RZh) 



A thermally sensitive stored chemical energy capsule 
is formed in the heat collector or attached to the fusible 
link of existing thermally sensitive sprinkler heads for 
activating individual sprinkler heads by heat generated by 
the intermingling of the capsule-contained chemicals. 6 
claims, 5 drawing figs. (Author) 



^^^6 




7a 9 iO 



\ I / / 




900. Rothman AJ and Semple JB 

A SPRINKLER HEAD ACTUATOR 

UK Patent No. 1,406,677; CI A5A, (A62C 37/12), Appl 
10 Aug 1972, Disci 17 Sept 1975, Assignee: S R Products, 
Inc 

The patent is for the design of a mechanism to permit 
actuation of a sprinkler head in the early stages of fire 
buildup and in the case of smoldering fires. The 
mechanism includes an actuator and a fire detector 
(smoke, heat, etc.). The actuator is a steel cylinder con- 
taining a chemical capsule to ignite the heat-generating 
compound in the cylinder. The actuator is fixed to an 
ordinary sprinkler head provided with a readily fusible 
lock near the actuator. When a fire breaks out, the detec- 
tor is triggered, transmitting a signal to the chemical cap- 
sule, which ignites the heat-generating compound. The 
heat from the actuator melts the lock of the sprinkler 
head and puts it in operation. 9 drawing figs. 

901. Young RJ 

EXOTHERMIC CHEMICAL REACTIVE SPRINKLER 
RELEASE 

US Patent No. 3,937,284; CI 169/37, (A62C 37/18), Appl 
30 Sept 1974, Disci 10 Feb 1976 



902. Isavnin NV, Kurbatskiy CM and Shkvirskiy IS 
POWDER FIRE EXTINGUISHER 

USSR Patent No. 450,431; CI A62C 13/50, Appl 26 Nov 
1970, Disci 20 Nov 1975, Assignee: VNII protivopozhar 
oborony 

This powder fire extinguisher has a wide chamber base 
with an opening and is provided with a porous diaphragm. 
1 drawing fig. (RZh) 

903. Boud C G 

IMPROVEMENTS IN OR RELATING TO FLUID CON- 
TAINERS 

UK Patent No. 1,399,863; CI A5A, (C62c 13/40), Appl 
20 Jul 1971, Disci 2 Jul 1975, Assignee: Graviner, Ltd 

A patent is disclosed for a device for opening a vessel 
containing a pressurized fire-extinguishing liquid or 
powder by the directed explosion method. The device 
includes a hermetically sealed vessel containing a pres- 
surized charge material, external means holding the explo- 
sive charge opposite the point for the discharge opening, 
a detonator placed near the charge, and means to hold 
the material for preventing spread of the explosion away 
from the vessel. 3 drawing figs. 

904. Anon 

REMOTE CONTROL DEVICE FOR A FIRE EXTIN- 
GUISHER 

French Patent No. 2,240,605; CI A62C 23/02, Appl 10 
Aug 1973, Disci 7 Mar 1975, Assignee: Cie Centrale SicH 

The invention relates to a device for wall-compartment 
fire extinguishers. The spring-actuated valve which shuts 
off the discharge orifice of the extinguisher tends to force 
its way upward into the open position, but is restrained 
by a lever which presses the valve cap upward. The free 
end of the lever is release-coupled to a plunger. When 
the plunger moves downward the lever is released and 



184 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



5. FIRE PROTECTION PRINCIPLES 

h. Suppression Devices and Equipment — Continued 



the valve opens the outlet for the fire-extinguishing liquid. 
The plunger can be displaced by various known methods. 
1 drawing fig. 

905. Mohler H 

SPRAY SPRINKLER HEAD 

Swiss Patent No. 566 J91; CI A62C 35/34, Appl 22 Jun 
1973, Disci 30 Sep 1975, Assignee: Jomos Sprinkler- 
Material AG 

A fixed sprinkler head consisting of a nozzle and a 
serrated deflecting plate is patented. The water stream 
issuing from the nozzle impacts on the deflector plate 
and separates into individual vortical sprays. The teeth 
lining the edge of the plate convert the individual sprays 
into a fog which covers the protected area. 5 drawing 
figs. 

906. Grishin VV and Kukharuk VA 

DEVICE FOR MAKING MECHANICAL FOAM 

USSR Patent No. 470,298; CI A62C 5/04, Appl 15 May 
1973, Disci 27 Aug 1975, Assignee: VNII protivopozhar 
oborony 

Described is a device for making mechanical foam to 
be used as a fire extinguishant. The device consists of 
a housing containing a set of screens and a spray tip. 
This new device is different in that to improve mixing 
of the foam agent and water, a mixing chamber has an 
annulus with peripheral perforations tangential to the inner 
diameter of the annulus and opposite in direction to the 
perforations of the spray tip. 2 drawing figs. (RZh) 

907. Ogino A 

AUTOMATIC FIRE EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM FOR 
TUNNELS 

Japanese Patent No. 50-2960; CI 95B260.3, (A62C 37/04), 
Appl 27 Nov 1969, Disci 30 Jan 1975, Assignee: Nomi 
Bosai Kogyo kk 

A patent is disclosed for an electrical circuit and operat- 
ing principle for an automatic system of extinguishing 
vehicle fires in tunnels. The system consists of a set 
of fire detectors and foam sprinkler heads uniformly dis- 
tributed along the walls and ceihng of a tunnel, and also 
an emergency lighting and TV monitoring system. The 
circuit transforms the d-c signals of the detectors into 
pulse sequences which control the magnetic starters of 
the sprinkler system. A balanced multivibrator is used 
to form the square-wave video control pulses. See also 
Japanese patent 50-10476. 2 drawing figs. (RZh) 

908. Anon 

AUTOMATIC FIRE PROTECTION INSTALLATION 

French Patent No. 2,243,586; CI A62C 37/30, Appl 7 Sep 
1973, Disci 4 Apr 1975, Assignee: Cie Centrale Sicli 

A patent is disclosed for a device which will permit 
the use of more effective fire-extinguishing solutions in 
sprinkler systems instead of water. The system (see the 
figure) consists of a tank 1 filled with a fire-extinguishing 
fluid connected via a rupturable diaphragm 2 to the pipe 
working section 6 equipped with sprinkler heads 7. In 
the monitoring state the pipe sections 6, 9 are filled with 
water; complete filling is ensured by a reserve in a special 
tank 8. When one or several heads 7 are actuated, water 



flows out from sections 6, 9; as a result, mechanism 3 
becomes unbalanced and compressed-air cylinder 5 opens 
up. The pressurized fire-extinguishing fluid in the tank 
ruptures the diaphragm and is supplied to the open sprin- 
kler heads. 2 drawing figs. (RZh) 




909. Lockwood CR and Fitch DC 
FIRE EXTINGUISHING APPARATUS 

UK Patent No. 1,406,359; CI A5A, (A62C 37/34), Appl 
7 Feb 1973, Disci 17 Sep 1975, Assignee: Chubb Fire 
Security, Ltd 

A patent is disclosed for a liquid fire-extinguishing 
system (see the drawing) consisting of a pressurized 
chamber 1 with fire-extinguishing liquid, a supply line 4 
with spray heads 5 laid around the premise being pro- 
tected. Mounted on the upper part of the chamber is 
a head (2 versions) containing a shut-off valve (membrane 
or piston type); a tube 3 (other end plugged) is connected 
to the space above the valve; the tube is filled with an 
inert gas under sufficient pressure to keep the shut-off 
valve of the chamber closed. The tube also serves as 
a detector; it is made of a fusible material (e.g. nylon) 
and is laid at points of possible fire. When a fire breaks 



iT 



\r^ 




fl 



185 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



5. FIRE PROTECTION PRINCIPLES 

h. Suppression Devices and Equipment — Continued 

out, the tube melts, disintegrates, the pressure in it drops 
to atmospheric, and the extinguishing Uquid begins to flow 
from the chamber through the pipeline to the heads. 3 
drawing figs. (RZh) 

910. Anon 

FIRE EXTINGUISHER CONSISTING OF AN EXTIN- 
GUISHANT TANK FILLED WITH A PRESSURIZED 
FIRE EXTINGUISHANT 

Belgian Patent No. 754,896; CI A62C 23/00, Appl 14 Aug 
1970, Disci 5 Nov 1975, Assignee: A Werner and Co 

This improved fire extinguisher has a pressurized extin- 
guishant in the housing and an actuator in the head at- 
tached to the housing. In existing appliances of this type 
the head may detach from the housing at the moment 
the extinguisher is used. It is proposed that the head 
be made of an elastic material attached to the housing 
by a special collar, which increases the reliability of the 
coupling. 3 drawing figs. 

911. Bowman DW, Doetsch RC, Lemmer FS and Zobel 
EC 

FLAME PREVENTION SYSTEM FOR FUEL TANK 
FIRES 

US Patent No. 3,930,541; CI 169/62, (A62C 13/40), Appl 
22 Oct 1974, Disci 6 Jan 1976, Assignee: USA, Secretary 
of the Army 

A device is needed to rapidly suppress gasoline fuel 
fires which are started as a result of the rupture of milita- 
ry vehicle fuel tanks by armor-piercing projectiles. The 
present invention contemplates a fuel fire suppressing 
device in the form of two hollow panels pressurized with 
a fire-suppressant substance, such as Halon 1301; the 
panels are located in the path that an enemy projectile 
would take during passage through the fuel tank. The 
opening formed in each panel by the projectile permits 
automatic discharge of the pressurized suppressant onto 
the fuel escaping from the tank. 2 claims, 5 drawing figs. 
(Author) 



912. Hay OP 

FIRE EXTINGUISHING SYSTEMS 

US Patent No. 3,949,812; CI 169/61, (A62C 37/06), Appl 
12 Nov 1974, Disci 13 Apr 1976 

A fire extinguishing system includes a container of 
extinguishing agent and a valve for controlling the 
discharge of the extinguishing agent. The discharge control 
valve is opened and closed by a pneumatic cylinder 
operated by pressurized gas through a solenoid-actuated 
directional control valve. The solenoid of the directional 
control valve is coupled with a pneumatic timing relay 
actuated by a temperature sensor. With this arrangement, 
a pre-determined amount of extinguishing agent is 
discharged from the container and delivered to the hazard 
area and then the discharge shut-off. The discharge cycle 
is repeated, if necessary, until the fire is extinguished. 
The system is then automatically reset and ready to 
deliver further extinguishing agent on demand. The system 
also includes manual or automatic means for purging the 
delivery line downstream of the discharge control valve. 
14 claims, 3 drawing figs. (Author) 




^- 



^6 







■^'^ 






V^^ 



-^d 



-j^ 



913. Labes WG 

EVALUATION OF FIRE PROTECTION SPRAY 
DEVICES: THE STATE OF THE ART. IIT Res Inst, Fire 
Prot and Inf Eng Dept, Chicago, IL; NBS GCR-76-72, 
102 pages, 23 figs, 7 tables, 100 refs, Jun 1976 
AvailabiUty: NTIS 

This report represents a descriptive review of the state- 
of-the-art on spray nozzle characteristics, drop-size mea- 
surement, and drop-size distribution and spray pattern 
analysis. A discussion of significant information gaps is 
also included. A list of references supporting these 
findings has been prepared and appears as an appendix 
to this report. 

It is concluded that the evaluation of fire protection 
spray devices must be updated to include considerably 
more than the volume distribution of water at some stan- 
dardized distance below the deflector of a sprinkler. Since 
both the fire environment and the spray structure are 
three-dimensional by nature, and, as these opposing forces 



86 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



5. FIRE PROTECTION PRINCIPLES 

h. Suppression Devices and Equipment — Continued 



occur simultaneously in real fire situations, it is desirable 
to understand in greater detail the application of water 
to fire by fire protection spray devices. (Author) 

914. Nash P and Young RA 

SPRINKLER SYSTEMS FOR SPECIAL RISKS. Building 
Res Estab (UK), Fire Res Station; BRE CP-52-76, 7 pages, 
5 figs, 11 refs, Jul 1976 

This article describes and discusses those risks not 
covered by existing rules and codes for sprinkler systems 
and the methods being used to protect them. The special 
risks are aircraft maintenance hangars, computer suites, 
cold storage plants, paper storage facihties, carpet 
warehouses, and offshore drilling platforms and terminals. 
The article is reprinted from Fire Surveyor, 1975, 4(6) : 23- 
31. (Author) 

915. Young RA and Nash P 

THE TESTING OF SPRINKLER INSTALLATIONS. Build 
ing Res Estab (UK), Fire Res Station; BRE CP-77-75, 
9 pages, 7 figs, 3 tables, 4 refs Aug 1975 

Sprinkler systems are designed to provide automatic de- 
tection and control of fire in a wide range of occupancies. 
They are required to operate satisfactorily at any time 
in their life, which for some systems already exceeds 
75 years. If they are to meet this requirement, the system 
components must be manufactured to the highest stan- 
dards. Approval tests are devised to ensure that any faults 
in design, materials, or workmanship are detected and 
rectified before the components are installed. Subsequent 
installation tests indicate that systems are operational and 
regular maintenance ensures that initial high standards 
were kept throughout the life of the system. This article 
deals with the testing of some sprinkler system com- 
ponents to the requirements of the Fire Offices' Commit- 
tee (UK) installation tests and maintenance procedures. 
(Author) 

916. Young RA and Corrie JG 

THE PERFORMANCE OF A FOAM-SPRINKLER IN- 
STALLATION ON SIMULATED OIL RIG FIRES. Build- 
ing Res Estab (UK), Fire Res Station; BRE CP-98-75, 
14 pages, 17 figs, 6 tables, Nov 1975 

The experiments described in this paper were made with 
the object of finding the effectiveness of a foam sprinkler 
installation against typical oil-spillage fires which might 
occur in a module of a North Sea oil platform. The 
module for which the fire protection was being considered 
was one through which crude oil would flow through an 
array of pipes. The actual module is 45 m in length, 
12 m in width, and 9 m in height, with open ends and 
steel-clad walls and roof. The fire extinction system within 
the module would be actuated by fire detectors, and the 
flow of crude oil through the pipes would be shut down 
automatically. In addition to the foam installation, fire 
extinguishers containing BCF and dry powder would be 
available. 

The experiments were designed to simulate, in a 
reproducible way and within the facilities of the Joint 
Fire Research Organisation, the type of fire which would 
occur in an oil rig due to a leaking flange joint. This 
would be most likely to result in a spill fir- together 



with a running fuel fire from the residual oil in the 
pipework. 
The two main objectives were: 

(1) To assess the effectiveness of the foam sprinkler 
installation against unobstructed and running fuel fires, 
and 

(2) to compare the performance of two different foam 
liquids on this type of fire. (Author) 

917. Benson SP and Corrie JG 

A 50 LITRE PER MINUTE STANDARD FOAM 

BRANCHPIPE. Dept of the Environ and Fire Offices' 
Committee (UK), Fire Res Station; Fire Res Note 1045, 
29 pages, 19 figs, 2 tables, 6 refs, Jan 1976 

(J onstruction details of a 50 liter per minute foam 
branchpipe are given. The foam properties using protem 
foam liquid at various concentrations and pressures, 
together with properties using a range of foam liquids 
in common use, have been determined. A method for 
defining the performance of a branchpipe which could 
be used in specifications is also iUustrated. (Author) 

918. Haney JT 

HILL AFB PROTOTYPE SMOKE ABATEMENT SYSTEM 
FOR CRASH/RESCUE TRAINING FIRES. Air Force 
Weapons Lab, Kirtland AF, NM; AFWL TR-74-126, 27 
pages, Apr 1976 
Availability: NTIS AD-A024 763/5GA 

The first large-scale water spray injection smoke abate- 
ment system for open burning JP-4 fires, which was 
developed by the Air Fierce Weapons Laboratory, is 
described. The system was tested in the 75-foot diameter 
crash/rescue training fire pits at Hill AFB, Utah. Signifi- 
cant reduction in visible smoke emissions was achieved 
without major adverse impact on the realism of training. 
Details of design are given. The effects of various system 
design and operating parameters are discussed. 

919. Laustsen R and Bristow R 

EVALUATION OF FUEL FOG INERTING CONCEPTS 
(FINAL REPORT). Boeing Commercial Airplane Co, Seat- 
tle, WA; USAAMRDL TR-74-13, 48 pages, Apr 1974 
Availability: NTIS AD-919 346/7GA 

This report describes the theory and results of testing 
conducted to determine the feasibility of using condensate- 
formed fuel fog for inerting fuel tanks. The tests were 
performed in such a manner that the temperatures of the 
ullage space and one or two spray nozzles could be varied 
independently. A combination of spray temperatures and 
nozzle types was found that provided inerting over the 
complete range of ullage-space temperatures tested 
(-t-60°F to 155° F). Further findings for the 6-cubic-foot 
ullage space (over liquid JP-4 fuel) were that 1.0-gph noz- 
zles were sufficient but 0.4-gph nozzles were not, neither 
single hot nor single cold nozzles were sufficient, and 
inerting would not occur for all ullage conditions except 
when both hot and cold nozzles were used. It was found 
that the hot and cold spray temperature differentials could 
each be at least as low as 5°F. In addition, a fuel fogging 
preliminary design for the AH-IG Cobra helicopter is in- 
cluded. (Author) 



187 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



5. FIRE PROTECTION PRINCIPLES 

h. Suppression Devices and Equipment — Continued 

920. Alger RS, Laughridge FI, Wiltshire LL, McKee RG 
and Johnson WH 

AIRCRAFT GROUND FIRE SUPPRESSION AND 
RESCUE SYSTEMS: CHARACTERISTICS OF KINE- 
MATIC JET FUEL FIRES CASCADING AND ROD FUEL 
GEOMETRIES (FINAL REPORT). Wright-Patterson AFB, 
DoD Aircraft Ground Fire Suppression and Rescue Office, 
OH; DoD AGFSRS-76-3, 81 pages, Mar 1976 
Availability: NTIS AD-A024 447/5GA 

Based on a survey of kinematic fuel fires in aircraft 
accidents, two types, i.e., cascade and rod fuel flows, 
were selected for theoretical and experimental examina- 
tion. The twofold objective was: (1) relate fire charac- 
teristics such as burning rate, radiation field, and flame 
size to the fuel parameters, the flowing conditions, and 
the environment, and (2) determine the parameters and 
their degree of control required to achieve reproducible 
fires suitable for testing extinguishing agents, equipment, 
and techniques. Theoretical models based on steady, 
laminar, one-dimensional flow were developed. 



6. FIRE SAFETY 

a. AGRICULTURE AND WILDLANDS 

[For more complete coverage of the forest fire litera- 
ture see Forest Fire Control Abstracts (Canada).] 

921. Vereskunov V 

NEW FIRE SAFETY REGULATIONS FOR AGRICUL- 
TURAL ENTERPRISES 

Pozhar delo; (6):18-19, 1976 (Russian) 

The Ministry of Internal Affairs of the USSR has issued 
new standard fire safety regulations for agricultural enter- 
prises, such as collective and state farms, demonstration, 
secondary and experimental farms, and others. Many of 
the regulations are similar to those for the same facilities 
in an urban environment; others are tailored to the specific 
agricultural needs. The new regulations are discussed in 
detail. 

922. Butler CP 

THE URBAN/WILDLAND FIRE INTERFACE, PART I 

Fireline; 5-8, June 1976 

The author defines the urban/wildland fire problem 
primarily as it applies to the canyon and hill dwellers 
of California suburban areas. 1 photo, 12 refs. 

b. COMMERCIAL OCCUPANCIES 

923. Borghini-Baldovinetti G 

FIRE PROTECTION IN HIGH RACK WAREHOUSES 

Antincendio protez civ; 27(10): 764-765, 1975 (Italian) 

The problems of sprinkler protection of high-rack 
warehouses are examined. Attention is drawn to the 
specific features of mechanized storage of materials with 
racks higher than 8m, which governs the special require- 
ments on the layout of pipe networks and on the selection 
of technical properties of the sprinklers (melting point, 
sprinkler discharge rate, etc). In view of the high specific 



load of combustible materials and the difficulty of sup- 
pressing fires inside the racks, the planned fire suppres- 
sion time must be set higher than 2 hours. Pre-action 
sprinkler systems are recommended for warehouse areas 
where positive temperatures cannot be guaranteed in cold 
weather. (RZh) 

924. Gripas S 

INCREASING THE FIRE SAFETY OF COMMERCIAL 
ENTERPRISES 

Pozhar delo; (3):27, 1976 (Russian) 

The increase in area, height as well as display density 
of modem department stores and the complexity of floor 
space arrangement have created special fire hazards, par- 
ticularly with regard to evacuation problems. The deficien- 
cies of the existing fire safety code in this regard are 
pointed out, with particular attention to escape routes and 
evacuation. 

c. ELECTR8CAL 

925. Vasil'ev A ""' '' 
FIXED SYSTEMS FOR PROTECTING CABLE ENCLO- 
SURES USING WATER MISTS . 

Poz/iar flfe/o; (l):24-25, 1976 (Russian) 

Fires in cable enclosures are usually extinguished with 
mechanical foam, chemical compounds and water sprays, 
but the last method is not widespread or well studied. 
Tests carried out by the Lvov Power Commission (USSR) 
and other power agencies of the USSR in accordance 
with a program approved by the AU-Union Fire Protection 
Research Institute indicate that water mist extinguishment 
of fires in cable enclosures using fixed drencher systems 
is highly effective and promising. A diagram of a fixed 
system and the results of hydraulic and fire tests are 
presented. 5 figs, 1 table. 

926. Bikmukhametov KKh 

THE QUALITY OF DESIGN OF ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS 
IN INDUSTRIES WITH EXPLOSION AND FIRE 
HAZARDS 

Prom energ; (3):19-20, 1976 (Russian) ' • ; 

Some deficiencies in the design of electrical systems 
for industries with explosion and fire hazards are ex- 
amined. It is concluded that a radical improvement in 
the quality of design must be made. 4 refs. (RZh) 

927. Belau G, Thieme H and Feldt B !=■,. 
FIRE PROTECTION IN CABLE SYSTEMS 

Vnser Brandschutz; 26(3):30-31, 1976 (German) 

As a result of analysis of cable fires in industrial 
estabHshments and power plants a number of effective 
fire protection measures have been developed and in- 
troduced recently. The subject of this article is modem 
fire protection and firefighting steps to be taken in the 
extensive cable systems of a power plant in the GDR, 
such as effective fire compartmentation, fire alarm 
systems, and fixed extinguishing systems (water spray 
devices) in the walk-in cable passages, and laying cables 
in sand beds as an economically preferable measure com- 
pared to laying cables on trays. 7 figs. (Fachdok 12/0871) 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



6. FIRE SAFETY 

c. Electrical— Continued 

928. Kaufman S and Landreth CA 

DEVELOPMENT OF IMPROVED FLAME RESISTANT 
INTERIOR WIRING CABLES 

International Wire and Cable Symp, 24th, Proc; 1975, Nov 

18-20, Cherry Hill, NJ, pages 9-14 

Sponsor: US Army Electron Command, Ft Monmouth, 

NJ 

Availability: NTIS AD-A017 787/3GA 

A PVC flexible jacket compound with an oxygen index 
of 32% has been developed without sacrificing good low 
temperature brittleness properties. The high oxygen index 
was achieved by minimizing the plasticizer level and sub- 
stituting fine particle size hydrated alumina as a 
filter/flame-retardant for the inert filler, calcium car- 
bonate. 1 ref. (Author) 

929. Matsubara H, Matsunaga C, Inoue A and Yasuda 
N 

DEVELOPMENT OF NEW FIREPROOF WIRE AND 
CABLE 

International Wire and Cable Symp, 24th, Proc; 1975, Nov 
18-20, Cherry Hill, NJ, pages 15-25 
AvaQability: NTIS AD-A017 787/3GA 
Sponsor: U. S. Army Electron Command, Fort Mon- 
mouth, NJ 

Design data for low-voltage fireproof cables as well as 
high-voltage cables are given. The heat resistance layer 
is made of asbestos fibers. Test data with various tem- 
peratures and exposure times are also given. 9 refs. 
(Author) 

d. INDUSTRIAL OCCUPANCIES 

930. Anon 

PLANT MANAGEMENT AND FIRE SAFETY 

Face au Risque; (119):25-36, 1976 (French) 

A round-table discussion was held on the topic 
"management, its tasks with respect to fire risks, inspec- 
tion, investigation, checking" and another discussion on 
the topic "maintaining fire safety when structural changes 
are made." Discussed in particular were: new places of 
employment, maintenance of infrastructure and production 
means, transportation, construction problems, personnel 
problems, fire-protection foresight, fire prevention and in- 
surance problems. The topics under discussion are sum- 
marized. (Fachdok 12/0706) 

931. Anderson J 

NORTH SEA OIL PROJECT BRINGS ON-SHORE NEED 
FOR FIRE PROTECTION 

Fire Internal; 5(53):87-92, 1976 (English, French, German; 
Spanish summary) 

This article is the same as that published by the same 
author in Fire, Vol 69, No. 855, pp. 189-190, 1976. 
(Consult the source index for the appropriate abstract). 
1 photo. 

932. Anon 

FIRE TRAINING CENTRE PROJECT FOR THE 
OFFSHORE OIL INDUSTRY 

Fire Internal; 5(53):53-56, 1976 (English, French, German; 
Spanish summary) 



In view of the expansion of underwater oil exploration 
and exploitation, proposals are being formulated to build 
a fire training center, primarily for the offshore oil indus- 
try, on a 16-acre site in Montrose, Scotland. It is an- 
ticipated that about 1000 trainees a year will take a basic 
four-day elementary fire training course, with a lesser 
number of supervisory personnel attending for additional, 
more advanced training. The facilities, training methods, 
and aids are described. The scheme is sponsored by the 
major oil companies operating in United Kingdom centers. 
1 fig. 

933. Anderson J 

THE FORTIES OIL FIELD AND ITS ASSOCIATED PRO- 
JECTS 

Fire; 69(855): 189-190, 1976 

The provision of fire protection facilities for the 
offshore and onshore oil extraction and production instal- 
lations of the BP Forties Field (UK), which lies 105 miles 
off the Scottish coast in the North Sea, is described. 
The entire complex consists of four platforms, a 170- 
km submarine pipeline, a 210-km buried landpipe, a 
refinery, and a loading terminal on the Firth of Forth. 
1 photo. 

934. Anon 

HOW THE BBC ORGANIZES FIRE PREVENTION 

Fire Prev; (115):13-16, 1976 (English; French and German 
summaries) 

Live broadcasting in the presence of studio audiences 
and the use of highly technical equipment are two of 
the complications faced by the BBC fire prevention team, 
including more than 90 full-time firemen. A combination 
of thorough planning, well-trained staff and clearly-defined 
procedures helps overcome such problems in the radio 
and TV studios. 7 photos. (Author) 

935. Anon 

FIGHTING FIRE WITH FOAM 

Ind Eng; 8(6):44-45, 1976 

To protect its huge truck assembly plant from fire, the 
Ford Motor Company employs a three-pronged system 
of automatic detection and extinguishing systems, portable 
extinguishing equipment, and a well-organized round-the- 
clock fire brigade. The basic design of the plant included 
fire walls, fire doors, sprinkler systems with fusible plugs, 
water tanks, special foaming paints for shelving, and other 
installations. 2 photos. (Author) 

936. Mosbacher CJ 

FIRE - CAN YOU PUT IT OUT? 

RID; 27(10):18-21, 1976 

This article presents some basic information on fire- 
extinguishing apparatus and standards it must meet, tells 
where to get more information, and describes one extin- 
guishing agent (Halon 1301) to illustrate how detailed anal- 
ysis is needed in choosing a fire protection system. 13 
photos. 

937. Zuber K 

LNG FACILITIES - ENGINEERED FIRE PROTECTION 
SYSTEMS 

Fire Technol; 12(l):41-48, 1976 



189 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



6. FIRE SAFETY 

d. Industrial Occupancies- 



Continued 



In various types of LNG processing, storage, and 
transfer facilities, consideration must be given to vapor 
dispersion control, fire control, exposure control, and 
extinguishment. Tests conducted with LNG spill fires in- 
dicate that high-expansion foam facilitates vapor dispersal 
by warming the vapors, making them more buoyant. 
High-expansion foam was shown to be more efficient than 
water curtains and water spray in reducing radiant heat 
flux reaching exposures. Dry chemicals were most effec- 
tive in extinguishing test fires following the application 
of a controlling layer of high expansion foam. A foam 
expansion ratio of 500:1 seemed to be the most satisfacto- 
ry. In designing automatic fixed dry chemical systems, 
care must be taken to prevent disturbing the surface of 
the LNG, which can result in increased burning rate. 
Manual application requires well-trained personnel and the 
proper deployment of equipment of suitable capacity to 
cope with the hazard. 4 figs. (Author) 

938. Huber E 

IN-PLANT FIRE PROTECTION 

Sichere Arb; 29(2):12-13, 1976 (German) 

The steps required for fire prevention (with emphasis 
on organizational steps) and for fire protection (fire detec- 
tion points, alarm system, internal traffic control service, 
supply of water and extinguishants, training exercises) are 
discussed in accordance with the aims of in-plant fire 
protection. The final section reports on how fire protec- 
tion is organized in plants with and without fire brigades. 
The article is an abbreviated version of a paper presented 
at the 63rd Conference of the Safety-Engineering Working 
Committee in Salzburg (Austria). (Fachdok 12/0836) 

e. INSTITUTIONAL OCCUPANCIES 

f. MINING 

[For more complete coverage of the mining literature 
see SMRE Safety in Mines Abstracts (UK).] 

939. Kocherga NG 

THE POSSIBILITY OF USING MECHANICAL FOAM TO 
PREVENT FRICTION-SPARK IGNITION OF METHANE 
WHILE OPERATING MINING MACHINES 

Bezop ekspluat elektromekh oborud v shakhtakh; (7):35- 
38,1975 (Russian) 

Methods and the results of research into the possibility 
of using foam to prevent the ignition of methane by fric- 
tion sparks generated by the teeth of mining machines 
as they rub against solid ores are presented. It is shown 
that foam based on a 6% methane-air mixture can explode 
and ignite owing to friction sparking. Because of the low 
fluidity and lightness of foam, it is difficult to provide 
for continuous delivery to the zone of contact between 
the teeth and the mass of ore. Consequently, it is difficult 
to rule out or appreciably reduce the possibility of 
methane ignition by friction sparks in a contact zone. 
(RZh) 



940. Kolosyuk VP 

THE ROLE OF PROTECTION AGAINST GROUND CUR- 
RENT LEAKAGE IN REDUCING THE HAZARD OF 
ELECTRICAL SHOCK AND FIRE IN MINES 

Bezop ekspluat elektromekh oborud v shakhtakh; (7):67- 
72, 1975 (Russian) 

Formulas are given for determining the reduction in 
probability of injury by electrical current and fire while 
using a system for protection against ground current 
leakage. It is shown that introduction of the existing ap- 
paratus for leakage protection has made it possible to 
reduce this hazard by a factor of 4.5. The probability 
of injury and fire can be further reduced by increasing 
the reliability, using self-supervisory circuits and providing 
for standby protective ground current leakage equipment. 
(RZh) 1 fig, 2 refs. 

941. Anon 

FIGHTING GAS, SUDDEN BLOWOUTS AND FIRES IN 
COAL MINES 

Tr Vost Nil po bezop rabot v gorn prom-sti; (24):239, 
1975 (Russian) 

Problems involved in predicting sudden blowouts of coal 
and gas from the nature of the gas emitted from drillholes, 
in evaluating the effectiveness of methods of fighting 
blowouts and the mechanism of unleashing gasdynamic 
phenomena in thick seams during preliminary mining work 
are examined. The results of studies aimed at evaluating 
methods of measuring gas pressure and the degree of 
degassing of seams with blowout hazards, and the 
development of a new method of preventing blowouts 
when opening seams based on the mechanical-hydraulic 
effect are presented. Also discussed are the results of 
improving ways and means of predicting endogenic fires 
and of monitoring the temperature and gas composition 
in the worked-out space of prevention and fire sections. 
(RZh) 

942. Reid GR, Stockwell DL and Plog RJ 
DEVELOPMENT OF AN AUTOMATIC FIRE PROTEC- 
TION SYSTEM FOR MOBILE UNDERGROUND METAL 
MINING EQUIPMENT. Ansul Co, Marinette, WI; BuMines 
OFR-81-76, 153 pages, Dec 1975 

Availability: NTIS PB-254 851/9GA 

The contract objective is the development of an Auto- 
matic Fire Control System for Mobile Underground- Metal 
Mining Equipment. The Phase I Report, which described 
the project data handling plan, was published on July 
24, 1975. The Phase II effort covered the period from 
July 24 through December 2 and accomphshed the follow- 
ing objectives: Acquisition of data in accordance with 
the project data handling plan; Analysis of accumulated 
data; and. Development of the AFCS design concept. By 
using the data analysis results and considering the state- 
of-the-art of fire control system components, a recom- 
mended design concept was developed with particular 
emphasis placed on the need for a low cost and reliable 
system. Design trade-off studies are provided for the 
recommended system and for four alternate system con- 
cepts. 



190 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



6. FIRE SAFETY 



g. POWER PLANTS 

943. Belous A and Zabelin N 
PROTECTION OF POWER PLANTS 

Pozhar delo; (2):26, 1976 (Russian) 

To ensure the safety of power plants, a number of 
measures have been taken by the Power Ministry of the 
USSR. Automatic fire protection systems have been in- 
stalled in installations and machine assemblies with the 
greatest fire hazard. Studies have been made on the use 
of mobile units to extinguish fires in charged electrical 
assemblies. On the basis of these studies, a set of fire- 
fighting instructions for electrical installations in power 
plants has been issued. The provisions of this set of in- 
structions are described. 

944. Anon 

NUCLEAR SAFETY CHARACTERIZATION OF SODIUM 
FIRES AND FAST REACTION FISSION PRODUCTS. 
QUARTERLY TECHNICAL PROGRESS REPORT, JULY- 
SEPTEMBER 1975. Atomics Internat Div, Canoga Park, 
CA; Al ERDA-13161, 24 pages, Nov 1975 
Availabihty: NTIS 

Progress is reported in the areas of sodium jet dispersal 
tests, SOMIX code development, aerosol leakage, fuel 
and fission product release from burning sodium, and pro- 
perties of high-temperature fuel mixtures. 

h. PUBLIC BUILDINGS 

945. Yamada Y 

nRE SAFETY SYSTEM 

Ohm: denki zasshi; 62(1 3): 57-61, 1975 (Japanese) 

The technical description is given of a fire safety system 
implemented in an individual project in a public building 
in Tokyo. The system is automatic and consists of foam 
extinguishing devices, fire detectors and a sprinkler net- 
work. A special feature of the system is the incorporation 
of special induction microphone sensors located in enclo- 
sures, corridors and stairwells for the purpose of con- 
trolling flows of people in the building. This is necessary 
to prevent panic and associated negative phenomena in 
case of fire, alarms, etc. Statistical data illustrating the 
high number of injuries and fatalities during fires as a 
result of panic and the absence of proper coordination 
in the evacuation of people are cited as backup for the 
development and introduction of such systems. The opera- 
tion and design principles of the control panel of such 
systems are given. 6 figs, 1 table. (RZh) 

\. RESIDENTIAL OCCUPANCIES 

946. Harper K 

A THREE-POINT PLAN FOR HOME FIRE SAFETY 

F/re; 69(854): 11 9- 122, 1976 

The author, recipient of a Winston Churchill Traveling 
Fellowship, traveled around America and Canada for 
two-and-a-half months to study ways to reduce deaths 
and accidents caused by fires in homes. On the basis 
of his experience, the author discusses the three points 
he proposes as a program of public fire safety: (1) child 
education in schools; (2) dwelling inspections; and (3) use 



of the media for direct education of the public, especially 
television. 3 figs. 

j. TRANSPORTATION (Air, Rail, Road, Water) 

947. Seray J 

FIRE PREVENTION AND PROTECTION ON BOARD 
SHIPS UNDER CONSTRUCTION AND REPAIR 

Nav, ports, chant; (302): 489-494, 1975 (French) 

A member of the Marine Fire Battahon of Marseille 
points out the special features of ship fire hazards, which 
are different from the fire hazard factors of land installa- 
tions. A brief description is given of the structural charac- 
teristics of ships and of the cargoes they carry; potential 
fire sources are discussed. Fire prevention measures and 
fire -fighting means are examined. The regulations which 
must be adhered to in oil tankers and ships transporting 
liquified gas are listed. The text of a regulation dated 
July 18, 1958, on the precautionary measures to be ob- 
served on ships containing these cargoes is given as an 
appendix. 6 figs. (RZh) 

948. Watters P 

FIRE PREVENTION IN SHIPS UNDER CONSTRUCTION 
AND REPAIR 

Fire Internat; 5(52):23-27, 1976 (English, French, German; 
Spanish summary) 

Steps to be taken to prevent fires in ships under repair 
and construction are enumerated and discussed. Of par- 
ticular importance is liaison with local fire brigades to 
ensure that vital services and access to all compartments 
are maintained. 2 photos. 

949. Watanabe H 

STEPS TO PREVENT TRAIN FIRES AND TRAINING 
OF SERVICE PERSONNEL 

Diteru; (274): 36-43, 1975 (Japanese) 

An analysis is made of the organizational and technical 
measures developed and implemented after a major train 
fire in the Hokushiku railway tunnel, which occurred in 
1972, resulting in 30 fatahties and varying degrees of inju- 
ry to 714 passengers. The technical aspects of these mea- 
sures were aimed at eliminating defects in the design of 
sleeping cars (from the fire-safety viewpoint), as well as 
at improving and increasing the effectiveness of automatic 
and manual suppression devices. The organizational 
aspects relate to fire training of train personnel. The regu- 
lations and the content of theoretical and practical training 
exercises, instruction methods, examinations and different 
kinds of tests are described. Potential variants and situa- 
tions connected with the outbreak of fire in trains are 
illustrated and discussed, as are appropriate optimal 
methods of extinguishing such fires, evacuating anc rescu- 
ing passengers (including rendering various kiiids of 
assistance). 2 figs. (RZh) 

950. Kourtides DA, Parker JA, Hilado CJ, Anderson RA, 
Tustin E, Arnold DB, Gaame JG, Binding AT and 
^^ilccslc^ JT 

FIRE SAFETY EVALUATION OF AIRCRAFT LAVATO- 
RY AND CARGO COMPARTMENTS 
J Fire Flammability; 7(1):125-159, 1976 



191 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



6. FIRE SAFETY 

j. Transportation (Air, Rail, Road, Water) — Continued 

A program of experimental fires has been carried out 
to evaluate containment of fire in aircraft interior spaces 
such as lavatories and cargo compartments of wide-body 
jet aircraft. The objective of the program was to assess 
fire containment and other fire hazards by evaluation of 
ignition time, bum-through time, fire spread rate, smoke 
density, evolution of selected combustible and toxic gases, 
heat flux, and detector response. This information was 
intended to establish baseUne data upon which improve- 
ments in fire safety for aircraft interiors could be 
designed. Two tests were conducted: one involving a stan- 
dard Boeing 747 lavatory and one involving a simulated 
DC-10 cargo compartment. Results are examined. 30 figs, 
6 tables, 10 refs. (Author) 

951. Hiroshige I 

THE RESULTS OF THE WORK OF THE TECHNICAL 

COMMISSION ON FIGHTING FIRES IN RAILROAD 

TRANSPORTATION 

Sharyo to denki; 26(7):30-32, 1975 (Japanese) 

A further analysis is made of the causes, circumstances 
of break-out, nature and consequences of fires in trains 
on the basis of the results of an examination of fires 
occurring in Japan in 1973-1974 and of the results of fire 
tests of trains that have been carried out almost continu- 
ously in Japan in the last three years. Some features 
of the design of NAHA-20 sleeper cars that may influence 
the probability of fire ignition and the possibility of fire 
suppression in these cars are discussed. In the design 
of the cars, an essentially new method of rapid smoke 
removal during fires has been implemented, as has flame 
suppression by knocking it down with a powerful jet of 
air. For this purpose the upper end portion of the cars 
has been provided with air intakes of large inlet area 
(0.2m2) and air ducts of approximately the same cross- 
sectional area (0.1 5m^, giving the air supply system a 
high throughput. NAHA-20 sleepers are designed for high- 
speed express trains with a normal running speed of 
120-190 km/hr. When the air intake is opened (in case 
of fire) at such speeds, therefore, an aerodynamic shock 
of comparatively high intensity arises in the corridor, suf- 
ficient to knock down the flame and remove the smoke 
almost instantaneously. In this case the air passes only 
through the corridor. When this system is used, rigid 
requirements are imposed on the closed radio-telephone 
emergency warning system, because it must be used to 
inform and prepare the passengers for the aerodynamic 
shock. An appreciable deficiency is that if the train speed 
is inadequate, the amplitude of the air wave will not be 
great enough to extinguish the flame. In fact, the reverse 
effect occurs and the fire will be intensified as a resuh 
of the powerful addition of air. Fire tests of NAHA- 
20 cars carried out in June-August 1974 and also in 
April-June 1975 showed that this system will be highly 
effective and reliable only at speeds greater than 160 
km/hr, and not 120 km/hr, as assumed in the system 
design stage. Normally the air intake cone is closed with 
a streamlined plastic cowl. In case of fire the cowl is 
stripped off by means of a simple mechanical device with 
control lever in the car vestibule. Additional fire tests 
of these cars are planned for 1975-1976 for the purpose 
of determining some aspects of a strategic nature, in par- 
ticular, must the train engineer increase the speed to criti- 



cal (160 km/hr) when a fire breaks out, assuming it is 
less than that, or stop the train and resort to ordinary 
extinguishing methods. Also to be tested are various ver- 
sions of system design, in particular with a greater air- 
intake area and greater throughput. If a positive solution 
to these and several other perplexing problems is obtained 
from the test results, recommendations will be made for 
widespread introduction of this method in various types 
of high-speed trains. 2 tables. (RZh) 

952. Anderson RA, Price JO, McClure AH and Tustin 
EA 

EVALUATION OF MATERIALS AND CONCEPTS FOR 
AIRCRAFT FIRE PROTECTION. Boeing Commercial Air- 
plane Co, Seattle, WA; NASA CR-137838, D6-42614, 38 
pages, Apr 1976 
Availability: NTIS N76-22330/4GA 

Woven fiberglass fluted-core aircraft interior panels 
were flame tested and structurally evaluated against the 
Boeing 747 present baseline interior panels. The NASA- 
defined panels, though inferior on a strength-to-weight 
basis, showed better structural integrity after flame testing 
due to the woven fiberglass structure. (Author) 

953. Arnold DB, Bumside JV and Hajari JV 
DEVELOPMENT OF LIGHTWEIGHT FIRE RETAR- 
DANT, LOW-SMOKE, HIGH-STRENGTH, THERMALLY 
STABLE AIRCRAFT FLOOR PANELING (FINAL RE- 
PORT). Boeing Commercial Airplane Co, Seattle, WA; 
NASA CR-147750, 74 pages, Apr 1976 

Availability: NTIS N76-24365/8GA 

Fire-resistance mechanical-property tests were con- 
ducted on sandwich configurations composed of resin- 
fiberglass laminates bonded with adhesives to Nomex 
honeycomb core. The test results were compared to 
proposed and current requirements for aircraft floor panel 
applications to demonstrate that the fire safety of the 
airplane could be improved without sacrificing mechanical 
performance of the aircraft floor panels. (Author) 



7. FIRE SERVICE ORGANIZATION AND 
FACILITIES 

a. ADMINISTRATION, ORGANIZATION AND 
MANAGEMENT 

954. Bahme CW 

FIRE SERVICE AND THE LAW 

Nat Fire Prot Assoc, Boston, MA; 270 pages, 1976 

This recently published book is a practical, comprehen- 
sive, up-to-date legal guide for members of the fire ser- 
vice, city attorneys, and other legal advisers. It is a suc- 
cessor to the Fireman's Law Book (1967), with reference 
to recent court ruHngs on legal questions appUcable to 
firefighters and fire departments, plus helpful guidance 
in applying these principles. Modern judicial and adminis- 
trative thinking on legal matters affecting the fire service 
with new information on volunteer fire-fighting organiza- 
tions and fire protection districts is reviewed. The chap- 
ters include "Liabilities of a Fire Fighter", "Salary and 
Compensation", "Duty Owed by Public to Members of 



192 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



7. FIRE SERVICE ORGANIZATION AND FACILITIES 

a. Administration, Organization, and Management— Continued 



Fire Departments", plus introductory chapters on "The 
Judicial System" and "Organization of Fire Depart- 
ments". The book can be used as a classroom text and 
as a personal reference. 

955. Savkov E 
TANKER PLUS PUMPER 

Pozhar delo; (6):24-25, 1976 (Russian) 

In many of the fire-fighting districts in the USSR a 
1:20 imbalance in the ratio of pumpers to tankers has 
developed. Supporters of this proportion of firefighting 
equipment have advanced many arguments to defend this 
view, the principal one being deficient water supply 
systems. The author cites statistics to support his view 
that the ratio should be changed to one tanker and one 
pumper. 1 fig, 1 table. 

956. Crawley HH 

MASTER PLANNING PAYS OFF 

Fire Chief; 20(7): 29-30, 1976 

A master plan begun five years ago in Tukwila, 
Washington, is producing results. Better relations with city 
fathers, a 90% sprinkler coverage in the city, and reduced 
fire losses are some of the advantages. 

957. Adams GH 

MUNICIPAL FIRE DEPARTMENTS (A BIBLIOGRAPHY 
WITH ABSTRACTS). Nat Tech Inf Service, Springfield, 
VA; NTIS PS-76/0575/1GA, 179 pages, Jul 1976 
Availabihty: NTIS 

Materials are presented on civil fire companies involving 
stations, equipment, planning, methods, and personnel. 
The discussions cover operations; the selection-and testing 
and training of firemen; pumps, ladders, hydrants, hoses, 
extinguishers, techniques, and vehicles; mathematical 
models and computerized technology; fire research on 
buildings, materials, and combustion; and toxic com- 
bustion products. Also reported are integrated municipal 
information systems, community facilities, regional 
planning, emergency services, protective clothing, fire 
rescue, and projects in specific urban localities. Reference 
is made to civil defense, but in general fire-fighting opera- 
tions relating to ships, mines, aviation, and forests are 
excluded. (Contains 174 abstracts.) 

b. EDUCATION AND TRAINING 

958. Granito AR 

FIRE SERVICE INSTRUCTOR'S GUIDEBOOK 

Nat Fire Prot Assoc, Boston, MA; 60 pages, 1976 

This new tracking aid for fire service instructors and 
training officers gives, in question-answer format, general 
guidelines for an organized approach to course planning 
and teaching in the fire service. The chapters cover 
"Criteria of a Good Instructor", "Instructor Techniques", 
"The Trainee as a Member of the Fire Service. ..and as 
a Student", "Lesson Planning and Presentation", 
"Teaching and Training Aids", with tips on visual aids, 
and "Student Evaluation". The book represents a helpful 
time-saving aid for instructors. 



959. Sima M, Saito M and Adati Y 

DEVELOPMENT OF ELECTROSTATIC SMOKE 
REMOVAL SYSTEM (FOR BREATHING APPARATUS 
TRAINING TENT). PART 5 

Rep Fire Sci Lab {Japan); (12):55-58, 1975 (Japanese) 

A detailed description is given of several design versions 
of test smoke chambers to be used for testing gas masks, 
oxygen masks, and other protective devices used in fires 
in a smoke environment. The smoke chambers are com- 
paratively small enclosures equipped with various smoke 
sources as well as control, measurement, and other 
devices required for testing. The test subject dons the 
test apparatus for breathing and then enters the smoke 
chambers where the required smoke charge is produced. 
During as well as after the tests, check measurements 
are made of the parameters of the smoke environment 
and of the medical and physiological parameters-of-state 
of the test subject. Various smoke chamber models were 
developed, including inflatable rubberized smoke cham- 
bers of different configurations. The principal difference 
between this series of smoke chambers and the preceding 
ones was the inclusion of an electrostatic generator set 
designed for rapid smoke removal at the end of the experi- 
ment. The electrostatic devices were powerful transfor- 
mers of a-c voltage of 100V/50Hz industrial frequency 
into an electrostatic potential of negative polarity with 
a maximum amplitude of 11 kV. As is well known, smoke 
consists of soot and vapor particles which are, in turn, 
positively charged particles, cations, capable of being at- 
tracted to a cathode having a sufficiently high negative 
potential. Used as the electrode was the working element 
of a generator which, depending on the configuration of 
the smoke chambers, was of varying shape in the cases 
under consideration (in the form of a cyhndrical rod, an 
integral mesh with rectangular cells, or a multitooth 
comb). At the end of the experiment, the smoke removal 
device is disconnected and the smoke environment in the 
chamber is suppressed by forced precipitation in the elec- 
trode, making it unnecessary to use ventilation systems 
and a cumbersome smoke removal duct. In addition, the 
sanitary conditions of experimentation are measurably im- 
proved. It is noted that these devices can also be used 
not only for the complete removal of smoke at the end 
of an experiment, but also to control (gradually decrease) 
the smoke level during the experiment by appropriately 
controUing the magnitude of the negative electrostatic 
potential on the electrode. Given are graphic data illustrat- 
ing the results of testing these devices in the form of 
rate-of-smoke-removal as a function of magnitude of the 
potential on the electrode for various smoke chamber and 
electrode designs. Also examined, in addition to inflatable 
smoke chambers, are prefabricated rigid-shell chambers 
mounted on four-wheel rectangular chassis, making the 
chambers mobile. 10 figs. (RZh) 

960. Lamb RTB 

A SYSTEMS APPROACH TO EXAMINATIONS 

f/re; 69(854): 124- 125, 1976 

A systems analysis of the written examinations for 
promotions in the UK fire service indicates that greater 
emphasis has been placed on knowledge acquired by the 
association of symbols and objects and inadequate empha- 
sis on knowledge associated with the ability to perform 
tasks. A model relating learning categories to some 



193 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



7. FIRE SERVICE ORGANIZATION AND FACILITIES 

b. Education and Training — Continued 



methods of testing is constructed to match course con- 
tents, levels of attainment and categories of test methods 
to achieve the mix necessary to reach course objectives. 
3 figs. 5 refs. 

961. Gawiser SR 

DEVELOPING A TRAINING CURRICULUM FOR THE 
FIRE SERVICE 

Fire Chief; 20(9):39-40, 1976 

The author discusses the problems of organizing the 
training program in large and small fire departments and 
suggests some possible solutions. 

962. Ball TE 

CONCRETE 'SHIP' USED FOR TRAINING 

Fire Internal; 5(52):46-48, 1976 (English, French, German; 
Spanish summary) 

A concrete "ship" is used by Britain's Fire Service 
Technical College at Moreton-in-Marsh for training in 
marine firefighting. Fires involving the aft peak, cabins, 
machinery, lower hold, tween decks and accommodations, 
as well as off-shore problems, can be introduced. The 
training facility and the fixed installations of the different 
ship sections, as well as the electronic equipment, are 
described and the facility is illustrated by a sketch. 1 
fig, 1 photo. 

963. Anon 

TRAINING CENTER SPECIALIZES IN INDUSTRIAL 
BRIGADES 

Fire Command; 43(7):27, 1976 

The Celanese Fire Training Center, located at Rock Hill, 
SC, and administered by the York Technical College of 
Rock Hill, operates a year-round series of two-day ad- 
vanced fire technology seminars with accommodations for 
100 students per class. Since its inception in Oct, 1974, 
more than 1,000 emergency fire brigade and rescue mem- 
bers representing 20 industrial firms have used the training 
facihties. 1 photo. 

964. Kraemer K 

FIRE SERVICE REGULATION 2/1: TRAINING OF 
VOLUNTARY FIRE DEPARTMENTS - MINIMUM 
REGULATIONS. IMPLEMENTATION OF FIRE SER- 
VICE REGULATION FwDV 2/1 IN THE FEDERAL 
STATE OF HESSEN 
Brandschutz; 30(8): 196-201, 1976 (German) 

The new fire service regulation FwDV 2/1 regulates the 
peacetime training of voluntary fire departments and fire 
brigades and contains some innovations and modifications 
which are examined in this article. Information is given 
on training for positions in units, for leadership cadres 
and for special positions, where training is carried out, 
and how long the training lasts for the various positions. 
The problems faced by the fire service schools due to 
introduction of the FwDV 2/1 regulation and the possibili- 
ties for implementation in the State of Hessen are 
discussed. 5 tables. (Fachdok 12/0980) 

%5. Alger RS, Martin SB and Lipska AE 
ENVIRONMENTALLY COMPATIBLE AIRCRAFT 
CRASH AND RESCUE TRAINING FACILITIES (FINAL 



REPORT). Stanford Res Inst; NSWC WOL TR-75-205, 
56 pages, Oct 1975 

With the increasing sophistication of aircraft has come 
a corresponding increase in payload of weapons, fuel and 
cargo, which is reflected in a potential increase in ac- 
cidents and fires. This report is concerned with develop- 
ment of training facihties and techniques to enhance the 
capability of firemen in coping with their fires, while still 
maintaining a reasonable level of environmental impact. 
Training objectives are reviewed and evaluation criteria 
are discussed. Location and operation of training facilities 
are analyzed from a cost-effectiveness viewpoint. Three 
levels of training facility are described that fulfill training 
requirements on a local, regional or national basis. It is 
concluded that the essential facihties can be reahzed 
within the environmental constraints, but additional cost- 
benefit analysis is recommended. 

c. FACILITIES 

966. Ewing DG 

A PROFESSIONAL APPROACH TO FIRE STATION 
DESIGN 

Fire Chief; 20(9):36-38, 1976 

A professional architect offers suggestions on planning 
and construction of a fire station. He describes the 
architect's role, the client's role, and gives step-by-step 
procedures for effective planning. The subject of fees 
and additional services, e.g., site selection, is also given 
some attention. (Author) 

967. Messer R 

MODERN DRYING SYSTEM FOR FIRE HOSES 

Schweiz Feuerwehr Z; 102(8):291, 293 ,295 ,297-299, 1976 
(German) 

The first part of the report deals with a comparative 
analysis of the economy of horizontal hose maintenance 
systems and drying towers. The comparisons relate to 
civil defense hoses and fully synthetic hoses. The con- 
struction and installation costs are lower for horizontal 
systems, but the time expended in checking, washing, 
drying, dusting and winding in horizontal systems is 
greater than the corresponding costs for tower installa- 
tions. In the second part a system which has been installed 
in the civil defense training center in Mythen/Schwyz is 
described. 8 figs. (Fachdok 12/0982) 

968. Eremin V 

NEW FIRE STATION DESIGNS 

Pozhar delo; (3):29, 1976 (Russian) 

Two new fire station designs are illustrated and 
described. The first is for light apparatus with living quar- 
ters and is designed for temperature zones with tempera- 
tures down to 140°C, except for permafrost, earthquake 
and mining zones. The second is for twelve apparatus 
with duty rooms for the same cUmatic conditions. All 
construction is with standard prefab parts. 2 figs 

d. GENERAL EQUIPMENT 

969. Loeb DL 

LARGE DIAMETER HOSE 

Fire Chief; 20(9): 29-32, 1976 



194 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



7. FIRE SERVICE ORGANIZATION AND FACILITIES 
d. General Equipment— Continued 



The author surveys the use of large-diameter hose in 
fire departments throughout the US. His five-part, in- 
depth report will cover the history, various size and 
material options, flows and friction loss, and procedures 
fire departments have developed for its use. In this first 
part the author covers the history and development of 
large-diameter hose. 5 photos. (Author) 

970. Anon 
FIRE BOAT 

Fune no kagaku; 28(9): 17, 1975 

An information sheet containing the tactical and techni- 
cal parameters of the fire boat Kiyotaki, which was con- 
structed in 1974 by the Keykin Etto Co, is given. The 
dimensions of the boat are: 27.5m length, 10.4m width, 
height above waterline 2.1m, and displacement 235 tons. 
The boat is equipped with 8 fixed foam nozzles as well 
as 20 sets of hose with different connections and exten- 
sions and is designed for the extinguishment of shore- 
line fires. (RZh) 

971. Ito Y 

TESTS OF FIRE APPARATUS USING NEW FIRE- 
EXTINGUISHING EQUIPMENT 

Kasai; 25(4):227-233, 1975 (Japanese) 

The tactical characteristics and specifications of several 
new firefighting vehicles, each of which is especially 
designed to extinguish fires in specific installations, are 
given. The design and operation of these vehicles are 
described, as are the results of operational tests. Ex- 
amined in particular are apparatus designed to extinguish 
fires in oil tanks, multi-story buildings, etc. Of greatest 
interest is a firefighting vehicle designed to extinguish 
fires in various live electrotechnical objects. It is pointed 
out that the suppression of fires in high-voltage objects 
represents a considerable obstacle to the use of conven- 
tional firefighting means, in that a stream of fire-extin- 
guishing solution applied to such an object will become 
a conductor when it hits the current-carrying portions, 
resulting in possible electrical injury to the fireighting per- 
sonnel. The problem is complicated by the fact that for 
various reasons the high-voltage energy cannot be cut off 
in some cases, or cutting it off may be undesirable. This 
apparatus is equipped with a foam-nozzle turret, in which 
the foam charge is in a cylindrical, hermetically sealed 
capsule under excess pressure. The length of the capsule 
is 1,(X)0 mm, diameter is 150 mm. Discharge is accom- 
plished by means of a simple electromechanical capsule 
device, which has sufficient power to impart an initial 
velocity of 46 m/'sec to the capsule. The height reached 
by the capsule is 60 m. When the nose section of the 
capsule strikes a rigid surface, a directed charge of high- 
expansion foam is apphed. For highly efficient suppres- 
sion, even on vertical surfaces, the foam contains a binder 
so that the foam will adhere to the surface. The results 
of testing an apparatus equipped with this nozzle indicate 
that it is highly effective for extinguishing fires in high- 
voltage objects. 13 figs, 8 tables. 

972. Freutel H 

THE AERIAL LADDER: A SYMBOL FOR ASSISTANCE 
AND RESCUE 

ZS Magazin; (4): 30-35, 1976 (German) 



A comprehensive article is devoted to the aerial ladder, 
which, in its modern form, is a universal tool for 
assistance and rescue. Since the initial development by 
C. D. Magirus, the founder of the company of the same 
name, this ladder has always been improved in coopera- 
tion with the fire service and in accordance with the basic 
requirements of fireground tactics. The present-day ver- 
sion of the ladder with its special fittings, which expand 
the range of application, is described and illustrated. 12 
figs. (Fachdok 12/0619) 

973. Anon 

DECISION RELATED RESEARCH ON EQUIPMENT 
TECHNOLOGY UTILIZED BY LOCAL GOVERNMENT: 
FIRE SUPPRESSION. VOLUME I - EXECUTIVE SUM- 
MARY. Mission Res Corp, Santa Barbara, CA; MRC R- 
751 1-1-11 75-Vol-l, NSF RA/S-75-076, 51 pages, Nov 
1975 
AvaUability: NTIS PB-252 389/2GA 

This summary outlines the work accomplished during 
Phase I of a two-phase project iniended to produce a 
procedural User's Manual to aid in the specification and 
procurement of mobile fire-suppression apparatus 
(pumpers) systems. Phase I was research-oriented and 
focused on an analysis of mobile fire-suppression systems 
and ihe definition of additional work required to develop 
the Manual. Phase II will address a series of experimental 
tasks and, filially, the development of the User's Manual. 
(Author) 

974. Anon 

DECISION RELATED RESEARCH ON EQUIPMENT 

TECHNOLOGY UTILIZED BY LOCAL GOVERNMENT: 

FIRE SUPPRESSION. VOLUME III. APPENDICES A 

THROUGH I. Mission Res Corp, Santa Barbara, CA; MRC 

R-751 1-1-1 175-Vol-3, NSF RA/S-75-076B, 320 pages, Nov 

1975 

Availability: NTIS PB-252 390/OGA 

An analysis of mobile fire suppression systems is 
presented for the purposes of developing a User's Manual 
designed to aid in the specification and procurement of 
mobile fire suppression apparatus systems. Volume III 
compiles the supporting information contained in 9 Appen- 
dices of the research report. (Author) 

e. INFORMATION SYSTEMS 

975. Sims J 

DATA RETRIEVAL MOBILIZING 

Fire; 69(835):177-179, 1976 

Amalgamation in April 1974 led to the centralized mo- 
bilizing of four brigade areas, with the consequential need 
to find an efficient filing system for the enormous number 
of attendance cards. This prompted the East Sussex Fire 
Brigade (UK) to carry out investigations into modem data 
retrieval systems to find a solution. Experiments with the 
microfiche system, marketed by Image Systems Inc, 
proved successful and the work on compiling some 10,500 
entries was commenced. By 1975 the information index 
had developed to such an extent as to be the largest 
single index in a data retrieval machine manufactured by 
the company. It was considered that the system was suffi- 
ciently developed to justify a demonstration at last year's 



195 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



7. FIRE SERVICE ORGANIZATION AND FACILITIES 

e. Information Svstems — Continued 



"Interfire" Exhibition in London. The data base designed 
by East Sussex Fire Brigade has since been used at exhibi- 
tions in America, South Africa and Germany; subsequent 
exhibitions in this country have resulted in 16 brigades 
ordering similar machines. 2 figs, 1 photo. 

976. Campbell V and Hamilton P 

FIRE CONTROL SYSTEM - MUNICIPAL COBOL COM- 
PUTER PROGRAMS MODULE MAGNETIC TAPE. 

USAC Project, Wichita Falls, TX; USAC IMIS-WFT-013, 
HUD DF-76/012, magnetic tape, 1 reel. May 1976 
AvaUability: NTIS PB-253 639/9GA 

This tape contains the USAC Fire Control System 
Module for the Wichita Falls, Texas, Integrated Municipal 
Information System. The purpose of the module is to 
provide a computerized data collection and reporting 
system as well as to provide all pertinent operational data 
for subsequent analysis. There are 8 programs and one 
subroutine recorded on the tape. 256K bytes of core 
storage and 5M bytes of disk storage are needed to 
operate this module. Technical documentation describing 
this module include PB-251 482, PB-251 483, PB-251 484, 
Volumes 1, 2, and 3 respectively of the AppUcation of 
System Management to Fire Protection Technique. Re- 
lated documents necessary for implementation include: 
PB-227 709, Geographic Based Index Manual; and PB- 
234 988, Data Entry System Application Completion Re- 
port. Software Description: The programs are written in 
the IBM ANS 3.32 COBOL programming language while 
the subroutine is written in the IBM ALC programming 
language. These programs are written for implemetation 
on an IBM 370/145 computer using the DOS VS 29 operat- 
ing system. The Data Entry System Module and the 
proprietary IBM CICS Teleprocessing package are needed 
for the successful implementation of this module. 

f. INVESTIGATION AND REPORTING 

977. Deichman JT 

EVALUATING A FIREFIGHTING OPERATION 

Fire Chief; 20(8):79-82, 1976 

Many fire departments hold critiques after fires, but 
these provide little specific information that can be com- 
pared to other firefighting operations. The author has 
developed some methods of post-fire analysis and per- 
formance evaluation that allow for comparison and pro- 
vide information for improving firefighting operations.! 
fig. (Author) 

g. PERSONAL EQUIPMENT 

978. Anon 

SHOULD FIRE PERSONNEL BE EQUIPPED WITH 
BREATHING FILTERS? 

Brandforsvar; 13(1):10, 1976 (Swedish; English summary) 

Experiments with light breathing filters in an atmosphere 
with a high concentration of sulfur dioxide were carried 
out in Helsinborg (Sweden). It was found that these filters 
provide good protection against the majority of chemical 
gases, except CO, for 35 minutes, which is enough for 
evacuation from a hazardous zone should a fireman unex- 
pectedly enter such a zone. The filters can be carried 



■ -A 

in a special case attached to the belt. For use it is pressed 
over the mouth, the nose being pinched by clamps. The 
service life is 4 years. Firemen fighting fires in factories 
should be equipped with these filters, in addition to the 
usual breathing apparatus issued in search and rescue 
work. (RZh) 

979. Walther H-J 

TESTING BREATHING MASKS FOR THEIR TEMPERA- 
TURE AND HEAT STABILITY 

Draegerheft; (304): 13-17, 1976 (German) 

Investigations of the resistance of the Draeger full-cover 
masks Panorama Nova and Koreta to fire exposure have 
verified that these masks are highly fire-resistant, as re- 
ported in the pubUcations mentioned in the introduction. 
Their resistance is due not least of all to the use of 
a metal frame for the window of the mask and the favora- 
ble arrangement of the speach diaphragm and exhaust 
valve in a well-protected position. The flame-test facility 
and the test method are described. 5 figs, 2 refs. (Fachdok 
12/0909) 

980. Vorob'ev P and Zavarukhin A 

SYSTEM FOR CHARGING REBREATHING CANISTERS 

Pozhar delo; (3):25, 1976 (Russian) 

A system for charging and emptying rebreathing 
canisters of breathing apparatus is described. Canisters 
can be emptied in 14-17 sec and filled in 10-12 sec. A 
block diagram of the system is given, accompanied by 
a description of system operation. 1 fig. 

981. Hashegawa K, Miyoshi M and Ogata Y 

NEW TYPE OF OXYGEN BREATHING APPARATUS 

Rep Fire Sci Lab (Japan); (12):75-78, 1975 (Japanese) 

A detailed description is given of the design, operating 
principle, technical parameters, and the results of complex 
tests of a comparatively complex, portable, individual ox- 
ygen breathing apparatus, compact and light-weight, in- 
tended for use in a gassy, smoke-filled or other toxic 
environment. It is pointed out that in contrast to the in- 
dividual oxygen apparatus of preceding models, which had 
a comparatively short effective operating time owing to 
the Umited size of the portable oxygen flasks, this ap- 
paratus provides for considerably longer use and, con- 
sequently, greater effectiveness. These advantages are 
achieved by realizing partial organized recirculation of the 
exhaled air, rigorously proportioned, in the air circulation 
path of the apparatus. The latter consists of the following 
principal components: face mask, oxygen flask with a 
valve, respiratory system with flexible hoses, distributor 
valve, and mixing chamber, where the finished breathing 
mixture is prepared. Convenience of use of the apparatus 
is ensured by means of a control assembly connected 
to the distributor valve, which is graduated in percentages 
and is designed to change the ratio of oxygen and exhaled 
air in the breathing mixture as a function of the conditions 
of use of the apparatus. The apparatus test results, given 
in tabular and graphic form, clearly illustrate the optimum 
values of this ratio as a function of the magnitude and 
nature of the loads to which a person using the apparatus 
is exposed. 4 figs, 5 tables, 1 ref. (RZh) 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



7. FIRE SERVICE ORGANIZATION AND FACILITIES 
g. Personal Equipment— Continued 

982. Smimov AD, Parshenkov MV and Solov'ev SN 
DEVICE FOR THE SUPPLY OF AIR TO THE 
FACEPIECE OF A BREATHING APPARATUS 

USSR Patent No. 450,577; CI A62G 9/00, Appl 22 Jan 
1973, Disci 8 Sep 1975 

A description is given of a patent invention for a device 
supplying air to the facepiece of a breathing apparatus. 
The device contains filtering-sorbing elements, moving and 
fixed plates, air containers made of gasproof elastic 
materials, a valve distributor box and a corrugated tube 
connected to the facepiece. The distinguishing feature of 
the device is the arrangement of the filtering-sorbing ele- 
ments which, to reduce the size and increase the operating 
convenience, are placed in pockets in the air bags and 
are closed off externally by covers with built-in inlet 
valves. 2 drawing figs. (RZh) 

983. Anon 

BREATHING APPARATUS WITH FILLER SENSITIVE 
TO WATER VAPOR 

FRG Patent No. 2,163,125; CI A62B 25/00, Appl 15 Feb 
1971, Disci 17 Jul 1975, Assignee: Auergesellschaft GmbH 

The breathing apparatus is equipped with a moisture- 
sensitive material; an inner shell protects the filler and 
an outer shell protects the entire apparatus. The outer 
shell incorporates the inner shell. The distinctive feature 
of the invention is that the space between the inner and 
outer shells contains a well-known moisture-absorbing 
material. This material, when it absorbs moisture, can 
change color, permitting visual check of the quality of 
storage of the breathing apparatus. 1 drawing fig. 

984. Anon 

SEAL FOR TOGGLE-JOINT STOPPERS OF CON- 
TAINERS, ESPECIALLY FOR BREATHING AP- 
PARATUS 

FRG Patent No. 1,586,580; CI B65D 55/06, Appl 3 Jun 
1967, Disci 10 Jul 1975, Assignee: Draegerwerk AG 

A method is patented for sealing locks (shut-off devices) 
in which a company-developed plastic stopper shears off 
when the lock opens. The method is applicable for 
breathing apparatus. 4 drawing figs. 

985. Ruhnke S 
FIREFIGHTING EQUIPMENT 

FRG Patent No. 1,708,849; CI A62b 3/00, A62C 15/00, 
Appl 2 Aug 1957, Disci 26 Jan 1975 

The invention relates to individual firefighting equipment 
for fire suppression consisting of a portable (shoulder- 
borne) extinguisher protected by a fire-resistant sheath. 
The distinctive feature of the equipment is that the fire- 
resistant sheath of the extinguisher is connected to a 
fireproof sleeve and a "mitten" containing the hose and 
pistol-grip branchpipe of the extinguisher. The equipment 
is intended for use in conjunction with a fireproof hood 
and apron, which protects the wearer from thermal radia- 
tion and the short-term effects of sparks and flame. 3 
drawing figs. (RZh) 

986. Giordano TA 

DEVELOPMENT OF A SPEECH AMPLIFIER SYSTEM 
FOR USE WITH THE NAVY A4 OXYGEN BREATHING 



APPARATUS AND A PROPOSED FIREFIGHTING IN- 
STRUCTOR'S BREATHING DEVICE. Epsco Labs, Wilton, 
CT, 28 pages, Apr 1976 
AvailabOity: NTIS AD-A025 184/3GA 

Navy damage control personnel (especially firefighters) 
are often required to work in areas of possible or actual 
oxygen deficiency and areas where the concentration of 
smoke or other toxic gases is high. In these situations, 
the investigator or firefighter normally wears an Oxygen 
Breathing Apparatus (DBA) or respiratory protection. 
Presently, the Naval Ship Engineering Center is consider- 
ing the use of two new breathing devices. Neither 
breathing device was originally equipped with an amphfied 
speech communication system. In order to make possible 
good face-to-face communication in the high noise en- 
vironments anticipated, it was deemed desirable that some 
of these devices be provided with suitable voice am- 
plifiers. (See also FTA 1(1/2), Abstract 484.) (Author) 

987. Tyler MC and Deiser EE 

AIRCRAFT FIRE FIGHTERS' PROTECTIVE PROXIMI- 
TY CLOTHING (FINAL REPORT). Wright Patterson AFB, 
DoD Aircraft Ground Fire Suppression and Rescue Office, 
OH; DoD AGFSRS-76-6, 76 pages, Aug 1975 
AvailabiUty: NTIS AD-A025 935/8GA 

The DOD Aircraft Fire Suppression and Rescue Office 
has developed a new aircraft firefighters' protective suit 
to replace existing equipment used by DOD firefighters. 
The objective was to develop a lighter, less bulky, and 
more flexible suit with equivalent or improved durability 
and equivalent thermal protection as compared to existing 
suits. General functional requirements for such suits were 
determined and candidate materials for use in the suits 
were subjected to laboratory tests to determine relative 
strength, durability and thermal characteristics. Two outer 
shell materials and one lining material were selected for 
service testing. Service testing of these suits confirmed 
that the suits were easier to use and that they provided 
adequate protection. 

988. Andruk FS 

FACEPLATE-VISOR ASSEMBLY FOR THE ALU- 
MINIZED FIRE-FIGHTERS' CRASHRESCUE PROTEC- 
TIVE HOOD (PRELIMINARY REDESIGN STUDY). Navy 

Clothing and Textile Res Facility, Natick, MA; DoD 
AGFSRS-76-14, TR-118, 10 pages, Jun 1976 
Availability: NTIS AD-A026 033/lGA 

The Navy Clothing and Textile Research Facility con- 
ducted a study for the possible redesign of the facepiece- 
visor assembly of the current aluminized firefighters' 
crash-rescue protective hood to provide for verbal commu- 
nication and the exchange of fresh air when the wearer 
is in a 'standby' situation with the visor open. Adjustable 
hood design concepts and techniques were investigated. 
Commercially available hoods, hood frames, materials and 
hardware were procured and performance tests conducted. 

989. Audet NF 

FACEPIECEVISOR ASSEMBLY FOR ALUMINIZED 
FIRE-FIGHTERS' CRASH-RESCUE PROTECTIVE 
HOOD (INVESTIGATION OF ABRASION-RESISTANT 
OVERCOATING). Navy Clothing and Textile Res Facility, 



197 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



7. FIRE SERVICE ORGANIZATION AND FACILITIES 

g. Personal Equipment — Continued 

Natick, MA; DoD AGFSRS-76-15, TR-119, 41 pages, Jun 

1976 

Availability: NTIS AD-A026 0:4/4GA 

The Navy Clothing and Textile Research Facility 
(NCTRF) investigated three protective overcoatings, 
identified as Abcite, 0-22, and Epoxy, as possible im- 
provements to the present transparent protective overcoat- 
ing on the mfrared reflective gold-coated facepiece of the 
Aluminized Fire-Fighters' Crash-Rescue Protective Hood. 
All samples tested with the three overcoatings easily 
passed new radiant heat test requirements and showed 
a substantial improvement in abrasion resistance over the 
standard coatings. When apphed to the standard facepiece 
materials, the coatings showed good adhesion to the gold. 
The coatings on these materials showed reasonable re- 
sistance to a number of environmental exposures. 

990. Bailey M 

LMPROVED FIREFIGHTERS' CRASH-RESCUE BOOTS 
(FEASIBILITY STUDY). Navy Clothing and Textile Res 
Facility, Natick, MA; DoD AGFSRS-76-16, TR-1200, 4- 
76, 17 pages, Jun 1976 
Availability: NTIS AD-A026 094/3GA 

The Navy Clothing and Textile Research Facility 
(NCTRF) has established the feasibility of using commer- 
cial insulated firefighters' boots and reflective spats to 
protect feet of crash-crew firefighters performing rescue 
operations in critical fire areas. Tests suggest that boot 
insulation and reflective covering on boots should enable 
feet to withstand high radiant heat for several minutes. 

991 . McGinnis NJ 

EXHALATION VALVE LEAKAGE TEST. Nat Inst Occu- 
pai Safety and Health, Testing and Certification Lab, Mor- 
gantown, WV; NIOSH TC/R-005, 25 pages, Feb 1976 
Availability: NTIS PB-252 692/9GA 

A procedure is described to enable the reader to perform 
exhalation valve leakage tests on respirators as required 
by Title 30 CFR, Part 11. The steady-state leakage rate 
of the exhalation valve is measured in milliliters per unit 
time and on the positive pressure side of the exhalation 
valve. 

992. Terry SL 

DETERMINATION OF FACEPIECE CARBON-DIOXIDE 
CONCENTRATION LEVELS OF SELF-CONTAINED 
BREATHING APPARATUS. Nat Inst Occupat Safety and 
Health, Testing and Certification Lab, Morgantown, WV; 
NIOSH TC/R-003, 24 pages, Nov 1975 
Availability: NTIS PB-252 695/2GA 

While an individual is wearing a self-contained breathing 
apparatus, he is exposed to various concentration levels 
of expired carbon dioxide. These levels adversely affect 
the user's behavior and the respirator's performance. 
Because of the variability among test subjects, this 
procedure has been standardized to a machine-test method 
using a breathing machine with a sedentary cam which 
operates at 14.5 respirations per minute with a minute- 
volume of 10.5 liters. A 5% air-carbon dioxide mixture 
is fed into the facepiece during exhalation and the average 
exposure level during inhalation is calculated. Experimen- 
tal design limits this method to breathing apparatus v/ith 



less than 1100 cc of effective dead-air space. The standard 
deviation of COs concentrations obtained by this method 
is less than 0.1% CO2 at a 95% confidence level. 

993. Lenhart SW 

PROCEDURE FOR TESTING STRENGTH OF HOSE 
AND COUPLINGS. Nat Inst Occupat Safety and HeaUh, 
Testing and Certification Lab, Morgantown, WV; NIOSH 
TC/R-006, 18 pages, Feb 1976 
Availabihty: NTIS PB-252 696/OGA 

The test procedure has been prepared as a guide for 
testing the strength of hose and couplings of supplied- 
air respirators. Hose and couplings used with Types 'A', 
'AE', 'B', and 'BE' respirators are tested with a pull 
of 113 kilograms for five minutes. Hose and couplings 
used with Types 'C and 'CE' respirators are tested with 
a pull of 45 kUograms for five minutes and also subjected 
to an internal air pressure. 

994. Lenhart SW 

PROCEDURE FOR CONTINUOUS-FLOW RESPIRATOR 
FLOWRATE DETERMINATION. Nat Inst Occupat Safety 
and Health, Testing and Certification Lab, Morgantown, 
WV; NIOSH TC/R-004, 20 pages, Nov 1975 
Availability: NTIS PB-252 694/5GA 

The test procedure has been prepared as a guide to 
a method of determining the volume of air dehvered by 
a continuous-flow supplied-air respirator. The method 
described has the advantage that the test results can be 
documented on recorder paper. The respiratory-inlet 
covering of a supplied-air system is placed in a container 
with an outlet; the outlet of the container is connected 
to a pneumotachometer and pressure transducer. 
Flowrates delivered by the respiratory-inlet covering at 
specified pressures and air-supply hose lengths are 
recorded and determined from a graph prepared during 
pneumotachometer calibration. 

h. PERSONNEL AFFAIRS 

995. Gaisbauer G 

LIABILITY OF THE DRIVER OF A FIRE-SERVICE 
VEHICLE FOR A TRAFFIC ACCIDENT IN WHICH HE 
IS AT FAULT 

Brandschutz; 30(7): 174, 1976 (German) 

The legal aspects of the liability of a firefighter who 
was at fault in an accident while performing his duties 
(driving a service vehicle to the inspection bureau for 
a checkup) are discussed. The State Supreme Court of 
Oldenburg (FRG) decided that "driving a fire-service vehi- 
cle for a scheduled technical inspection in accordance 
with paragraph 29 of the Traffic Regulations represents 
performance of sovereign duties" and that therefore the 
administration of the community is Uable. (See also the 
related articles in the same issue of Brandschutz, pp 
168-169, 170-171, 172-173 and 192.) (Fachdok 12/0906) 

996. Rath K 

LIABILITY FOR INJURIOUS CONDUCT IN THE FIRE 
SERVICE 

Brandschutz; 30(7):172-173, 192, 1976 (German) 

On the basis of an actual case, in which a firefighter 
was at fault in causing an accident on his way to have 



198 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



8. FIRE OPERATIONS: PREVENTION AND SUPPRESSION 

h. Personnel Affairs— Continued 



a firefighting vehicle checked at the Technical Inspection 
Association, an investigation was made of who has 
responsibility for any damage, bodily or property, caused 
a third person by a firefighter in performing his duties. 
To be specific, the question is whether the injurious con- 
duct leads to government, duty, or personal liability. 17 
refs. (Fachdok 12/0906) 

997. Augustin P 

SOCIAL INSURANCE OF THE FIRE FIGHTER 

Hessische Feuerwehr Z; 85(15):267-272, 1976 (German) 

The personnel benefits specialist of the German 
Firefighters Association informs the reader of the cases 
in which insurance protection is effective. Competence 
for honorary collaboration in firefighting units is discussed 
first within the framework of insurance law. The com- 
petence of the legal fire service accident insurance carrier 
extends only to active membership. Insurance is regulated 
for study and information trips. Accident insurance pro- 
tection is extended to every citizen who enters the fire 
service. Also discussed are the cases when the legal ac- 
cident insurance carriers grant compensation contributions 
for medical and professional rehabilitation and supplemen- 
tary contributions for treatment and professional 
assistance. (Fachdok 12/0985) 



8. FIRE OPERATIONS: 
AND SUPPRESSION 



PREVENTION 



a. COMMUNICATIONS AND SIGNALLING 

998. Geisel H-0 
COMMAND POST VEHICLES 

Brandschutz; 30(4):96-99, 1976 (German) 

In recent years many fire departments have been acquir- 
ing command-post vehicles (called command vehicles in 
standard DIN 14033). Depending on how views and key 
needs were formulated, broad variations in the design of 
vehicles, in equipment and personnel have occurred. This 
article attempts to classify the development and to present 
directions as to how a start at standardization might be 
made. The configuration of such a vehicle includes size 
and driving qualities (to suit the topography of the fire 
scene), floor plan, communications equipment, power 
supply, and external identification. 6 figs, 2 tables. 
(Fachdok 12/0571) 

999. Araslanov Kh, Kazakov G, Pryanikov E, Naumov 
V 

FIRE COMMUNICATIONS CENTER 

Pozhar delo; (5):26-27, 1976 (Russian) 

The new fire communications center in Ufa, the capital 
of the Bashkir Republic of the USSR, has been fully 
reconstructed to handle all problems of detection, alarm, 
dispatch, logistics, data transmission, information han- 
dling, unit readiness, availability of personnel, etc. The 
best response routes, the availability of firefighting equip- 
ment at the fire scene, the location of the fire and other 
firefighting data are all coded or plotted on situation maps. 
A description of the system is given. 



1000. Bennett WG 

EVALUATION OF RADIO COMMUNICATIONS FOR 
USE BY INDIVIDUAL FIRE FIGHTERS (FINAL RE- 
PORT). Wright-Patterson AFB, DoD Aircraft Ground Fire 
Suppression and Rescue Office, OH; DoD AGFSRS-76- 
5, 77 pages, Mar 1976 
AvaUabiEty: NTIS AD-A025 936/6GA 

This report presents the results of a project undertaken 
to fulfill an operational requirement for an individual, 
two-way communications system for firefighters. Con- 
tracts were initiated in June 1973 to obtain the basic radios 
and several accessories to be used in an operational test 
and evaluation program. The items purchased were 
selected because they were both commercially available, 
i.e., no development effort required, and because they 
appeared to offer the greatest potential for satisfying the 
stated needs of the operational commands. 

b. EXTINGUISHING AGENTS AND ADDITIVES 

1001. Burford RR 

THE USE OF AFFF IN SPRINKLER SYSTEMS 

Fire Technol; 12(1):5-17, 1976 

The Factory Mutual Research Corporation contracted 
with 3M to conduct a test program aimed at determining 
the effectiveness of aqueous film-forming foam used in 
conjunction with a wet-pipe sprinkler system equipped 
with standard water sprinkler. The results indicate that 
closed, wet-pipe sprinkler systems using AFFF can control 
flammable liquid spill fires as effectively as, faster than, 
and using less water and AFFF concentrate than, deluge 
systems. Densities as low as 0.11 gpm/ft^ (4.48 l/min.m^) 
provide effective control. Tests indicate that, at this 
discharge density, air temperature does not become high 
enough to damage structural members. 18 figs, 2 tables, 
8 refs. (Author) 

1002. Burniller G 

EXPERIENCES WITH CONVENTIONAL EXTIN- 
GUISHANTS AND EXTINGUISHING METHODS 

Brandhilfe; 23(7): 157-162, 1976 (German) 

The discussion is aimed at presenting information and 
stimulating thought on whether equipment with some 
specific device or other is necessary and suitable and 
whether the firefighting unit is adequately equipped to 
handle every possible fire situation in its area. The prime 
subject discussed is the use of suitable powders and op- 
timal equipment for them. The use of CO extinguishing 
methods must also be reserved for certain fire targets. 
The possibilities of using foam are, however, broader, 
since the discharge range and foam properties can be 
greatly varied by choosing suitable foam pipes and various 
foam compounds. 12 figs, 3 tables. (Fachdok 12/0984) 

1003. Amore P 

STUDY OF THE FIRE FIGHTING APPLICATIONS OF 
WETTING AGENTS 

Antincendio protez civ; 27(10):755-760, 1975 (Italian) 

The article contains the contents of a report of the 
directorate of the Hydraulics Laboratory of the Italian 
Fire Research Center devoted to problems connected with 
the application of wetting agents, which are widely used 
in the chemical industry, to the suppression of solid com- 



199 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



8. FIRE OPERATIONS: PREVENTION AND SUPPRESSION 

b. Extinguishing Agents and Additives — Continued 



bustible material (wood, textiles, etc.) and combustible 
liquid fires. The appreciable increase in the wetting capaci- 
ty of an aqueous solution of wetting agents compared 
to "pure" water permits effective use to extinguish sohd 
materials in piles. Aqueous solutions of wetting agents 
are highly recommended for the suppression of forest 
fires. When extinguishing combustible Uquids, a positive 
effect can also be obtained as a result of the formation 
of an emulsion in the surface layer of the liquid, promot- 
ing cooling. The adhesive properties of water and wetting 
agents on various surfaces are analyzed from the view- 
point of molecular theory. 5 figs, 13 refs. 

1004. EUiott DE and Chiesa PJ, Jr 

A NEW FOAM RHEOMETER FOR STUDYING FIRE 

nCHTING FOAMS 

Fire Technol; \2(l):66-69, 1916 

The rheology of a foam defines its flow properties. 
Flow properties of a foam have been characterized by 
measuring its viscosity, continuous stress, and critical 
shear stress. The methods used, however, measure shear 
stress only at specific times during the lifetime of a foam, 
require extreme care in calibration, require the operator 
to read a moving pointer, are cumbersome to use, and 
produce no permanent record of the results. This paper 
describes a newly developed instrument that overcomes 
these problems, i fig, 1 table, 6 refs. (Author) 

1(X)5. Williamson HV 

HALON 1301 FLOW IN PIPELINES 

Fire Technol; 12(l):18-32, 1975 

The complete manual calculation of pressure drops in 
the piping used in a Halon 1301 total-flooding fire extin- 
guishing system is not practical. The flow of nitrogen- 
pressured Halon 1301 is a two-phase flow phenomenon 
involving a mixture of liquid and vapor in which the ratio 
of vapor to liquid increases as the pressure drops from 
the friction loss. With two-phase flow, the rate of pressure 
drop increases as the fluid proceeds through the pipeline 
because the velocity of flow must increase as the volume 
of fluid expands. Since it is not practical to use a manual 
method for two-phase calculations, a simplified linear ap- 
proach or a complete calculation by computer is indicated. 
13 figs. (Author) 

1006. Teslenko G, Rode AA, Petrov I and Kucher V 
USE OF THE COMPOUND 3.5 IN CABLE TUNNELS 

Pozhar delo; (4):22-23, 1976 (Russian) 

The 3.5 compound (ethyl bromide/carbon dioxide mix- 
ture in a ratio of 70:30) has proved to be very effective 
in fire protection of power plants and elsewhere. Accord- 
ing to incomplete data, ten fires in cable tunnels have 
been extinguished in the last 2 years. It does not conduct 
current, does not freeze down to 170°C, and fixed 
systems are compact and economical, but is toxic at high 
concentrations. Tests and the effectiveness of the com- 
pound for suppression of cable tunnel fires are described. 
2 tables 



1007. Anon 

EXTINGUISHING FIRES WITH FOAM AND WETTING 
AGENTS 

Fire Internal; 5(53):59-69, 1976 (EngUsh, French, German; 
Spanish summary) 

The advantages and necessity of introducing foams and 
wetting agents based on surfactants into general fire- 
fighting practice and of extending their application are 
illustrated by the experience gained in the the USSR. 
The general requirements for six Soviet foam compounds 
are listed in a table. Soviet and US foam compounds 
are compared. The paper was a Soviet contribution to 
the CTIF symposium at Berlin in June and read for the 
Soviet delegation in their absence. 1 fig, 2 tables, 1 photo. 

1008. Brzustowski TA, Kaptein M and SuUivan HF 

THE ACTION OF "SUBSURFACE" FOAM IN EXTIN- 
GUISHING OILTANK FIRES 

Arch Termodyn Spal; 7(2): 165-174, 1976 (EngUsh; Pohsh 
and Russian summaries) 

The results of laboratory experiments were used as the 
basis for analysis of a proposed physical model of the 
action of subsurface foam in extinguishing oil-tank fires. 
The model is used to predict the condition of foam flakes 
arriving at the edge of the flame, and from this prediction 
to suggest the parameters for safe design. 2 figs, 1 table, 
8 refs. 

1009. Baratov A, Vogman L and Volkova V 
FIRE-EXTINGUISHING POWDER COMPOSITIONS 

Pozhar delo; (6): 28-29, 1976 (Russian) 

The chemical composition, grain size, specific area and 
specific weights of fire-extinguishing powders most com- 
monly used in the USSR are summarized in two tables. 
The effectiveness of powders in extinguishing fires is but- 
tressed by the results of extinguishing seven test fires: 
an aircraft interior, a chemical propellant, a methane-air 
mixture, woodboard, combustible hquids, sodium, and alu- 
minum compounds, among others. 2 tables. 

1010. Kawa S and Horinouti K 

DEVELOPMENT OF FIRE-EXTINGUISHING AGENTS 
(PRECIPITATION). PART I. 

Rep Fire Sci Lab (Japan); (12):20-25, 1975 (Japanese) 

A detailed analysis is made of the chemical properties 
of new fire-extinguishing solutions developed at the chemi- 
cal laboratory of the Institute of Fire Engineering and 
Firefighting Methods (Tokyo) for use in fire extinguishers. 
The study of these solutions has made it possible to obtain 
exhaustive results on their chemical and physico-chemical 
properties, as illustrated by numerous reactions in analyti- 
cal terms. The external reaction conditions are indicated, 
as is the percentage of participating components. A 
description is given of the design and operating principle 
of the test stand used to study the effectiveness of the 
new fire-extinguishing solutions. Identical rectangular 
pieces of a material ensuring an intense even flame during 
combustion were used to simulate the fire. The pieces 
are stacked to form a tall rectangular prism resembUng 
a rectangular, multi-story building. Photographic and tabu- 
lar materials are given, illustrating the process of fire 
simulation by this method. It is stated that such a stack 
of flammable specimens ensures maximum stable flame 



200 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



8. FIRE OPERATIONS: PREVENTION AND SUPPRESSION 

b. Extinguishing Agents and Additives — Continued 



burning intensity and maximum flame stability to the 
fire-extinguishing stream, making it possible to increase 
appreciably the objectivity of the data obtained from the 
results of the studies. It is recommended that this stacking 
structure and this type of combustible piece be used in 
the future for various kinds of fire tests. 6 figs. (RZh) 

1011. Ojima M, Matsuhashi S and Torii N 

STUDY OF GELATINIZATION OF WATERS. PART 2 

Rep Fire Sci Lab (Japan); (12):88-93, 1975 (Japanese) 

It is reported that large expenditures of water to extin- 
guish fires are stimulating the development and production 
of means to gelatinize (thicken) water. A brief survey 
is made of contemporary achievements in the water 
thickening area; described in particular are some of the 
most recent aggregates for thickening. Water thickening 
yields fundamental technical advantages with regard to 
fires. First of all, it becomes economically feasible to 
transport water as a fire-fighting agent in fire vehicles 
and special pumpers to the scene of a fire, especially 
when there are no fire hydrants in the vicinity; secondly, 
thickened water is more efficient in fire extinguishing than 
ordinary water. Given are the results of complex tests 
in which the effectiveness of using thickened water to 
extinguish fires under different conditions was evaluated. 
Used as the thickening reagent was NaOH, in three dif- 
ferent consistencies: 0.05%, 0.1%, and 0.3%. It is shown 
that the degree of thickening depends strongly on the 
temperature. For example, for a temperature increase 
from 14 to 41 °C, the degree of thickening of a 0.05% 
solution drops from a value of 1.22 to 0.65 (in conven- 
tional units) and of a 0.1% solution from 1.33 to 1.02. 
With increasing concentration of alkali, the temperature 
dependence of the degree of thickening becomes weaker 
and even becomes inverse: for a 0.3% solution the tem- 
perature rise in the same range leads to an insignificant 
increase in the degree of thickening, from 5.14 to 5.23. 
Also studied were the hydrodynamic properties of water 
at various degrees of thickening. The throughput (for 
thickened water) of fire hoses with an inner diameter 
of 65 mm and a length of 20 cm connected to a pump 
with a measurable rpm was studied. Two types of nozzles 
were used, one for dehvery of a soUd stream and one 
for a fog stream. The pressure was varied from 1.5 to 
3.5 kg/cm^, and the flow rate for the first playpipe in- 
creased from 430 to 640 1/min and for the second from 
580 to 870 1/min. It is noted that the fire-hose throughput 
determined in this manner characterizes the coefficient 
of water viscosity, which was not specially measured. 
11 figs, 7 tables, 5 refs. (RZh) 

1012. Erben A 

HIGH EXPANSION FOAM METHOD WITH CARBON 
DIOXIDE ADDITIVE AND DEVICE FOR IMPLEMENT- 
ING THE METHOD 

FRG Patent No. 1,559,679; CI A62C 5/04, A62C 27/28, 
Appl 28 Feb 1966, Disci 10 Jul 1975, Assignee: Enka 
Glanzstoff AG 

The patent is granted for a high-expansion foam fire- 
extinguishing method with CO2 pressure feed. The novelty 
of the method is proportioning of the CO 2 at a level 
at which the foam temperature at the generator outlet 
is 2 to S^C (preferably 6°C). The new method is recom- 



mended for the suppression of fires of combustible liquids 
with a specific weight less than water and high volatiUty. 
Examples of extinguishing test fires of methanol and car- 
bon disulphide demonstrate the high efficiency of the 
method. 

1013. Stoeffler BH 

APPARATUS FOR FILLING CONTAINERS WITH DIF- 
FICULTLY FLOW ABLE MATERIALS 

US Patent No. 3,942,561; C\ 141/67, (B65B 1/16), Appl 
11 Mar 1974, Disci 9 Mar 1976, Priority: Germany, Appl. 
7312224[U], 31 Mar 1973, Assignee: Vulcan-Werk Wilhelm 
Diebold, Germany 

Apparatus for filling containers with difficultly flowable 
material, comprising a separator including a filter, a fun- 
nel-shaped outlet, and a dust-free butterfly valve for con- 
trolling flow of powder through said outlet; and a suction 
device for conveying said powder by suction to said 
separator; said outlet adapted to be connected to the con- 
tainer to be filled; said separator being operable to filter 
powder from the air conveying said powder into the 
separator and allowing the separated powder to fall into 
said funnel-shaped outlet. The invention is especially 
designed for emptying and filUng fire-extinguishers. 8 
claims, 8 drawing figs. (Author) 




1014. Mark W and Landgraf W 

SYNTHETIC FOAM COMPOUND, ESPECIALLY FOR 
THE SUPPRESSION OF FIRES OF WATER-MISCIBLE 
ORGANIC LIQUIDS 

FRG Patent No. 1,621,721; CI A62d 1/00, Appl 11 Nov 
1967, Disci 17 Apr 1975, Assignee: Total Foerstner und 
Co 

The foam compound is a synthetic agent containing a 
wetting material as the foam-making component, such as 
ethanolamide polyglycol ester of an aUphatic acid 
(monoethanolamide polyglycol ester of coconut acid, 



201 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



8. FIRE OPERATIONS: PREVENTION AND SUPPRESSION 

b. Extinguishing Agents and Additives — Continued 



diethanolamide polyglycol ester of lauric acid, or mixtures 
of them), high-polymeric substances of vegetable or 
synthetic origin, which, when the foam compound con- 
tacts the burning fluid, form an intermediate layer (e.g., 
thermally depolymerized alginate) and a foam regulator 
(glycol esters). Data are given from comparative tests of 
the new compound and a compound in which sulfonate 
was used instead of ethanolamide polyglycol ester. The 
time required for complete disintegration of a foam layer 
applied to the surface of 300 ml of burning methanol 
in a porcelain basin with a volume of 1000 ml was 12 
min for the new compound and 1 min for the sulfonate, 
test conditions being the same. (RZh) 

1015. Corrie JG 

THE EFFECT OF FOAM LIQUID CONCENTRATIONS 
ON FIRE PERFORMANCE ON LABORATORY FIRES. 

Dept of the Environ and Fire Offices' Committee (UK), 
Fire Res Station; Fire Res Note 1047, 9 pages, 4 figs, 
3 refs, Jan 1976 

The effect of deterioration of foaming solutions of 
fluoroprotein and fluorochemical liquids has been simu- 
lated by dilution, and the consequent change in per- 
formance has been measured by means of the new 0.25 
mutest fire described in PR Note No. 1007. The results 
obtained are compared with earlier ones on the Defence 
Standard 42-3 fire of 0.28 m^area, over which the new 
fire is shown to have advantages. (Author) 

C. HYDRAULICS AND WATER SUPPLIES 

1016. Browet L 

WATER REQUIREMENTS FOR FIRE EXTINGUISH- 
MENT - 1000 l/min OR 120 m] 

Rev Beige Feu; (30):34-37, 1976 (French) 

The Belgian departmental decree on the supply of water 
for life suppression by the communities has aroused 
critique from many sides. The author examines the in- 
dividual stipulations, which he then expands by resorting 
to practical experience. The topics examined are the pro- 
perties of the water; the question of the meaning of "1000 
l/min supply rate"; and the "2-hour period" during which 
this quantity of water must be available. The fire suppres- 
sion measures, which leave such broad room for in- 
terpretation, also result in discrepancies. It is emphasized 
that consumption is governed by the fire at hand and 
not by theoretical calculations, fluctuating between 225 
and 2100 l/min. 2 tables. (Fachdok 12/0914) 

1017. Merkle T 

OPERATING PRINCIPLE, DESIGN AND EXPERIENCE 
WITH PRESSURE REDUCERS IN WATER-SUPPLY 
TRUNK LINES 

Mitt Inst Wasserbau Univ Stuttgart; (35):423-437, 1975 
(German) 

Manufacturing and hydraulic requirements for water- 
pressure regulators in the water-supply lines of large 
power installations are discussed. The hydraulic charac- 
teristics and tactical data and specifications for various 
designs of water-pressure regulators are presented, and 
the regulations for their use are given. 



1018. Briers E 

WATER REQUIREMENTS FOR FIRE SUPPRESSION. 
Part 1. Assoc Nat pour la Prot Contre I'lncendie 
(Belgium); DT 13, 21 pages, 10 figs, 14 tables, 14 refs 
(French) 

Deciding on the fire-fighting means in an occupancy 
is usually not a simple problem. It requires thorough study 
of the hazard and a subsequent study of the means to 
be employed. In most cases the extinguishing agent will 
be water, and the problem to be solved will consist in 
applying the water to the fire at the desired time in suffi- 
cient quantity and in the most suitable form. The aim 
of this report is to facilitate understanding and resolution 
of the problems which arise in this area, especially with 
regard to evaluation of the water requirements, the supply 
process, and calculations of facilities. (Author) 

d. INSPECTION 

1019. Anon 

FIRE PREVENTION IN PLANTS 

Bull mens Chambre Commerce ind Meurthe-et-Moselle; 
(10):21-26, 1975&13(French) 

In recent years the number of industrial fires and the 
losses resulting from them has been increasing. The chief 
reason is industrial growth: increase in the area and size 
of industrial buildings, increase in cost per unit area, and 
the use of materials on a polymer base, with increased 
fire hazard, in structures. The sequence of procedures 
estabhshed in France for the inspection of industrial enter- 
prises, by insurance organizations, is briefly described. 
The principal requirements for various buildings and facto- 
ries are enumerated. The use of fire-hazardous materials 
in construction may lead to a 100% increase in insurance 
premiums. The steps that can be taken to reduce insurance 
premiums are listed. It is noted that the problem of ensur- 
ing fire safety in industry is so serious and difficult that 
it should be the concern of all involved, not only the 
insurance companies. 3 figs. (RZh) 

1020. Almagambetov N 

WAYS OF IMPROVING THE OPERATING EFFICIENCY 
OF STATE FIRE INSPECTION AGENCIES (USSR) 

Pozhar delo; (4):8-9, 1976 (Russian) 

A critique is made of the ineffectiveness of district and 
municipal divisions of the State Fire Inspectorate of the 
USSR. The reason for ineffectiveness is the short time 
spent in inspection functions, as revealed by a time-effi- 
ciency study of the inspection staff. Ways of improving 
performance are suggested. 

e. OPERATIONAL PROBLEMS 

1021. RodeK 

THE ART OF COMMANDING TACTICAL FIRE UNITS 
AND VEHICLE COLUMNS 

Brandhilfe; 23(6): 130-132, 1976 (German) 

Correct leadership in the fire service and the qualifica- 
tions of leaders in general are discussed in this article. 
The fire-service officer should concern himself with the 
relatively simple conceptual model of how to "command 
tactical units" and should use the model as a basis for 



202 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



8. FIRE OPERATIONS: PREVENTION AND SUPPRESSION 

e. Operational Problems — Continued 



his command task, his deliberations and decisions. He 
should also master the most important aspects of how 
to "control vehicle columns". In a concluding section 
an attempt is made to define the concept "disaster". 2 
figs. (Fachdok 12/0905) 

1022. Lankau IE 

A RECENT FEDERAL SUPREME COURT (FRG) DECI- 
SION ON SPECIAL PRIVILEGES AND RIGHT-OF-WAY 
IN THE TRAFFIC REGULATIONS 

Brandschutz; 30(7):168-169, 1976 (German) 

In a recently published decision (BGH, Opinion VI ZR, 
dated Dec 16, 1974) the Federal Supreme Court (FRG) 
has taken a position with regard to certain aspects of 
special rights and the right-of-way as expressed in the 
traffic regulations. The guiding principle of the decision 
is worded as follows: motor vehicles with privileges ac- 
cording to paragraph 38 of the Traffic Regulations, when 
they have turned on their blue lights and acoustic signals, 
are permitted to take advantage of the open lane made 
for them by other road users even if they should stop. 
This holds even when the right-of-way is regulated by 
hght signals. The case on which the review decision is 
based is cited. The traffic regulation text is given in full 
in an insert. (For related articles see pp 170-171, 172- 
173, 174 and 192 of this issue of Brandschutz.) (Fachdok 
12/0858) 

1023. Rath K 

THE DUTY TO EXERCISE CARE WHEN INVOKING 
THE "SPECIAL PRIVILEGES" GRANTED BY THE 
TRAFFIC REGULATIONS 

Brandschutz; 30(7):170-171, 1976 (German) 

Attention is drawn to the fact that opinions expressed 
with regard to the old version of the Traffic Regulations 
remain in force, since the legal situation of the new para- 
graphs 35 and 38 of the Traffic Regulations has undergone 
only a formal change compared to the old version of 
paragraph 48. A Federal Supreme Court (FRG) decision 
from Jan 11, 1971, and the facts of the case on which 
the decision was based, are discussed, and the rules of 
conduct derived from this opinion for drivers of vehicles 
exercising the right-of-way are pointed out. The driver 
of such a vehicle may make use of his special privilege 
only when all indications show that another road user 
has noticed him and yields him these privileges. (For re- 
lated articles see pp 168-169, 172-173, 174 and 192 of 
this issue of Brandschutz.) (Fachdok 12/0882) 

f. PUBLIC EDUCATION AND PUBLIC RELATIONS 

1024. Koenig G 

TEENAGE GIRLS IN THE YOUTH FIRE SERVICE 

Feuerwehr; 26(4):96-97, 1976 (German) 

The youth fire-service supervisor of the District of Stade 
(FRG) reports on his experience with the two-year-old 
youth fire service of Drachtersen, to which girls also be- 
long. At the start of the program an entire catalog of 
problems to be solved was compiled, but these problems 
soon proved to be only theoretical. The female members 
(13-16 age group) turned out to be more sensible than 
boys of the same age, worked more intensely with and 



exhibited the same interest in the firefighting equipment 
as the boys; in short, the girls' performance in the 
firefighting equipment area was outstanding. Nothing more 
could be expected of the teamwork of the group members 
either. (Fachdok 12/0623) 

g. RESCUE OPERATIONS 

1025. Kropivyanskiy V 

EXPERIENCE IN TRAINING BREATHING APPARATUS 
TEAMS 

Pozhar dele; (1): 19, 1976 (Russian) 

Team and section chiefs of the gas and smoke protection 
service of the Lvov Fire Protection Administration are 
trained in organizing rescue work either on the training 
grounds or at various plants of the district. Training 
covers methods of evacuating valuable items, extinguish- 
ing fires, as well as coordination between the reconnais- 
sance team, the safety command post and the breathing 
apparatus teams at the command and control point. The 
team training schedules and programs are outhned. 

1026. Anon 

OPTIMUM GUIDING SYSTEM FOR EVACUEES DUR- 
ING AN EMERGENCY 

Technocrat (Japan); 9(1):88, 1976 

The Matsushita Electric Works (Japan) has worked out 
a system of signs and symbols to aid evacuation in case 
of fires in buildings or in underground shopping centers. 
The direction is indicated by arrows; the way in which 
the arrow points can be changed to conform to the op- 
timum direction of motion of the flow of evacuees. The 
system consists of a control panel, signal lamps, emergen- 
cy exit signs and fire alarm devices In case of fire, 
the system indicates the point where the fire has broken 
out and the most favorable evacuation route shows up 
on the control panel. The location of the exits is indicated 
by lights and buzzers, which guide people when vision 
is clouded by smoke. 

1027. Anon 

SAFE TO GROUND THROUGH THE CHUTE 

ZS Magazin; (6): 20-21, 1976 (German) 

A new expedient for rapid evacuation of highrise re- 
sidents in case of fire and other disasters was demon- 
strated at the end of May (1976) at the administrative 
building of a large insurance company in Cologne (FRG). 
The expedient was a rescue chute through which people 
can slide safely to ground alongside a building. This device 
is promising for faster and less hazardous evacuation of 
endangered buildings, especially in the case of highrise 
fires, than has been provided to date by more conven- 
tional means, s^ch as ladders and the like. The chute 
is manufactured in Japan in lengths of 150m and is made 
of heat-resistant fabric. The fabric is not supposed to 
require any maintenance. 3 figs. (Fachdok 12/0862) 

1028. Fujita T 

OPTIMIZATION OF THE STRATEGY FOR EVACUA- 
TION FROM FIRES CAUSED BY A STRONG 
EARTHQUAKE. SIMULATION OF THE FIRE SPREAD- 
ING IN URBAN AREAS 

Keisoku jido seigyo gakkai ronbunshu; ll(5):501-507, 1975 
(Japanese; English summary) 



203 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 

8. FIRE OPERATIONS: PREVENTION AND SUPPRESSION 

g. Rescue Operations — Continued 



The choice of an optimal strategy and routes for the 
evacuation of people during fires caused by earthquakes 
is an urgent problem for Japan, which is subjected to 
frequent seismic effects of varying intensity. A brief sur- 
vey is made of the evacuation plans developed to date 
for different Japanese cities. It is noted that this problem 
can be solved effectively in general form only by an 
analytical approach using machine information-processing 
methods, since physical modelhng cannot take into ac- 
count all the statistical factors, but can solve the problem 
only under certain specific conditions for individual cases. 
An analytical method is proposed for setting up computer 
programs based on the theory of fire spread, the so-called 
"small contour" theory. This theory takes into account 
the area engulfed in fire, or any fire source, as a set 
of an infinitely large number of vanishingly small sources. 
Each such elementary fire source has equiprobable charac- 
teristics of fire spread in all directions and in rate of 
spread. In constructing potential topological maps of fires 
for specific areas of a city, the elementary characteristics 
are summed algegraically and vectorially ; as a result, the 
directions of subsequent spread are predicted on the basis 
of the configuration of the fire-engulfed area. 11 figs, 
7 refs. (RZh) 

1029. Zephinie G 

EVACUATION SYSTEM PARTICULARLY APPLICABLE 
FOR THE RESCUE OF ENDANGERED PERSONS 

French Patent No. 2,232,920; CI A62B 1/00, B65g 11/00, 
Appl 5 Jan 1973, Disci 3 Jan 1975 

The system is an improved design of a well-known 
rescue means in the form of a chute. It is proposed to 
make the chute not all in one piece, but sectional, so 
that when in use, the wide upper portions of each section 
are at the window level of a building. This permits evacua- 
tion from any floor without changing the location of the 
entire device. The chute is made in two layers, which 
improves braking and insulation from possible heat 
sources. A pneumatic pocket to serve as a landing buffer 
is provided in the lower portion. A continuous cable with 
devices to hold people is proposed in one of the versions. 
In this case the rate of descent is controlled by means 
of an electric motor with cable connection. Several ver- 
sions of devices for affixing the chute to the building 
are described. The chute can be used in combination with 
a derrick. 11 drawing figs. (Author) 

1030. Smith CP, Jr 
EMERGENCY RESCUE DEVICE 

US Patent No. 3,931,868; CI 182/63, (A62B 1/02), Appl 
12 Aug 1974, Disci 13 Jan 1976 

A helicopter-supported gondola is provided with means 
for stabilizing the position of the gondola with respect 
to the exterior wall of a building so that people trapped 
within the building may be removed from it and safely 
lowered to the ground. Means are provided for stabihzing 
the gondola so that the downdraft from the helicopter 
can be used to control the position of the gondola, and 
other means are provided to hold the gondola firmly to 
the side of the building so that people may move from 
the building to the gondola. 8 claims, 8 drawing figs. 
(Author) 




1031. Dorcich RL 
ESCAPE ELEVATOR 

US Patent No. 3,945,469; CI 187/6, (B66B 9/00), Appl 
4 Jan 1974, Disci 23 Mar 1976 

The invention comprises an escape elevator which is 
especially useful with tall building. The escape elevator 
slides up and down the outside of the building along a 
pair of spaced tracks. The tracks serve to hold the eleva- 
tor close to the building as well as to provide guidance 
for the up-and-down motion of the elevator. The elevator 
car or cage extends to either side of the tracks sufficiently 
to overlap egresses from the building such as balconies. 
The power winches which operate the elevator are located 
adjacent to the top of the building. A shielded cable is 
provided which leads from the winches to a point adjacent 
to the ground floor of the building. A remote control 
box is attachable at the point adjacent to the ground floor 
of the building. Also attachable at the control box is an 
external power supply to which power to operate the 
elevator is supplied. The elevator is thus not dependent 
upon the internal power supply of the building. The 
remote control device can be operated from a considerable 




204 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



8. FIRE OPERATIONS. PREVENTION AND SUPPRESSION 

g. Rescue Operations— Continued 



distance from the building, whereby the operator, who 
in most cases will be a fireman, can best observe the 
fire in the building and direct rescue and fire-fighting ef- 
forts. 9 claims, 7 drawing figs. (Author) 



1032. Hunter CR 
PORTABLE FIRE ESCAPE 

US Patent No. 3,949,832; CI 182/7, (A62B 1/14), Appl 
4 Dec 1974, Disci 13 Apr 1976 

An elongated flexible tension member is provided in- 
cluding a first end attachable to an upper floor portion 
of a building and a free end portion which may depend 
downwardly to ground level. A slide member is engaged 
with the tension member for guided movement therealong 
and defines a handgrip to be held by a user moving 
downwardly along the tension member with the sUde. The 
sUde further supports a seat portion therebelow upon 
which the user may be seated while grasping the handgrip 
defining slide and moving downwardly therewith. Also, 
the sUde includes readily actuatable and deactuatable fric- 
tion brake and clamping structure for selectivity and 
variably braking the descent of the slide and seat portion 
supported therefrom along the tension member. 10 claims, 
7 drawing figs. (Author) 




1033. Okada S 

MULTIFLOOR-TYPE ESCAPE BRIDGE APPARATUS 

FOR USE IN MULTI-STORY BUILDING 

US Patent No. 3,951,232; CI 182/84, (E04G 3/00), Appl 
4 Dec 1973, Disci 20 Apr 1976, Assignee: Tokyo Shutter 
Co, Ltd, Osaka, Japan 



This invention provides a multifloor type escape bridge 
apparatus between two buildings for use in highrise 
buildings in an emergency situation, such as fire. In a 
normal situation, the necessary members, e.g., expanders, 
floor boards, suspension ropes and winding mechanisms, 
are suspended in folded position beneath a support means. 
In case of emergency, the expanders secured to the sup- 
port means are lowered so as to place at each floor of 
the building, a board providing connections between cor- 
responding openings at the opposite walls of adjacent 
buildings, enabling individuals to escape from one building 
to the other. 14 claims, 9 drawing figs. (Author) 



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1034. Anon 

DEVICE TO RETAIN A DOOR FOR A SET PERIOD 

OF TIME 

French Patent No. 2,244,363; CI E05C 17/08, Appl 19 
Sept 1973, Disci 11 Apr 1975, Assignee: SERPRO 

This device is intended to keep fire doors equipped 
with an automatic closing system open for a fixed period 
of time to allow personnel to escape through these doors 
and to ensure closing of the doors in case of fire. The 
device is a cylindrical housing containing a bolt which 
holds the doors open by engaging a stop in the wall ad- 
jacent to the doors. The bolt is actuated by two springs, 
one fixed to the top of the housing, the other to a piston 
with valves moving within the housing, which is filled 
with a viscous fluid. Under the pressure of the springs, 
the fluid is forced upward by the piston into the space 
above it, the piston moves down and the bolt is released 
from the catch in the stop; then the doors close automati- 
cally. The open-door time is governed by the time required 
to displace the fluid, which depends on the viscosity of 
the fluid and the size of the space between the housing 
walls and the doors. When released, the bolt displaces 
the piston, opening the valves in it and preparing the 
device for a new operating cycle. The housing contains 
a plug made of a readily fusible material. When a fire 
breaks out, the device stops operating, and the door is 
kept from closing. 5 drawing figs. (RZh) 



205 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



8. FIRE OPERATIONS: PREVENTION AND SUPPRESSION 

g. Rescue Operations — Continued 



1035. Anon 

HYDRAULIC RETARDING DEVICE FOR A FIRE PRO- 
TECTION INSTALLATION 

French Patent No. 2,240,606; CI A62C 37/00, Appl 10 
Aug 1973, Disci 7 Mar 1975, Assignee: Cie Centrale Sicli 

The invention relates to an automatic device for cover- 
ing hatches in fire doors after personnel alarmed by a 
warning signal have left a danger zone. The hydraulic 
retarder has two chambers. After a detector has signaled 
the outbreak of a fire, the fire warning device is triggered 
and fluid entering the retarder begins to flow over from 
one chamber into the other through a special calibration 
aperture with diameter chosen as a function of the desired 
time of delay of the actuator signal. When all the fluid 
has drained from one chamber into the other, a plunger 
rises, forcing fluid into the pipeline, which forms the 
signal for actuating the fire device. 1 drawing fig. (RZh) 

1036. Melinek SJ and Baldwin R 

EVACUATION OF BUILDINGS - SOME EFFECTS OF 
CHANGES IN PERFORMANCE STANDARDS. Building 
Res Estab (UK), Fire Res Station; BRE CP-95-75, 6 pages, 
4 figs, 1 table, 8 refs, Oct 1975 

The object of the present paper is to explore the effects 
of making small changes in the time allowed for evacua- 
tion and the number of floors to be evacuated. These 
effects will be of two kinds: a) changes in cost: more 
staircase capacity will cost more; b) changes in evacuation 
time for the whole building. 

A decrease in overall evacuation time represents, poten- 
tially, a situation of greater safety, although data on 
behavior of people in fires would be required to assess 
this increase in numerical terms. However, this increase 
in safety would be balanced by an increased cost, either 
in construction, or through loss of amenity, and it is this 
cost which is the main concern of this paper. 

The effect of changes in evacuation performance on 
the exit capacity required is assessed by using data on 
the movement of crowds, recently reviewed by Melinek 
and Booth. It will be postulated that, in office buildings 
at least, the cost is determined primarily by the loss of 
earnings through loss of rentable space. (Author) 

1037. Nash P 

THE EXTINCTION OF AIRCRAFT CRASH FIRES. Build- 
ing Res Estab (UK), Fire Res Station; BRE CP-53-76, 
8 pages, 10 figs, 8 refs, Jul 1976 

This paper discusses one of the most severe fire situa- 
tions, the aircraft crash fire, its problems and the develop- 
ment of extinguishing agents. The paper was reprinted 
from Fire Prevention, 1976, No. 112, pp. 24-30. See FTA 
1(1/2), abstract 25. 

1038. MeUnek SJ 

AN ANALYSIS OF EVACUATION TIMES FROM 

BUILDINGS; Paper No. 5 

Control of Smoke Movement in Building Fires Symp, CIB, 

Proc, Vol 1 - Papers; 1975, Nov 4-5, Garston, Watford, 

UK, pages 49-58 

Sponsor: Fire Res Sta, Bldg Res Estab (UK) 

The evacuation of buildings to a protected area 
represented by a staircase is considered. Data for the 



estimation of total evacuation time from buildings are 
presented. 2 figs, 1 table, 18 refs. (Author) 

1039. Bazjanac V 

INTERACTIVE SIMULATION OF BUILDING EVACUA- 
TION WITH ELEVATORS 

Annual Simulation Symp, 9th, Rec of Proc; 1976, Mar 
17-19, Tampa, FL, pages 15-29 
Sponsor: IEEE 

This report describes a minicomputer-based interactive 
simulation model which was used to experiment with 
strategies of partial and total evacuation in office buildings 
in downtown San Francisco. Experiments show that eleva- 
tors can move a lot of people to safety even during brief 
periods of safe operation at the beginning of emergency, 
if the evacuation is preplanned and started promptly. 5 
refs. (Author) 

h. TACTICS 

1040. Angermair T ■ ..- 
HELICOPTERS IN FIRE-SERVICE OPERATIONS 

Brandaus; 84(5):167-170, 1976 (German) 

The effectiveness of helicopters in fire-extinguishing 
operations (forest fires) and rescue operations (highrises) 
is the subject of this article. The operational tactics of 
the two "Lama" helicopters of the Innsbruck (Austria) 
fire department, which are available day and night, are 
outlined. The rescue sequence during a disaster exercise 
at the Voest highrise in Innsbruck using various rescue 
devices is described and the rescue capacity of the in- 
dividual devices during this exercise is illustrated in a 
table, from which conclusions are drawn. 2 figs, 1 table. 
(Fachdok 12/0815) 

1041 . Anon 

DUAL FOAM ATTACK ON SHIP FIRE 

Fire Internal; 5(52):41-42, 1976 (EngUsh, French, German; 
Spanish summary) 

Both medium- and high-expansion foams were used suc- 
cessfully to control a serious fire in the engine room 
and one lower hold of an 8,000 ton motor vessel berthed 
in Salford Docks, England. The fire source in the engine 
room was burning oil, which ignited bales of cotton and 
Arcton cylinders in the hold. The firefighting measures 
are described. 2 photos. 



FIRE-FIGHTING 



1042. Hay ward ET 
DEVELOPMENTS IN SHIP 

PROCEDURES 

Fire Internat; 5(53):18-21, 1976 (English, French, German; 
Spanish summary) 

Considered are various aspects of British ship fire- 
fighting procedures, such as machine compartment fires 
in chemical carriers, requiring "boundary cooling"; the 
need for light-weight breathing apparatus with a minimum 
60-minute duration and rapid refilling (possible use of 
liquid oxygen); the effectiveness of various foam com- 
pounds (tests of the neglected medium-expansion foam 
are recommended); and the use of dry powder in bulk 
in mobile fire appliances. Oxygen-starved fires are also 
being studied at the Fire Research Station at Boreham- 
wood (UK). 



206 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



9. PLANNING 

h. Tactics— Continued 



1043. Tanner AC 

FIGHTING FIRES ON VERY LARGE CRUDE CAR- 
RIERS 

Fire Internal; 5(52):28-32, 1976 (English, French, German; 
Spanish summary) 

Crude oil cargoes present a considerable fire and explo- 
sion risk, especially when the tanks are empty but still 
gassing. Most tanker fires result from spillage, explosion 
and collision. Particular attention is devoted to fighting 
tank fires, the principal requirement being the supply of 
adequate foam compound and delivery equipment. Some 
aspects of fighting tank fires are presented for various 
types of tank damage, especially for a tank that has been 
holed. Methods of attacking burning oil on the water and 
in the superstructure are suggested. An attempt should 
be made to acquire a copy of the loading schedule indicat- 
ing full and empty tanks. Boarding the vessel is only 
at the Master's request, and he will also authorize the 
use of foam compound. 1 photo. 

1044. Kasawara Y 

TESTS OF A CL-215 FIREFIGHTING AIRCRAFT 

Kasai; 25(4): 234-240, 1975 (Japanese) 

The parameters of a speciaUzed CL-215 firefighting air- 
craft are given, along with a description of the design 
and operating principle as well as of operational flight 
tests. This aircraft is intended for use in extinguishing 
major forest fires, fires in rural areas, floating oil fires, 
fires in coastal and port installations, oil tankers, and 
the like. A sod landing strip measuring 450 x 50 m is 
sufficient for takeoff and landing. A high-expansion fire- 
extinguishing foam is prepared in the aircraft by mixing 
specific proportions of a high-expansion fire-extinguishing 
powder and water, 5.8 tons of which are held in an 
on-board container. The test results illustrate the effective- 
ness of using an aircraft to extinguish the different kinds 
of fires under various meteorological conditions. A review 
is given of the aircraft and helicopter fire-fighting means 
available in Japan. 9 figs. (RZh) 

1045. Guise AB 

HOW TO FIGHT NATURAL GAS FIRES 

Fire Internal; 5(53):41-49, 1976 (English, French, German; 
Spanish summary) 

A study of data from 241 fire tests leads to five recom- 
mejjd^ations on how to cope with natural gas fires: (1) 
assume that all fires in escaping natural gas will be imping- 
ing fires, (2) use potassium bicarbonate-base dry chemical 
where wood fires are unlikely to result from the original 
gas fire or where water is available, (3) use multi-purpose 
dry chemical where water is not available and fires are 
likely to occur in wooded or brush areas, (4) use mobile 
equipment with hoselines equipped with nozzles that 
produce high-velocity concentrated streams at the highest 
dry chemical flow rates manageable by one person, (5) 
provide special reflective clothing for the firefighters and 
reflective head covering having a large plastic face shield 
for wide vision. 8 figs, 1 table. (Author) 



1046. Evans EM and Nash P 

THE BASE INJECTION OF FOAMS INTO FUEL 
STORAGE TANKS 

Fire Prev Sci Technol; (14):18-26, 1976 (English; German 
and French summaries) 

Various systems for injecting protein and fluoroprotein 
foams beneath the surface of gasohne and kerosene stored 
in fixed-roof tanks of 6.1 and 10.6 m diameter and 6.1 
m height were investigated. The development of the foam 
layer was observed and the fuel pick-up was measured. 
It was concluded that the method should be effective 
for extinguishing fires in larger tanks. 3 figs, 4 plates, 
8 tables, 3 refs. (Author) 

1047. Tesoro G and Backer S 
ESTINGUISHMENT IN APPAREL TEXTILES. Mas 

sachusetts Inst of Technol, Fibers and Polymers Div; NBS 
GCR-76-71, 60 pages, Oct 1975 
AvaUabiUty: NTIS PB-254 751/lGA 

An experimental investigation of the extinguishability 
during combustion of various apparel fabrics was con- 
ducted. Cotton, wool, nylon, cotton/polyester and FR cot- 
ton/polyester were ranked according to burning behavior 
under test conditions of DOC-FF-3-71 with the addition 
of heat sinks near the fabric. Stationary and movable 
heat sinks of various thermophysical properties, 
geometries, dimensions and speeds were considered. It 
was found that extinguishability is affected by fiber type 
and finish, by weight per unit area and structure. Two 
parameters were identified to measure relative extinguisha- 
bility: (1) minimum constant spacing (between fabric and 
heat sink) needed to induce extinguishment, and (2) the 
maximum char length obtained after extinguishment in the 
case of a variable fabric-to-heat-sink spacing. It is con- 
cluded that relative differences in ease of extinguishment 
of nonthermoplastic fabrics can be quantitatively and 
reproducibly measured. Color illustrations reproduced in 
black and white. (Author) 



9. PLANNING 

a. BUDGETING 

1048. Mork E and Reiser JW 

A FIRE SERVICE DEMAND CHARGE STUDY. Tacoma 

Fire Dept, Tacoma, WA; NSF RA-760036, 118 pages, Jan 

1976 

AvailabiUty: NTIS PB-252 605/lGA 

The research analyzes the demand for public fire protec- 
tion service from various types of property. The cost 
of providing the service was then compared with the 
financial constributions made for that service. Ways for 
reducing disproportionate fire-flow requirements were 
sought. "A Fire Service Demand Charge System" was 
sought which rewards property owners for reducing de- 
mands for service from public fire protection and dis- 
tributes the cost for providing fire protection more 
equitably among its users. This study proposes a fire ser- 
vice demand charge to be placed on buildings making 
excessive demands upon public fire protection. The Fire 
Service Demand Charge would provide the building owner 
another tool to consider when making decisions about 



207 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



9. PLANNING 

a. Budgeting— Continued 

installing private fire protection. Small building owners 
would then not be subsidizing cost for public fire protec- 
tion for buildings other than their own, as a sampling 
of Tacoma indicates they now do. There would be a 

gradual downward pressure on cost for public fire protec- 
tion as private fire protection reduces demand. (Author) 

b. LOGISTICS 

1049. Walker WE 

THE DEPLOYMENT OF EMERGENCY SERVICES: A 
GUIDE TO SELECTED METHODS AND MODELS. New 

York City Rand Inst; R-1867-HUD, 71 pages, Sep 1975 
AvailabUity: NTIS PB-253 395/8GA 

A nontechnical summary is presented of the models 
and methods to assist in the analysis of problems as- 
sociated with the deployment of emergency vehicles such 
as poUce cars, fire engines, and ambulances. Personnel 
of emergency service agencies and local government offi- 
cials, especially those involved in planning for the delivery 
of emergency services, should find this report a useful 
guide to some of the available tools for setting deployment 
objectives, measuring performance, and developing new 
poUcies. In addition to descriptions of eight deployment 
models, six case studies are described in which the models 
were used as part of a deployment study. Other reports 
are also described, including a training course in deploy- 
ment of emergency services, a review of police patrol 
allocation methodologies, and a review of deployment 
methodologies for fire departments. (Author) 

1050. Chaiken JM, Ignall EJ and Walker WE 
DEPLOYMENT METHODOLOGY FOR FIRE DEPART- 
MENTS. HOW STATION LOCATIONS AND 
DISPATCHING PRACTICES CAN BE ANALYZED AND 
IMPROVED. New York City Rand Inst; R-1853-HUD, 80 
pages, Sep 1975 

AvaUabUity: NTIS PB-253 394/lGA 

This report, written primarily for fire department ad- 
ministrators and planners, reviews mathematical models 
that have been developed to assist fire departments in 
analyzing and improving the deployment of their fire- 
fighting resources. The methods have been tested and 
applied in cities across the country. The key issues 
discussed are: Determining the number of fire companies 
to have on duty city-wide and in each region; determining 
locations for firehouses; developing a policy for redeploy- 
ing fire companies when large numbers of companies are 
busy at fires; and developing a policy for dispatching 
fire companies to alarms. The appropriate models are 
described and compared, but not discussed in detail, since 
the reader is directed to source documents. Also included 
is a hst of steps that should be followed in performing 
a well-managed deployment study. (Author) 



c. OPERATIONS ANALYSIS 

10. HUMAN BEHAVIOR, SOCIAL, AND 

MEDICAL PROBLEMS 

[For more complete coverage of the behavioral and 
medical literature see: Psychology Abstracts and 
Index Medicus.] 

a. ARSON 

1051. Anon 

ARSON: SOME PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS 

Nat Fire Prot Assoc, Boston, MA; 146 pages, 1976 

The book is a compilation of thirty-five recent articles 
from Fire Journal, Fire Command, and Fire Technology 
on the serious problems of arson in the U.S. Tips on 
arson investigation and prevention are given with detailed 
accounts of incendiary fires, some fatal, in all occupan- 
cies. The book is intended for arson investigation officials 
and fire department training programs. 

1052. Moll KD 

ARSON PSYCHOLOGY AND PUBLIC POLICY 

Fireline; :3-5, May 1976 

The article deals with the question of why people start 
fires. Eight classes of malicious fires are identified: 
l)fraud fires to collect insurance; 2) poHtical fires to dra- 
matize an issue; 3) "pyro" fires for emotional relief or 
sexual gratification; 4) crime cover up; 5) spite fires; 6) 
vanity fires to glorify the individual; 7) "psycho" fires 
without rational motive; and 8) vandalism fires for excite- 
ment. Three possible methods of suppressing criminal mo- 
tives are suggested: education of the general public, reha- 
bilitation of criminals already caught; and deterrence of 
potential criminals through the threat of punishment. 5 
refs. 

b. COMBUSTION TOXICOLOGY 

1053 Parks S 

INHALATION INJURY IN BURN PATIENTS 

West J Med; 124(3):244-248, 1976 

The article deals with inhalation injury in the form of 
a discussion within the framework of "trauma rounds" 
The patient under discussion is an 18-year old male who, 
while under the influence of drugs, fell asleep while smok- 
ing and sustained burns involving both arms. Apparently 
inhalation injury also resulted. The course of medical 
treatment is discussed. Possible causes are determined on 
the basis of tables of carbon monoxide poisoning and 
carboxyhemoglobin levels, severity and symptoms, and 
sources of noxious chemicals in smoke (compound-nox- 
ious combustion products). 2 tables. 

1054. Truhart R, Boudenec and Jouany JM 
STUDY OF THE ACUTE TOXICITY OF MAJOR TOXI- 
CANTS PRODUCED DURING COMBUSTION OR 
PYROLYSIS OF MATERIALS 

Arch Mai Prof Med Trav Secur Soc; 36(12): 707-738, 1975 
(French) 



208 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



10. HUMAN BEHAVIOR, SOCIAL, AND MEDICAL PROBLEMS 

b. Combustion Toxicology— Continued 



The symptoms and mechanism of intoxication for 30 
min. from major toxicants involved in pyrolysis and com- 
bustion products, i.e., CO, COz HCl and HCN, and the 
recovery conditions were studied in rats and rabbits. The 
intoxication methods were spontaneous and controlled 
ventilation. A three-coordinate physiogram was set up for 
every condition to permit comparison between the dif- 
ferent compounds or conditions of intoxication. Arterial 
pressure, EKG and EEG were continuously recorded dur- 
ing intoxication and for a four-hour recovery period. The 
lack of O2, CO and HCN induces different kinds of cellu- 
lar hypoxia; HCl acts as a very agressive gas, but its 
toxicity depends greatly on the amount penetrating the 
respiratory tract. The aspects of intoxication and the pos- 
sibility of immediate recovery in each case are described. 
16 figs, 8 tables, 4 refs. 

1055. Michal J 

TOXICITY OF PYROLYSIS AND COMBUSTION 
PRODUCTS OF POLY-(VINYL CHLORIDE) 

Fire Mater, l(2):57-62, 1976 

The pyrolysis and combustion products of poly-(vinyl 
chloride) and those of some of its polymers, especially 
copolymers of vinyl chloride with vinylfdene chloride, 
were analysed using gas chromatography and gas chro- 
matography mass spectrometry. The toxic effect of the 
individual products on the human organism was evaluated 
and presumed total toxicity of the poly-(vinyl chloride) 
combustion products (0.3 g PVC products per m^) was 
determined. 3 figs, 1 table, 17 refs. (Author) 

1056. Bowes PC, Edgington JAG and Lynch RD 

THE INHALATION TOXICITY OF POLY-VINYL 
CHLORIDE PYROLYSIS PRODUCTS. Dept of the En- 
viron and Fire Offices' Committee (UK), Fire Res Station; 
Fire Res Note 1048, 36 pages, 2 tables, 15 refs, Feb 1976 

A limited study has be^n made of the toxic effects 
of hydrogen chloride, representing the major toxic com- 
ponent of the pyrolysis products of polyvinyl chloride, 
in the presence of carbon monoxide generated by the 
combustion of a wood-based material (hardboard). 

In the presence of the mixed gases, at concentrations 
within the range of approximately 2000-20,000 mg/m?, 
deaths among rats and guinea pigs exposed for 30 minutes 
were primarily due to carbon monoxide poisoning, but 
the hydrogen chloride was found to enhance the response 
to the carbon monoxide. However, this enhancement oc- 
curred mainly at concentrations of hydrogen chloride 
which could be lethal when present alone. 

There appears to be sufficient evidence available to in- 
dicate that the presence of hydrogen chloride at lethal 
concentrations in fire gases containing lethal concentra- 
tions of carbon monoxide could marginally increase the 
fatalities in fires. It is probable, however, that the most 
important effects of the presence of hydrogen chloride 
will accompany sub-lethal exposures, first because the 
highly irritant nature of the gas may result in more people 
being prevented from using escape routes in the early 
stages of fires in buildings by concentrations of fire gases 
and smoke which may be otherwise relatively harmless 
at the time and, second, because survivors may suffer 
long-term, even permanent, injury from high concentra- 
tions of this gas. These are the aspects which appear 
most to require further study. (Author) 



1057. Gaume JG 

ANIMAL EXPOSURE DURING BURN TESTS. Douglas 
Aircraft Co, Inc, Long Beach, CA; NASA CR- 137802, 
MDC J7133, 64 pages, Jan 1976 
Availability: NTIS N76-2080O/8GA 

An animal exposure test system (AETS) has been 
designed and fabricated for the purpose of collecting 
physiological and environmental (temperature) data from 
animal subjects exposed to combustion gases in large- 
scale fire tests. The AETS consists of an open wire mesh, 
two-compartment cage, one containing an exercise wheel 
for small rodents, and the other containmg one rat instru- 
mented externally for electrocardiogram and respiration. 
The ECG and respiration sensors are located in a belt 
placed around the torso of the subject, electrode wires 
forming an umbilical to a connector in the top of the 
compartment. A cable extends from the connector to the 
power supply and signal-conditioning electronics. These 
are connected to a dual-beam oscilloscope for real-time 
monitoring and a magnetic tape recorder having three or 
more channels. Endpoints observed are bradycardia, car- 
diac arrhythmias, changes in respiratory pattern, respirato- 
ry arrest and cardiac arrest. The ECG record also appears 
to be a good method of monitoring animal activity as 
indicated by an increase in EMG noise superimposed on 
the record during increased activity of the torso muscula- 
ture. Examples of the recordings are presented and 
discussed as to their significance regarding toxicity of fire 
gases. (Author) 

1058. Crockett PW 

TOXICITY OF GASEOUS HALOGENATED ORGANIC 
COMPOUNDS (A BIBLIOGRAPHY WITH ABSTRACTS). 

Nat Tech Inf Service, Springfield, VA; NTIS PS- 
76/0432/5GA, 93 pages, Jun 1976 
Availability: NTIS 

Subject areas include toxicological studies on 
halogenated hydrocarbon gases used as fire extinguishers, 
anesthetics, solvents, pesticides, and aerosol propellants. 
(This updated bibliography contains 88 abstracts, 18 of 
which are new entries to the previous edition). 

1059. Saito F 

EVALUATION FOR THE TOXICITY OF COMBUSTION 
PRODUCTS. Ministry of Constr, Tokyo, Japan, Bldg Res 
Inst; BRI 65, 24 pages, 11 figs, 4 tables, 7 refs. Mar 
1976 

An evaluation method is derived for the toxicity of a 
single gas component (CO and HCl), toxicity of gaseous 
mixtures, and the influence of temperature on the 
physiological effects of CO gas. The toxicity of com- 
bustion products is then determined by animal experimen- 
tation (mice) and a relation is derived between the com- 
position and concentration of the gas and the duration 
of exposure. 

1060. Tsuchiya Y and Sumi K 

TOXICITY OF DECOMPOSITION PRODUCTS - 
PHENOLIC RESIN. Nat Res Council of Canada, Div of 
Bldg Res; BRN !06, 8 pages, 1 fig, 3 tables, 5 refs, Dec 
1975 

Toxic gases and vapors produced by fires are responsi- 
ble for the majority of deaths in building fires. In this 



209 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



10. HUMAN BEHAVIOR. SOCIAL, AND MEDICAL PROBLEMS 

b. Combustion Toxicology — Continued 



note, experimental data on the toxic decomposition 
(combustion and pyrolysis) products of phenol-formal- 
dehyde resin (phenolic resin) are presented and the toxic 
hazard created by the products is evaluated. Phenolic 
resins are used in the building industry as foam insulation 
and adhesives for laminates. (Author) 

1061. Saito F 

EVALUATING METHOD FOR THE TOXITY OF COM- 
BUSTION IN FIRE 

Human Behavior in Fire Symp, Main Reports; 1975, Nov 
20-21, Tokyo, Japan 
Sponsor: Japan Fire Sci Assoc, 

Some suggestions on evaluation of the toxicity of com- 
bustion products from construction materials are in- 
troduced. The method of evaluating the materials is 
described, the course of a fire being divided into initial 
and spreading stages. The toxicity of a material, T(s), 
varies with the fire conditions. To determine fire-produced 
gaseous products, either instrumental analysis or animal 
experimentation must be improved. The author prefers 
toxicity evaluation by means of an evaluation equation 
composed of the sum of each component and the analysis 
should be conducted by analytical tools. The present ex- 
periments using animals represent a tentative effort; more 
accurate methods await development. 10 figs, 5 tables, 
12 refs, 18 pages. (Author) 

c. EMERGENCY MEDICAL SERVICES AND 

FACILITIES 

1062. Anon 

A JOB ANALYSIS STUDY OF EMERGENCY MEDICAL 
SERVICE CLASSES, DETROIT FIRE DEPARTMENT 
(FINAL REPORT). Civil Service Commission, Intergovern- 
mental Personnel Programs Div, Chicago, IL; USCSCP 
R-3AU, 171 pages, Aug 1974 
Availability: NTIS PB-252 928/7GA 

A study was conducted to develop an applied electric 
job analysis methodology and content vaUdation strategy 
appUcable to public sector employment. Knowledges, 
skills, abilities and personnel characteristics for the clas- 
sification of Emergency Mobile Medical Technician 
Trainee (EMMTT) were identified and weighted in order 
of importance to the job using this methodology. From 
the resultant job analysis data base, content-valid ex- 
amination materials and a performance appraisal device 
were developed. Use of the performance appraisal device 
for peer ratings ran into operational difficulties because 
of adverse union reaction. Methods for circumventing this 
problem in future studies and for implementing the selec- 
tion battery are suggested by the authors. 

d. INJURIES AND FATALITIES 

1063. Isrig BC, Stephenson SF and Fulton RL 

ROLE OF PULMONARY INFECTION IN THE PATHO- 
GENESIS OF SMOKE INHALATION 

Surg Forum; 26:204-206, 1975 

Pulmonary failure, a frequent cause of death from fires, 
occurs early as a result of smoke inhalation or late as 
a complication of bums. Bacterial pneumonia is a factor 



contributing to pulmonary failure in either of these situa- 
tions. Clinically, smoke inhalation has been associated 
with the development of pneumonia, but few laboratory 
experiments to document the pathophysiology have been 
conducted. Initial respiratory insufficiency seen after 
smoke inhalation is caused by noxious products. Previous 
studies indicated that smoke-inhalation injury in the 
absence of bacterial infection was moderately severe, but 
not treatment-resistant. This experiment assesses the ef- 
fect of bacterial insult on smoke-injured lungs. 1 table, 
1 ref. (Author) 

1064. Stanislavskiy LV, Tatarenko VA and Krolenko NI 
POSSIBILITIES OF THE WICK-LIKE BURNING OF 
CLOTHING AND PECULIARITIES OF THE 
RESULTANT INJURIES 

Sud Med Ekspert; 18(3):49-52, 1975 (Russian; English ab- 
stract) 

Wick-like burning of clothing is a peculiar type of ther- 
mal action. It begins with ignition of the clothing; burning 
leads to melting of the body fat; the fat saturates the 
clothing, thus maintaining intense burning. Lower-lying 
body tissues become dehydrated and also begin to bum. 
Finally, extensive portions of the body, including bones, 
are destroyed. This phenomenon has been observed only 
when clothing or bedding has been ignited after death 
of the victim, but the possibility of wick-like burning of 
the clothing of a helpless victim cannot be mled out. 
4 figs. (Author) 

1065. Ide K, Tsukamoto S, Saito M, Sudo T, Sato Y 
and Kuniyoshi T 

CAUSES OF DEATH RELATED TO FIRES * 

Human Behavior in Fire Symp, Main Reports; 1975, Nov 
20-21, Tokyo, Japan 
Sponsor: Japan Fire Sci Assoc, Inc. 

The causes of fire-related fatalities are analyzed statisti- 
cally on the basis of examinations of victims by the Medi- 
cal Examiner's Office, Tokyo Metropolitan Government. 
The results are presented in the form of tables and figures 
and are analyzed in terms of causes of fatalities. 17 figs, 
10 tables, 37 pages. 

1066. Tsukamoto K 

A STUDY OF THE NATURE OF THE CAUSES OF AC- 
CIDENTAL DEATH IN FIRES 

Human Behavior in Fire Symp, Main Reports; 1975, Nov 
20-21, Tokyo, Japan 
Sponsor: Japan Fire Sci Assoc, Inc. 

The actual circumstances surrounding the causes of 
death in fire have not yet been fully determined. 
Generally, the causes are attributed to buming, poisonmg, 
suffocation, etc. In recent years, death from smoke has 
been mentioned as a cause. Although explanations of toxic 
gases from combustion exist, the kinds of gases remain 
as yet unclear. These causes have not been pursued con- 
sistently by most investigators. A rigorous examination 
of the bodies of victims must be made within the context 
of forensic medicine. Actual cases of fire fatalities are 
discussed in the article in an attempt to estabHsh the 
causes of death. 4 figs, 1 table, 14 pages. 



210 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 
11. CODES, STANDARDS, SAFE HANDLING, IDENTIFICATION OF HAZARDS 



e. PHYSIOLOGY 

1067. Ogata I and Oyama S 

GAS ABSORBENCY OF WET TOWELS 

Rep Fire Sci Lab (Japan); (12):79-83, 1975 (Japanese) 

Given are the results of experimental investigations dur- 
ing which the effectiveness of using wet towels to protect 
respiratory organs from toxic gases generated during fires, 
the cause of death of a large number of people, was 
determined. The absorbing properties of wet towels were 
studied by means of a special test stand, the design and 
parameters of which are examined. A sample of smoke 
and gas-generating material was placed in a special closed 
chamber, heated, and brought to ignition by means of 
a tubular electric heater equipped with a heat regulator. 
The resultant gaseous combustion products and smoke 
were tapped through a circular aperture in the chamber 
into a rigid cylindrical sectional sleeve. Removal was 
forced by rarefaction in the sleeve using a 28W elec- 
tromechanical air pump operating from a 100 volt a-c cir- 
cuit. Towels of varying wetness were placed, as a soft 
membrane, in the flanged intersectional joint of the sleeve. 
Using appropriate gas-analyzer sensors, the gas and smoke 
content were measured in the portion of the duct ahead 
of and behind the towels. The absorbing properties of 
the towels were determined from these measurements. 
Towels of different materials, differing thickness, texture, 
etc., were studied. The gas analyzer gave indications of 
the three basic toxic gaseous combustion products: CO, 
CO2 and HCl. Vinyl chloride was used mainly as the 
flammable material. 2 figs, 6 tables, 3 refs. (RZh) 

1068. Miura T 

PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSE IN HOT ENVIRON- 
MENTS 

Human Behavior in Fire Symp, Main Reports; 1975, Nov 
20-21, Tokyo, Japan 
Sponsor: Japan Fire Sci Assoc, Inc 

The physiological response of the human body to heat 
exposure is studied on the basis of measurements in places 
of employment and statistical data on weather conditions. 

f. PSYCHOLOGY 

1069. Anderson HM 
WHEN ALL ELSE FAILS 

Fire Command; 43(8):54-56, 1976 

The Oakland Fire Department has tried a variety of 
programs to curb false alarms, none with lasting results. 
An analysis was made of the fire boxes from which false 
alarms were coming. Fruitless special programs were 
aimed at neighborhoods containing fire boxes with high 
false alarm rates. The offending boxes were finally 
removed, but offenders have transferred their activities 
to nearby boxes. An automated 911 emergency telephone 
service is to be placed in service; when this system is 
fully operative, Oakland intends to re-examine the fire- 
box situation, with eventual removal the possible outcome. 
2 tables, 1 photo 

1070. Callinicos P 

BIORHYTHMS USED IN DENVER FOR ACCIDENT 
STUDY 

Fire Eng; 129(7):54-55, 1976 



The three cycles comprising the biorhythm theory, that 
is, the 23-day physical cycle, the 28-day emotional cycle, 
and the 33-day intellectual cycle, are being studied in 
an attempt to determine fire service employee critical days 
to reduce accidents. The study is based on a computer 
analysis of 1,418 individual accidents that occurred from 
1971 to 1975 in the Denver, Colorado, Fire Department. 
The results show that 77.32% of all listed accidents oc- 
curred on critical days. Other percentage correlations are 
given. 1 photo. 

1071. Canter DV 

PSYCHOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF BEHAVIOR OF PEO- 
PLE IN FIRES; Paper No. 6 

Control of Smoke Movement in Building Fires Symp, CIB, 
Proc, Vol 1 - Papers; 1975, Nov 4-5, Garston, Watford, 
UK, pages 59-67 
Sponsor: Fire Res Sta, Bldg Res Estab, UK 

The psychological factors of relevance when considering 
the design of fire detection and smoke control equipment 
are discussed. In particular, the influence of environmen- 
tal constancy and the social context are examined, 
together with the role of the organization which exists 
prior to the fire situation. Finally, the need to elaborate 
the study of the effectiveness of behavior in fires is ex- 
plored in relation to the potential longterm effects of fire 
trauma. 5 refs. (Author) 

1072. Yamada M 

HUMAN WALKING AND FEAR IN DISASTER SITUA- 
TIONS 

Human Behavior in Fire Symp, Main Reports; 1975, Nov 
20-21, Tokyo, Japan 
Sponsor: Japan Fire Sci Assoc, Inc. 

The first reaction of a human being on the brink of 
disaster is instinctive and varies in accordance with sex, 
age, knowledge, experience, and other factors. When the 
disaster is sudden and unforeseen or when it is exag- 
gerated, human reaction takes the form of astonishment, 
in most cases, often upsetting even usually intelligent and 
composed persons. On the basis of questionnaires filled 
out by 208 test subjects who had been exposed to various 
disasters (fire-54% , earthquake-22% , flood and others- 
24%), the author gains insight into the mental status and 
human behavior in times of disaster. 11 figs, 10 tables, 
1 ref, 34 pages. 



11. CODES, STANDARDS, SAFE 
HANDLING, IDENTIFICATION OF 
HAZARDS 

a. CODES 

1073. Becker W 

PREVENTIVE FIRE PROTECTION WHEN USING COM- 
BUSTIBLE WORKING MATERIALS 

Ind Digest; 15(l):35-39, 1976 (German) 

Preventive fire protection viewpoints must prevail when 
combustible working materials are used for various appli- 
cations in the Federal Republic of Germany. These view- 
points are equally valid, as a rule, for all combustible 



211 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



11 CODES, STANDARDS, SAFE HANDLING, IDENTIFICATION OF HAZARDS 

a. Codes — Continued 



materials, regardless of the class they belong to. The 
present remarks are intended to aid the designer and user 
in recognizing and implementing the regulations and 
specifications in the engineering areas in which combusti- 
ble working materials are used to any appreciable extent. 
Of particular importance are the fire-protection regulations 
for combustible sohds in the construction industry, electri- 
cal engineering, and transportation, which are the prime 
subject of discussion here. ? tables, 17 refs. (Fachdok 
12/0821) 

1074. Savel'ev P 

NEW FIRESAFETY REGULATIONS FOR INDUSTRIAL 
ENTERPRISES 

Pozhardelo; 0):24-25,\976 

New standard fire safety regulations for all industrial 
enterprises in the USSR have been issued by the Main 
Fire Protection Administration. The new regulations 
govern the organization of fire protection in industry, set 
forth a list of fire protection measures to be taken, define 
responsibility for their fulfillment (directors of plants, 
shops, laboratories, warehouses, etc.), and establish 
technical fire safety requirements for the operation and 
maintenance of buildings, installations, production equip- 
ment, electrical systems, and heating and ventilation 
systems. 

1075. Wenzel W 

HAZARDOUS WORKING MATERIALS - THE FIRST 
AMENDMENT TO THE CODE ON HAZARDOUS 
WORKING MATERIALS 

Schadenprisma; 5(2):32-36,1976 (German) 

The first amendment to the code on working materials 
together with the new code on places of employment, 
which supplements the code on working materials, became 
effective on May 1, 1976 (in the FRG). The working 
materials' code has been appreciably revised and supple- 
mented and abrogates a number of, in part, very old 
regulations, which are enumerated in article 6 of the 
amendment. The present article treats the principal 
changes made in the stipulations, such as the obligation 
to label 495 chemicals (exceptions to this obligation are 
cited), and prohibition of the use of highly dangerous 
materials. Handling of disease-causing agents is included 
in the code. Also discussed are the obligations of the 
employer. 8 refs. (Fachdok 12/0834) 

1076. Rezic D 

FIRE AND EXPLOSION STATISTICS 

Sigurnost; 18(1):101-1 10, 1976 (Serbocroatian) 

The regulation for new fire and explosion statistics, 
which was introduced on Jan 1, 1976, in Jugoslovia, is 
explained. An exact and detailed picture of the fire, 
damage, causes and suppression tactics can be obtained 
by adhering to the regulation. (Fachdok 12/0925) 

b. HAZARDS IDENTiFICATION 

1077. Anon 

STATUTORY LABELING SCHEME FOR DANGEROUS 
CHEMICALS 

Fire; 69(854): 123, 1976 



Some 800 dangerous chemicals commonly used in indus- 
try, some also in the home, are covered by a statutory 
labeling scheme proposed on July 6, 1976, by the Health 
and Safety Commission (UK). The proposed labels include 
easily understood pictorial warnings of the hazard 
presented by the chemicals. The proposals incorporate 
all the forthcoming changes which will substantially revise 
the danger category awarded to some chemicals and the 
risk-to-safety phrases which each must carry. 1 fig. 

1078. Anon 

FLAMMABLE MATERIALS TRANSPORTED BY ROAD 
- REQUIREMENTS, INFORMATION AND ACTION 

F/r^Prev;(115):28-29, 1976 

The different schemes for identifying the hazards of 
vehicle loads, such as Hazchem, UKHIS, United Nations 
diamond, etc., have been integrated into the composite 
sign known as the United Kingdom Hazard Information 
Composite (UKHISiC) Label. An example is illustrated 
in the article. The pertinent legislation and regulations 
concerning road transport of hazards, labeling and hazard 
information requirements are hsted on subsequent pages 
30 and 31. 1 fig. (Author) 

1079. Zimmermann and Kallenbach 

IDENTIFICATION OF VEHICLES TRANSPORTING 
HAZARDOUS GOODS 

Brandschutz; 30(5):122-124, 1976 (German) 

The article in Brandschutz, 29(9) 1975, on the identifica- 
tion of vehicles transporting hazardous goods gave rise 
to two critical comments, which are printed in this article. 
On the one hand, the statement that "the fire service 
does not place any particular value on what is revealed 
by the Kemler number," because the number only gives 
a first indication of the steps to be taken at the scene 
of the accident, is criticized. The second comment refers 
to an identification system used in England, the 
HAZCHEM system, which competes with the Kemler 
system and, in the opinion of the writer, is superior to 
the Kemler system. The method of identification by the 
HAZCHEM system is explained by figures and text. 2 
figs. (Fachdok 12/0722) 

c. SAFE HANDLING OF HAZARDOUS 

MATERIALS 

1080. Int Tech Inf Inst 

TOXIC AND HAZARDOUS INDUSTRIAL CHEMICALS 
SAFETY MANUAL FOR HANDLING AND DISPOSAL 
WITH TOXICITY AND HAZARD DATA 

Int Tech Inf Inst, Tokyo, Japan; 591 pages, 1975 

This comprehensive manual lists 702 materials with 
synonyms, uses, properties, hazardous potentials, toxicity, 
handling and storage, emergency treatment and measures, 
hygiene precautions, and disposal and waste treatment in- 
structions. (Author) 

d. STANDARDS 

1081. Kordina K and Meyer-Ottens C 

FUTURE REQUIREMENTS AND TESTS FOR CON- 
STRUCTION MATERIALS AND COMPONENTS 

DIN Mitt; 55(2):72-75, 1976 (German) 



212 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 



12. INSURANCE, ECONOMICS OF LOSS AND PREVENTION 

d. Standards— Continued 



Considerable advances have been made in the develop- 
ment of structural fire protection by work done in the 
ISO, as well as nationally, since the publication of stan- 
dard DIN 4102 in February, 1970. On the occasion of 
the appearance of five new drafts for standard DIN 4102 
the authors discuss the principal innovations to be in- 
troduced in the future requirements and tests for structural 
materials and components. 3 tables. (Author) 

1082. Hemmeter PA and Alexander G 
NBS DEVELOPS HELMET STANDARD 

Fire Eng; 129(7):47-48, 1976 

The tentatively titled "Performance Criteria for Struc- 
tural Firefighters' Helmets", a new standard being 
developed at the National Bureau of Standards, provides 
for tests of impact resistance on at least two separate 
points on the helmet shell, strength tests at various tem- 
perature extremes for both conducted and radiated heat, 
rigorous electrical insulation test, a chin strap retention 
system, ear flaps, and finally, a complex impact attenua- 
tion test. The NBS criteria, not yet completed, are un- 
dergoing revision during a series of conferences with 
representatives of the fire service, helmet manufacturers 
and regulatory agencies. 4 photos. 

1083. Ivanov I and Vasil'ev M 

NEW STANDARD: VEHICLE PAINTING, MARKING 
AND LIGHTS 

Pozhar delo; (4):26-27, 1976 (Russian) 

A new standard (GOST 21392-75) has been published 
for all transport vehicles of the fire service, police, emer- 
gency medical service, emergency gas service, trolly-wire 
service, and para-military mine rescue units. The standard 
governs painting schemes, markings, recognition signs, 
and requirements for light and acoustic signals. The 
requirements of the standard are discussed and listed in 
a table. 1 table. 

1084. Braun E, Cobble VB, Helzer S, Krasny JF, Peacock 
RD and Stratton AK 

BACK-UP REPORT FOR THE PROPOSED STANDARD 
FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF GENERAL WEARING 
APPAREL. Nat Bureau of Standards, Center for Fire Res; 
NBSIR 76-1072, 50 pages, II figs, 4 tables, 32 refs, Jun 
1976 
Availabihty: NTIS 

A Proposed Standard for the Flammability of General 
Wearing Apparel was submitted to the Consumer Product 
Safety Commission in February 1976. This report 
discusses the reasons for the choices of experimental ar- 
rangement for the flammability test and the choices of 
pass-fail criteria. The specimen is cylindrical, to simulate 
a garment, and to ehminate framed specimens, which 
often bum differently from garments. Criteria for the fire 
hazard of fabrics are the time to ignite with a specified 
gas flame and the heat transferred to sensors inside the 
burning specimen. The proposed standard specifies that 
fabrics which transfer little heat to the inside of the 
specimens could be used in all garments but would have 
to be used in garments which cover most of the body 
and/or fit loosely. They would also have to be used in 
chidren's dresses and skirts (children's nightwear is 



covered by an earlier standard). Fabrics which transfer 
larger amounts of heat, and thus have larger injury poten- 
tial, could be used in garments with normal or tight fit 
such as most present-day shirts, slacks, etc. If such 
fabrics ignite in one-half second or less, they would be 
excluded from use in garments. These provisions in the 
proposed standard were based on the need to reduce the 
number and severity of apparel fires with minimum 
economic and technological impact on the fiber, textile, 
and apparel industry. The present report summarizes the 
available knowledge in the area covered by the standard 
and points out areas in which additional work is indicated. 
(Author) 



12. INSURANCE, ECONOMICS OF LOSS 
AND PREVENTION 

a. INSURANCE 

1085. Proesdorf T 

INSURANCE COMPANIES REWARD COMPLIANCE 
WITH THEIR FIRE-PROTECTION GUIDELINES 

Beratende Ing; (6): 14-16, 1976 (German) 

Building owners, planners and architects should be 
familiar with the preventive fire-protection guidelines of 
the insurance companies, which supplement the in- 
adequate regulations of the building codes. The article 
is a survey of the building classes and the features of 
construction measures as well as the installations for 
preventive fire protection and the corresponding rate 
reductions granted by the insurance companies. Only in- 
dustrial risks are dealt with here. 2 figs. (Fachdok 12/0879) 

b. LOSSES 

C. RESTORATION 

1086. Tomlinson E 

REINSTATEMENT OF A FIRE DAMAGED BUILDING 

Fire Prev Sci Technoi, (15):22-26, 1976 (Enghsh; German 
and French summaries) 

With the soaring cost of building, the refurbishing and 
restoration of fire damaged buildings, which might other- 
wise be demoUshed and rebuilt, has become of economic 
importance. This process is described for a reinforced 
concrete building at the KeUogg works in Manchester 
(UK). The fire, in October 1967, was largely restricted 
to the ground story, but the columns and beams in this 
area were severely damaged. Structural engineers, who 
were called in to survey the damage, advised that restora- 
tion of this zone was possible without affecting the rest 
of the building. A work program was prepared and ap- 
proved by the senior management. Initially electricity sup- 
plies were restored and the building cleaned up. All af- 
fected columns and beams were then either replaced or 
strengthened with collars of reinforced concrete. The 
building was completely restored in 196 days and has 
shown no signs of deterioration during the last seven 
years. 8 photos. (Author) 



213 



FIRE TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS 
12. INSURANCE, ECONOMICS OF LOSS AND PREVENTION 



d. RISK MANAGEMENT 

1087. Alvares NJ 

TRADEOFFS BETWEEN RESIDENTIAL AND INDUS- 
TRIAL FIRE PROTECTION FOR ULTIMATE PUBLIC 
SAFETY. Univ of California (Livermore), Lawrence Liver- 
more Lab; UCRL-77754, 25 pages, 8 figs, 2 tables, 6 
refs, Jun 1976 

In 1975, fire losses in the United States totaled about 
0.25% of the GNP, or 4.4 billion dollars. Statistics on 
distribution of fire types show that 30% involve residential 
dwellings: 15% industrial, institutional, and educational 
buildings; 21% are due to transportation-related factors; 
and the remaining 38% include forest, grassland, and rub- 
bish fires. These statistics show that industrial and pubhc 
facilities account for almost 50% of the financial loss 
statistics, while residential and transportation losses 
amount to 36 and 11% of the total, respectively. More 
than 60% of the fire fatalities are attributed to building 
fires, and of these, almost 90% occur in private re- 
sidences. 

This brief survey reveals that a relatively small number 
of fires are responsible for the major dollar losses, and 
the major loss of life in fires results from residential 
fires, where the number of fatalities per fire are relatively 
small. 

Can technology be applied to reduce either the financial 
disaster incurred during industrial fires, or the life loss 
in residential fires? The evidence indicates that residential 
fire mortality will not be significantly reduced by technical 
solutions. However, there is also the potential for large 
life loss in industrial fires, and these could be reduced 
significantly by technical solutions. Therefore, increased 
efforts to secure the optimum amount of industrial fire 
protection could certainly reduce our financial losses, and 
possibly protect more lives. (Author) 

e. SALVAGE 



13. STATISTICS 

1088. Mython de JL 
FIRES AND STATISTICS 

Face au Risque; (120):13-16, 1976 (French) 

After summarizing the eight disastrous major fires of 
1974 the author compares the situation in France with 
that in other countries. He then gives statistical reviews 
of residential, shop and factory fires as well as other 
major and minor fires, arranged by year and month since 
1960, and compares the characteristic data, such as area, 
population density, number of fires per inhabitant and 
km[ per year, etc. for Great Britain, France, Japan, Swit- 
zerland, and the USA. The concluding section contains 
a survey of the principal major fires of 1975 in France 
with respect to factory and shop fires. 3 figs, 3 tables. 
(Fachdok 12/0671) 



A statistical study of fires in the United Kingdom in- 
volving the ignition of furniture and furnishings is 
presented. This paper examines the data for one year 
(1970). The analysis shows that in fires starting in furni- 
ture and furnishings the chance of a fatility is over twice 
that in other drmestic fires. The majority of furniture 
fires involve upholstery or bedding and over 90% were 
started by smokers' materials, electric appliances, space 
heating or as the result of the activities of children or 
suspected arsonists. Eighty-five per cent of the fatalities 
were found in the room of origin of the fire. Eighty 
per cent were overcome by smoke or toXic gases. Sixty 
per cent of the fatahties were either under 5 or over 
65 years of age. Monetary values are assigned for damage, 
casualties and deaths in fire. These costs can be used 
to assess the value of fire precautions. With the values 
taken, the total losses in furniture fires in the home 
amounted to $19 million in 1970. Life loss accounted for 
the major part of this sum. The expected annual loss 
per dwelling as a result of the ignition of furniture is 
thus only about SI, and is only $3 for all dweUing fires. 
This low figure suggests an approach of either selective 
spending on those most at risk (the elderly and han- 
dicapped) or by government activity through publicity and 
education. 11 tables, 9 refs. (Author) 

1090. Kawasaki A 

FIRES RESULTING FROM ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT 

DEFECTS 

Kasai; 25(4):225-226, 1976 (Japanese) 

Statistical data are cited to characterize the growing 
number of fires resulting from incorrect handling of 
domestic electrical appliances or from defects stemming 
from underdesign and low-quality fo workmanship. In 
1974 the number of such fires among nonindustrial fires 
reached 90%. One of the most frequent causes of such 
fires is short-circuiting. A detaOed description is given 
of the causes, circumstances, course and consequences 
of typical fires of this kind that occurred in Tokyo in 
January of 1975. The first fire occurred when the batteries 
of electric wall clocks were being recharged. The charging 
was accomplished by means of a built-in transformer from 
an a-c network. The battery was connected to the network 
throughout the night without supervision (in accordance 
with the instructions for using the clocks). The cause 
of the second fire was a defect in an automatic fuse, 
which did not cut off the voltage when the load (for 
high-power electrical apphances) greatly exceeded the per- 
missible value. 3 figs. (RZh) 



1089. Chandler SE and Baldwin R 
FURNITURE AND FURNISHINGS 
SOME FIRE STATISTICS 

Fire Mater; l(2):76-82, 1976 



IN THE HOME 



214 



AAETS BF 



GBflNITO AP 



AUTHOR INDEX 



AAETS HF 816 

ABBOTT NJ 76a 

ADAMS GH 957 

ADATI Y 959 

AKAOGI 1 840 

ALDEESON SE 728 

ALEXANEEB G 1082 

ALGEB ES 920, 965 

ALMAGAMBETOV N 1020 

ALPEET EL 779 

ALBOTH F 749 

ALVAEES NJ 1087 

AMES SA 725, 743 

AMOBE E 1003 

ANDEESCN HM 1069 

ANDEfiSCN J 931, 933 

ANDEESON EA 950, 952 

ANDEOK FS 988 

ANGEBMAIB T 1040 

ANNABLE DJ 740 

APPLETCN IC 713 

AEASIANOV KH 999 

AECHEE AJ 708 

ABNOLE DE 950, 953 

AUDET NF 989 

AOGDSIIN P 997 



B 



BACHMANN F 789 

BACKEB S 1047 

BAHME CW 954 

BAILEY M 990 

BALAGIN PG 883 

BALDING A 680 

BALDWIN B 1036, 1089 

BALL TE 962 

BAEATCV A 1009 

BAEBAEIN J 856 

BAETHELEMY B 829 

BAZJANAC V 1039 

BECKEE H 1073 

BELAU G 927 

BELOUS A 943 

BELOV VA 748 

BELGZEBOV N 820 

BENNETT D 678 

BENNETT WG 1000 

BENSON SP 917 

BEENSKIOLD A 730 

BEYEBSEOEF H 899 

BIELETZKE A 685 

BIKMUKKABETOV KKH 926 

BINDING AT 950 

BIEO G 891 

BOEHM L 782 

BOHME AE 887 

BOEGHINI-BALEOVINETTI G... 
923 



BOEISCV AN 836 

BOUD C G 903 

BODDENE C 1054 

BOWES PC 1056 

BOWMAN DW 911 

BBAOMAN SK 734 

BEADN E 1084 

BBEDEN LH 728 

BEESLEE B 768, 769 

BEICKEB EH 774 

BEIEES E 1018 

BEISTCH B 919 

BBOADEENT A 811 

BEOLLY AS 734 

BEOHET L , 1016 

BEOWN VL 707 

BEZOSIOWSKI TA 1008 

BOCKLAND IG 740 

BDLIEN ML 701, 705 

BOMILIEB G 1002 

BDNIN E 778 

BUEFOEE BE 1001 

BOEGESS DS 749 

BOEGESS W 702 

BOBNSIDE JV 953 

BUEBISS WH, OE 688 

BUTCHEB EG 862 

BUTIEE CP 922 

BOTLIN BN...687, 740, 741, 
831 



CALLINICOS P 1070 

CAMPBELL V 976 

CANTEif DV 1071 

CAEHAET HW 749 

CABBCII JI 787 

CHAIKEN JM 1050 

CHAMBEBLAIN EL 734 

CHANDLER SE 1089 

CHARLES SJ 814 

CHECKIAND JA 750 

CHIESA PJ, JE 1004 

CLABK EK 781 

COBBLE VB 1084 

CONTINI P 766 

COEBIE JG...916, 917, 1015 

COUCHCOD P 753 

CBAWLEY HH 956 

CEOCE PA 727 

CROCKETT PW 1058 

CEOMMEIIN ED 695 

CBOSSMAN ERFW 697, 698 



DAMANT GH....706, 731, 732 

DAVIS £ 704 

DEAN EK 777 

DECICCO PB 693 

DEICHMAN JT 977 



DEISEE EE * 987 

DELICHATSIOS MS 700 

DIECK EL 723 

DIMEO MJ 682 

EOBBOVOL'SKIY IP 748 

DOETSCH EC 911 

BONNEB H 899 

EOBCICH EI 1031 

EBAKE GL 739 

EOGGAN J 809 

DDNPHY MJ 808 



EDGINGTON JAG 1056 

ElIAS S 789 

EILINGHOOE B 77C 

ELLIOTT DE 1004 

EEBEN A 1012 

EREMIN V 968 

EOSER P 695 

EVANS EM 1046 

EVANS WB 816 

EVEBSON E 813 

EHING EG 966 



FACTOBY MUTUAL 746 

FELDT B 927 

FEERIE M 667 

FILATOV AV 668 

FINCH CP 831 

FINCK HW 738 

FISHMAN N 734 

FITCH DC 909 

FIETCHEB F 898 

FOUNTAIN B 735 

FBEUTEL H 972 

FBOST P 811 

FUJITA T 1028 

FULTON EL 1063 

FUNG FCW 864 

FUEUKAWA K 780 



GAAME JG 950 

GAISBAUEB G 995 

GAUME JG 1C57 

GAVHILEY VM 668 

GAWISER SE S61 

GEBHAEDT M 683 

GEISEI H-0 998 

GILBERT L 715 

GIORDANO TA 986 

GLENNIE EE 751 

GGLDSTCNE B 756 

GOULDSON EJ 750 

GOVARRUBIAS GS 896 

GRANITO AR 958 



I-l 



GREENEERG S 



HCBGAM J 



AOTHCB INDEX 



GREENEERG S .717 

GREGEESEN END 822 

GRENIEB HJ 895 

GRIPAS S 924 

GRISHIN VV 906 

GRUNENKOV VS 854 

GUISE ftB 1045 

GOIYAEV G 877 

GUMBEECHT K 726 



H 



HACKSTAFF BH 744 

HAJARI JV 953 

HAKINC A 795 

HAMILICN P 976 

HANEY JT 918 

HANSIIN B 757 

HARDEE A 759 

HARPER K 946 

HASHEGAHA K 840, 981 

HAY GE 912 

HAYHARE ET 1042 

HEIZEE S 1084 

HEMMETER PA 1082 

HESELEEN AJM 861 

HIJIRIKAHA 1 0..843 

HILADC CJ 752, 950 

HILL EJ 758 

HINKEL E 694 

HIEOSEIGE 1 951 

HOLT JE 859 

HOPP H 785 

HORINCUTI K 1010 

HOY HC 749 

HUEER E 938 

HUGH A 763 

HUNTEE CE 1032 

HUNZEKER CJ 807 



I 



IBGEN S 899 

IDE K 1065 

IDING £ 769 

IGNALI EJ 1050 

INDEIIZ D 772 

INOUE A 929 

INT TECH INF INST 1080 

ISAVNIN NV 902 

ISRIG EC 1063 

ITO Y 971 

ITSKOV AI 878 

IVANOV 1 1083 

IWAMI F 810 



JACOBY S 801 

JASCN NH o 679 

JIBOMAEU M.. 870 



JIEOMAEU S 876 

JOHNSON HH 920 

JORDAN S 782 

JORGENSEN M 821 

JODANY JM 1054 

JOWETT CE 835 

JORKAT MP 669 



K 



KALLENBACH 1079 

KAPTEIN M 1008 

KASAHARA 1 868 

KASAWARA Y 1044 

KATO S 796 

KATTS NV 761 

KAUFMAN S 928 

KAMA S 1010 

KAWASAKI A 1090 

KAWASHIHA K 834 

KAZAKCV G 999 

KEEIEY JR 813 

KING EW 747 

KINOSHITA E 889 

KIRBY HE 837 

KISIING HH 881 

KITA B 871 

KLETZ TA 847 

KLINE GM 742 

KOCHEEGA NG 939 

KOCHNEV A 877 

KOCHUEA ST 761 

KOENIG G.. ....1024 

KOHNO M ..868 

KOLGANOVA MN 761 

KOLOSYUK VP 940 

KOPEIVICA B 827 

KORDINA K 686, 1081 

KOEZHCV VT 875 

KOURTIEES DA 950 

KEACKIAUER J 754 

KRAEMER K 964 

KRAMER HJ 880 

KEAMPF L ....686 

KRASNY JF 1084 

KROIENKO NI 1064 

KROPIVYANSKIY V 1025 

KEUTOV VA 884 

KRZYSTOLIK P 745 

KUCHEE V 1006 

KUKHAEUK VA 906 

KUL'EIN SE 836 

KOMAZAHA M 840 

KUMINECZ JF 774 

KUNIYCSHI T ...1065 

KUPRIYANOVA II 884 

KUBBATSKITi OB 902 

KUZNETSOV NP 854 



LABES HG 913 



LABOSSIERE LA 752 

LAMB BTB 960 

LANDGEAF H 1014 

LANDRETH CA 928 

LANKAU IE 1022 

LAOFKE H 817 

LADGHBIDGE FI 920 

LAOSTSEN E 919 

LEE BT 830 

LEE CK 722 

LEGG E 754 

LEIN H 790 

LEMMEE FS 911 

LENHAET SH 993, 994 

LEONARD JI 749 

LEVOY RP 849 

LEWOETHY IE £63 

LIPSKA AE 965 

LOCKHOOD CE 909 

LOEB DL 969 

LCEENZ H 759 

LOUZON E 762 

LUCHT DA 670 

lUNDSTROM I.... 793 

LYNCH ED 1056 



M 



HANLEY TB 751 

MARCHANT EW 860 

MAEK W 1014 

MAROIS J 853 

MARTIN RE 702 

MARTIN SB 718, 965 

MATOBA K... 800, 810 

MATSOEARA H 929 

MATSUHASHI S 1011 

MATSUNAGA C 929 

MCCAFFREY BJ 710 

MCCAETEB EJ 733 

MCCLUEE AH 952 

MCGINNIS NJ 991 

MCKEE RG 920 

MEDLOCK LE 845 

MELINEK SJ 1036, 1038 

MEEKLE T 1C17 

MESHMAN LM 854 

MESSES B 967 

METELKIN G 799 

MEYER-OTTENS C 765, 1081 

MICHAL J 1055 

MIKESKA JI 950 

MIKHEDOV VG 884 

MIKOVICH E 855 

MINNE IE 866 

MIURA T 1068 

MIYAZAKI T 888 

MIYOSHI M 981 

MODAK AT 720, 727 

MOHLER H 905 

MOLL KD 1052 

MOOR W 792 

MOEGAN J 660 



1-2 



MOBK I 



D1LEY IH 



AUTHCE INDEX 



MOEK 1 1048 

MOELEY H 763 

MOSEACBEE CJ 936 

MOULDEE JL 724 

MOULEN AW 865 

MUELLEE P 803 

MOLLEE E 753 

MUEEIL JV 725 

MYTHON DE JL 1088 



N 



NAGAKUEA M 805 

NAKAKOKI A 703 

NAKANISHI H 846 

NASH E 798, 914, 915, 

1037, 1046 

NAUMOV V 999 

NAZABOV NI 884 

NIKITINA NS 755 

NIZAMUDDIN Z 769 

NOVIKCV VN 857 



o 



OBUKHOV EV 668 

ODA K 874 

OGATA 1 1067 

OGATA Y 981 

OGINO A 890, 907 

OHASHI Y 796 

OJIMA M 1011 

OKADA S 1033 

OKAHA 1 671 

OYAMA S 1067 



PANAZEYB VV 836 

PAPKEB JA 950 

PAEKS S 1053 

PAESHENKOV MV 982 

PATTEFSON G 858 

PEACOCK ED 1084 

PEBEEEY HT 812 

PENDLETON DW 702 

PETBOV I O..820, 1006 

PETTEESSON 783 

PFEFFEBLI W 673 

PISTOE M 815 

PITT AI 725 

PLATE H 759 

ELCG EJ 942 

POWELL AEWT 841 

PRICE JO..... 952 

PEOESEOEI T 1085 

PRYANIKOV E 999 

PYLE WC 714 



QOAN EC 697, 698 

QUINN EJ 723 

QUINTIERE JG 710 



BASBASH DJ 699 

RATH K 996, 1023 

RED'KIN VV 836 

EEID GR 942 

BEISEE JW 1048 

EEZIC D 1076 

RIMS 1 802 

BOBEETSON AF 709 

ROBINSON G 763 

RODE AA 854, 1006 

RODE K 1021 

ROGOHSKI EFH 729 

ROBK GE 797 

SOTHMAN AJ 900 

ROZOTTE E 852 

BUGGIES BF 837 

RUHNKE S 985 

ROLE CH 672 

BYCHIKHINA SE 761 



SAHCTA MS 767 

SAIIAE G 897 

SAITO F 1059, 1061 

SAITO H 844 

SAITO M 959, 1065 

SABANCHUK AD 755 

SATO Y 1065 

SAVEL'EV P 1074 

SAVKOV E 955 

SCHAFINEE LE 693 

SCHMIET VG 893 

SCHMIDT WA 851 

SCHOPEEE MM 764 

SCOTT EL 684 

SEGAL L 739 

SEILEB HF 686 

SEMPLE JB 900 

SEEAY J 947 

SHANNON JMA 712 

SHABOVAB F 799 

SHAVEB JB 770 

SHIMANOKI T 873 

SHIVABAMAN MS 793 

SHKVIESKII IS 902 

SILCOCK A 716 

SIMA B 959 

SIMON FN 797 

SIMS J 975 

SKELTCN J 764 

SLIZ J 745 



SMIBNOV AE 982 

SMITH CP, JB 1030 

SMITH EE 776 

SMITH FJ 832 

SOIOV'EV SN 982 

SPARKES C 754 

STANISLAVSKIY LV 1064 

STEFANCIC S 633 

STEPHENSON SF 1063 

STERLING WK 850 

STEVENS RE 869 

STIBLEET 1 793 

STOCKWELL DL 942 

STOEFFLEE BH 1013 

STOIB W 794 

STOLP H 695 

STRATTON AK 1C84 

STUCKEY EN 774 

SUDO T 1065 

SUKHAEENKC VI 884 

SOKHOV lYA 884 

SULLIVAN HF .1008 

SULLIVAN JT 806 

SUMI K 106C 

SOPKIS DE ., 774 

SVENSSON C 793 

SVETASHOV I ......778 

SYLVIA RP 690, 691, 692 



TAKEDA M .795 

TAMAlilNI F 719 

TANNER AC 1 043 

TATAEENKO VA ...1064 

TAUBKIN SI 761 

TERAI T 839 

TERRY SL 992 

lESLENKO G 1006 

TESOEO G 1047 

THEOBALD CB 798 

THIELEN G 769 

THIEME H 927 

THOMSEN AE 721 

THOB J 783 

TOMLINSON E 1086 

TOEII N .1011 

TRUHART R... 1054 

TSUCHIYA Y 1060 

TSUKAMOTO K 1066 

TSOKAMOTO S 1065 

TSOROMI T 882 

TSVETKOV BN 884 

TO K-M 704 

TOBKOV AS 755 

TUSTIN E 950 

TUSTIN EA 952 

TYLER MC 987 



u 



OTLEY LV, 



816 
1-3 



vasiL'Ev a 



ZWINGHAMD G 



V 



AUTHCB INDEX 



VASIL'EV A 925 

VASIL 'IV M 1083 

VEEESKONOV V 921 

VESEICV AI 85a 

VINTEB FH 825 

VOELLINGEB H 842 

VOGMAN 1 1009 

VOLKOVA V 1009 

VOEOB'ZV P 980 



X." 



W 



HAKAMATSU T 711 

HALKEB HE 1049, 1050 

HALTHIB H-J 979 

WATANAEE H 949 

HATTEES P 948 

WATTS PE 756 

HELLS E 772 

HENZEI H * 1075 

WILLIAMS FH 772 

HILLIABSON HV 1005 

WILSON HJ 773 

WIITSHIBE LL 920 

WOODS JF 838 

WOOLEBION GB 750 

WOOLLEY WD 725, 743 



YABADA M 1072 

YAMADA Y 945 

YASODA N 929 

YOUNG EA 914, 915, 916 

YOUNG BJ 901 



ZABELIN N 943 

ZACHAB5 HB 697, 698 

ZAVAEDKHIN A 980 

ZEBSKIY GT 884 

ZEPHIfilE G 1029 

ZHILENKO IM 836 

ZIMMEBMANN 1079 

ZOBEL EC 911 

ZOEGBAN H 695 

ZUBEB K 937 

ZUEV AS 748 

ZWINGHANH E 689 



1-4 



ACCIDINT INSURANCE 



A 

ACCIDENT INSOBANCE 
firefighters 

services 997 

ACCIDINT LIABILITY 
cyclic 

biorhythms 1070 

firefighters 

FEG 995, 996 

ACCIDENT PREVENTION 
biorhythms 

cycle correlations. . 1070 

ACCIDENTS 

(also see: aircraft ac- 
cidents; explosions; 
ship accidents; traffic 
accidents) 

ACTUATORS 
sprinkler heads 

patent 900 

ADDITIVES SEE: SLIPEEEY 
WATER; SURFACTANTS; 
WETTING AGENTS 

AERIAL LADDERS 
configurations 

development 972 

AERIAL PLATFORMS SEE: 
ELEVATING PLATFORMS 

AFFF 
effectiveness 

sprinkler systems. .. 1001 

AHIBA FLAMMABILITY TESTER 
cotton fabrics 

horizontal flame propa- 
gation 739 

AIBCRAIT 

cargo compartments 

fire safety 950 

CL-215 

firefighting operations. 

1044 

fire hazards 

identification 818 

lavatories 

fire safety 950 

military 

hazards 819 

AIRCRAFT ACCIDENTS 
(also see: accidents) 



SUBJECT INDEX 

AIRCRAFT COMPARTMENTS 
fire prevention 

nonflammable materials. . 

952 

flammability tests 

fire-resistant materials 
774 

AIRCRAFT CRASHES SEE: 
AIFCRAFT ACCIDENTS 

AIRCRAFT CBASH FIRES 
(also see: aircraft fires; 

aircraft ground fires) 
extinguishants 

UK 1037 

AIRCRAFT FIRES 
(also see: aircraft crash 
fires; aircraft ground 
fires) 
aviation fuels 

suppression 920 

firefighters 

protective clothing. . 987 
JP-i* fuel 

smoke abatement systems. 

918 

suppression 

training facilities. . 965 

AIRCRAFT FLOORS 
fiberglass laminates 

fire resistance 953 

AIRCRAFT FUEL FIRES 
(also see: fuel fires) 

AIRCRAFT FUEL TANKS 
fire prevention 

fog inerting 919 

AIRCRAFT INTERIORS 
flammability tests 

fire-resistant materials 
774 

AIRCRAFT SAFETY 
fire prevention 

nonflammable materials.. 

952 

fire resistance 

floors 953 

AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES 
floor panels 

fire resistance 9 53 

AIR CYLINDERS SEE: GAS 
CYLINDERS 

AIR DUCTS 

(also see: ventilation 
systems) 



APPLIANCES (VEHICLES) SEE: 



AIR DUCTS (cont'd) 
smoke dampers 

patent 855 

AIRFIELD FIRES 
hazards identification 

classification 837 

suppression 

resources allocation.... 
637 

AIRFLOWS 
fire-induced 

corridors 710 

AIRFRAMES 

fire prevention 

nonflammable materials.. 
, 952 

ALARM SYSTEMS 
fire department 

Basel, Switzerland. . .792 

ALKALI METALS 
fire extinguishers 

patent 884 

ALUMINUM ROOFING 
fire tests 

film. 775 

ANIMAL EXPERIMENTS 
combustion products 

toxicity 1054 

fire gases 

toxicity. 10 57 

poly vinyl chloride 

toxicity 1056 

pyrolysis 

toxicity 1054 

toxicity evaluation 

combustion products 

1059 

APPARATUS 
aerial ladders 

developiiient..... 972 

deployment 

models. 1049 

fire departments 

USSR 955 

fire suppression 

procurement 973, 974 

specif ication. .. 973, 974 
special- purpose 

tactical characteristics 

971 

tactical characteristics 

field testing 971 

APPAREL SEE: CLOTHING 
APPLIANCES (VEHICLES) SEE: 

1-5 



APPLIANCES (VEHICLES) SEE: 



BUILDING STEOCTDEIS 



SOBJECT INDEX 



APPARATUS 

ARCHI1ECTS 
firehcuse design 

contribution 966 

fire science education 

curriculum 689 

ARSON 

(also see; incendiarism; 

pyromania) 
human behavior 

public policy. ...... 1052 

investigation techniques 

book 1051 

prevention 

training programs. .. 1051 

ARSON EEIECTION 
educational program 

National Fire Academy... 
691 

ARSON INVESTIGATION 
educational program 

National Fire Academy... 
691 

ASTM TUNNEL TEST 
polyester composites 

fire retardant analysis. 
735 

AUTOMATIC DETECTION 
sprinkler systems 

testing 915 

AVIATION FUEL FIRES 
cascade flows 

suppression 920 

rod flows 

suppression 920 

smoke abatement systems 

water spray injecticn... 
918 

AVIATION FUELS 
aircraft fires 

suppression 920 

B 

BALLOONS 
smoke curtains 

corridor barriers. ... 840 

BEDDIKG 

(also see: blankets; mat- 
tresses) 
fire behavior 

full-scale tests 725 



BEDS 

fire behavior 

full-scale tests. 



BREATHING APPABATUS TEAM .ll- 
rescue operations li: 
725 training 1025 



BEHAVIOR SEE: HUMAN BE- 
HAVIOR; FIBE BEHAVIOR 

BIBLIOGRAPHIES 
fire departments 

municipal ,.957 

fire research 

NBS CFR 1975 679 

halogenated compounds 

toxicity 1058 

BIOEHYTHMS 
critical days 

accident proneness. . 1070 



BLANKETS 
(also see; 



bedding) 



BLOWOUTS 
coal mines 

control measures 941 

BOOTS 

protective clothing 

firefighters , ..990 

BREATHING APPARATUS 
air supply 

flowrate determination.. 
994 

patent 982 

(also see: respirators) 
continuous flow 

flowrate determination.. 

994 

couplings strength 

testing .993 

filler 

moisture sensitive. .. 983 

patent 983 

fire resistance 

test methods 979 

hose strength 

testing 993 

oxygen recirculation 

exhaled breathing. ... 98 1 
performance tests 

exhalation val ves. . . . 991 
rebreathing canister 

charging system .980 

self-contained 

carbon dioxide concen- 

tration* 992 

shut-off valves 

patent 984 

voice communication 

fire fighting 986 



BREATHING FILTERS 
firefighters 

personal equipment. 

BREATHING MASKS 
filters 

firefighters , 



3 

978 



978 



BREEDER REACTORS 
sodium fires 

aerosol formation. 

hazard analysis.., 






,782 
780 



BRITISH BROADCASTING CORP., 
production centers ; 
fire prevention 934 

BROADCASTING INDUSTBY 
fire prevention 

BBC-UK 934 

BEOHNS FERRY ' ' 

nuclear power plant fire 
1975 684 

BUILDING DAMAGE 
explosions 

pressure estimation. . 687 



'q 



BUILDING DESIGN 
fire protection 
schools 



,785 



BUILDING EVACUATION 
elevators 

simulation 1039 



BUILDING FIRES SEE: 
TURAL FIRES 



STEDC- 



EUILDING MATERIALS 
calcium-silicate panels 

fire resistance 760 

combustion products 

toxicity. ... 1061 

fire behavior 

smoke production 756 

smoke generation 

measurement method... 755 

BUILDING STRUCTURES 
fire damage 

restoration 1086 

fire endurance 

computer calculations... 

828 

fire protection systems 
air conditioning ccm- 
bination 787 



1-6 



BUILDING STRUCTURES 



COMBUSTION TOICOLCGY 



BUILDING (cont'd) 
fire resistance 

int umescent coatings.... 

757 

gas explosions 

measurements 831 

test instrumentation.... 

740 

multistory 

smoke removal systems... 
871 

BUOYANI FLOWS 
turbulent diffusion 

flame radiation 719 

BURNING BATES 
solid fuels 

fire whirls 702 

BURN INJUBIES 
pulmonary failure 

pathogenesis 1063 

BORN EATIENTS 
inhalation injuries 

medical treatment. .. 1053 

BOS ACCIDENTS SEE: TRAFFIC 
ACCIDENTS 

BUSES 

fire extinguishers 

patent 889 



CABARETS SEE: NIGHTCLUBS 

CABINETS 

fire insulated 

record storage 8U9 

fireproof 

document storage 850 

materials storage. ... 850 

CABLE tUCTS SEE: ELECTRI- 
CAL DUCTS 

CABLES SEE: ELECTRICAL 
CABLES 

CALCIDH SILICATE 
building materials 

interior panels 760 



CAL0BIHE1EES 
heat release 
fire tests, 



,718 



CARBON DIOXIDE 
facepiece concentration 
breathing appratos. . .992 



SUBJECT INDEX 

CARBON DIOXIDE (cont'd) 
foam additives 

foam production 1012 

CARDBOARD INDUSTRY 
fire hazards 

hazards identification.. 
825 

CARGO COMPARTMENTS 
aircraft 

fire safety 950 

CARPETS SEE: FLOOR COVER- 
INGS 

CHABRING 
polyurethane foams 

tests 733 

CHEMICAL PLANTS 
fire detectors 

sprinklers 798 

CHEMICALS 
hazardous 

safety manuals 1080 

hazards identification 

labeling regulations. . . . 

1077 

industrial 

safety manuals 1080 

CHEMICAL VAPORS 
fire hazards 

electrical equipment.... 
749 

CHIPBOARD FACTORIES 
fire hazards 

chip drier 823 

CHUTES 
sectional 

patents 1029 

CIVIL DEFENSE 
fire safety 

conference papers. ... 676 

CLOTHING 
(also see: protective 

clothing; sleepwear) 
fire resistant 

fire extinguishment 

1047 

f lammability 

standards 108 4 

oil-impregnated 

explosion hazards. ... 826 
wick-like burning 

burn injuries 1064 



COAL BINES 
blowouts 

control measures 941 

fires 

control measures 941 

fire suppression 

automatic extinguishers. 
875 

COBOL 

computer programs 

fire control systems.... 
976 

CODES 

(also see: building cedes; 

fire codes) 
hazardous materials 

amendment 1075 

pressurization systems 

smoke control 862 

statistics 

Jugoslavia .1076 

COMBUSTIBLE LIQUIDS 
fire detection 

detector emplacement.... 

872 

fire suppression 

nitrogen-Freon exticg- 
uishants 872 

COMBUSTIBLE MATERIALS 
regulations 

FRG 1073 

COMBUSTION MECHANISMS 
metal fires 

research programs. ... 724 

COMBUSTION PRODUCTS 
commercial materials 

toxicity screening. -. 752 
gas absorfcence 

wet towels 1067 

smoke 

quantitative determina- 
tion 717 

textile fibers 

analysis a 753 

toxic gases 

quantitative determina- 
tion 717 

toxicity 

evaluation method. .. 1059 
wall coverings 

assessment 756 

COMBUSTION TOXICOLOGY 
(also see: toxicity) 
animal experiments 

intoxication mechanisms. 
1054 

large-scale tests.. .1057 

I-7| 



COMBUSTION TOXICOLOGY BBAPES SEE: WINDOW C0VEEIN6S 

SUBJECT INDEX 



ttii 



COMBUSTION (cont'd) CONCRETE (cont'd) 

animal (cont'd) major fires 

toxicity evaluation analysis 686 P 

1059 porous 

building materials fire stability 767 DAMPERS 

comtustion products heat transfer 767 ventilation ducts 

1061 mass transfer 767 patent 856 

polyvinylchloride prestressed 

animal experiments. . 1056 fire resistance 766 EANCE HALLS 

pyrolysis products. . 1055 reinforced (also see: nightclubs) 

fire resistance 766 TDQ' 

COMMAND FUNCTIONS , DATA RETRIEVAL j 

firegrcund control CONFEEENCES fire service 

Eheinland-Pfalz, FRG.... Dynamics of Fire Preven- administration 975 

694 ticn 

1976 675 DECOMPOSITION PRODUCTS 

COMMAND VEHICLES Industrial Civil Defense phenolic resins 

standardization 1975 676 toxicity 1060 

PEG 998 Public Housing 

USSR 677 DEPABTMENT STORES ' ~^., 

COMMEfiCIAL MATERIALS Space Simulation fire hazards ■ 

combustion products 1975 717, 832 evacuation 92U 

toxicity 752 SPE Annual Technical 

1976 751 DETECTOBS SEE: FIBE DETEC- 

COMPAEIMENT FIRES TORS; FLAME DETECTCES; 

floor coverings CONSEIL INTERNATIONAL DU INFRARED DETECTOBS; 

flame spread 704 EATIHENT SEE: CIB IONIZATION DETECTOBS; ;,- 

liquid fuel SMOKE DETECTORS; 

energy balance 705 CONSTRUCTION PBINCIPLES ULTRAVIOLET DETECTCES t , 

smoke generation. ..... .709 fire protection 

schcols 785 DETBOIT FIRE DEPAETMENT 

COMPABTMENTS emergency medical services 

fire resistance CONVEYOB BELTS job analyses 1062 

fireproof walls 853 fire performance 

friction drum tests. .726 DIESEL ENGINES 

COMPOSITE MATERIALS propane rust tests.. .726 vehicles 

fire resistant coatings fire safety 845 

ship structures 759 COBfilDORS 

fire-induced airflows DISASTEBS 

COMPUTER PROGRAMS scale models 710 earthquakes 

municipal information evacuation procedures... 

systems COTTON FABRICS 1028 

fire control 976 flame propagation human behavior 

horizontal rate deter- escape time 1072 

CONCRETE BEAMS mination. . . . 739 fear 1072 

fire resistance 

analysis 770 CBIB FIRES DISCHARGE DEVICES 

failure modes.. 771 pressure modeling extinguishants 

premature failure. ... 77 1 radiation 779 GDR 880 

foams 

CONCRETE FRAMES CBUDE OIL description 880 

fire resistance tanker ships wet water 

prediction 768 fire fighting 10U3 description 880 

reinforced 

fire resistance 768, CURTAINS SEE: SMOKE CUR- DISCOTHEQUES SEE: DANCE 

769 TAINS; WATER CUETAINS; HALLS 

WINDOW COVERINGS 

CONCRETE STRUCTURES DOCUMENT STORAGE 

fire endurance CYLINDEES SEE: GAS CYLIN- fireproof cabinets 

computer calculations... DEBS self-closing 850 

828 

fire exposures DBAPES SEE: WINDOW COVEB- 

explcsive spalling. . .765 INGS . 

1-8 



oi^^CHERS ETHYL BROMIDE/CAPBON EIGXIDE 

SUBJECT INDEX 

DRENCHERS ELECTRICAL (cont'd) EMERGENCY LIGHTING 

foam-water wiring) illuminated signs 

patent 891 evacuation routes. ... 816 

ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT 

DRYING SYSTEMS fire hazards EMERGENCY MEDICAL SERVICES 

horizontal chemical vapors 719 job analyses 

fire hoses 967 Detroit Fire Departnent. 

tower-type ELECTRICAL FIRES 1062 

fire hoses 967 appliance defects 

statistics 1090 EMERGENCY SERVICES 

DUCTS SEE: AIR DOCTS; deployment 

ELECTRICAL DOCTS; ELECTRICAL MATERIALS models 1C19 

VENTILATION SYSTEMS fire hazard 

evaluation ...750 EMERGENCY VEHICLES 

right-of-way 

E ELECTRICAL SHOCK driver conduct 1023 

ground current leakage traffic regulations 

EARTHCDAKES mine fires 910 right-of-way 1022 

fire emergencies 

evacuation procedures... ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS ENDOGENIC FIRES 

1028 explosion hazards coal mines 

design improvements. . 926 control measures 911 

EDUCATION fire hazards 

(also see: correspondence design improvements. . 926 ENERGY BALANCE 

courses; fire safety liquid fuel fires 

education; fire safety ELECTRICAL HIRING computer solution. ... 705 

training; fire science (also see; electrical 

education; fire service cables; electrical ESCAPE BRIDGES 

instructors; National circuits) highrise buildings 

Fire Academy; public fire hazards patent 1033 

education; training) tar vapors 821 suspended 

fireproof highrise buildings. . 1033 

ELECTRICAL APPLIANCES development 929 

fire incidents flame resistant ESCAPE ELEVATORS 

statistics 1090 development 928 building exteriors 

patent 1031 

ELECTRICAL CABLES ELECTRIC POWER STATIONS track-guided 

(also see: electrical fire protection building exteriors. .1031 

circuits; electrical official instructions... 

wiring) 913 ESCAPE HATCHES 

ducts retainers 

water mist protection... ELECTRONIC COMPONENTS fire doors 1035 

925 fire hazards 

factories oxygen rich atmospheres. ESCAPE MEANS 

fire protection 927 832 (also see: evacuation 

fire hazard devices) 

evaluation 750 ELECTROSTATIC FILTERS chutes 1029 

fireproof smoke removal highrise buildings. . 1 027 

development 929 breathing apparatus fire doors 

flame resistant ^ training 959 retainers 1031 

development 928 portable 

power plants ELEVATORS patent 1032 

fire protection 927 building evacuation 

tray fires simulation 1039 ESCAPE ROUTES 

analytical model 781 emergency escape (also see: evacuation 

power reactors 781 building exteriors. .1 03 1 methods) 

tunnel fires jamming evacuation time 

ethyl bromide/carbon fire hazard 821 codes 1036 

dioxide extinguish- overloading performance standards... 

ants 1006 fire hazard 821 1C36 

ELECTRICAL CIRCUITS EMERGENCY EXITS ETHYL BROMIDE/CARBON EIOX- 

(also see: electrical evacuation routes IDE 

cables; electrical illuminated signs... .816 extinguishants 

1-9 



ETHYL BFOMIDE/CfiRBCN DIOXIDE 



FIBE AISBMS 



ETHYL (cont'd) 

extinguishants (cont'd) 

compound 1006 

performance 1006 

EVACDflTION 
department stores 

fire hazards 92tJ 

EVACUATION DEVICES 
(also see: escape means) 

EVACUATION MEANS 
chutes 

highrise buildings. . 1027 

EVACUATION METHODS 

(also see: escape routes) 

EVACUATION PBOCEDURES 
fire emergencies 

earthquakes 1028 

EVACUATION EOUTES 
emergency lighting 

illuminated signs. ...846 
visual guidance 

illuminated signs. ..1026 

EVACUATION STUDIES 
structural fires 

human behavior 1071 

EVACUATION TIMES 
escape routes 

performance standards... 

1036 

human behavior 

disasters 1072 

stairnays 

structural f ires .... 1038 

EXHALATION VALVES 
breathing apparatus 

performance tests. ...991 

EXPELIANT FLASKS 
fire extinguishers 

patent 897 

EXPLOSION HAZARDS 
foams 

fire incidents ..743 

industrial occupancies 

static electricity. .. 835 
military aircraft 

identification 819 

oil tanks 

regulations 827 

superheated liquids 

sudden boiling 747 

washing machines 

oil-impregnated clothing 
826 

I-IO 



SUBJECT INDEX 

EXPLOSION HAZARDS (cont'd) 
wood dust 

assessment 745 

EXPLOSION INCIDENTS 
foam mattresses 

smoldering fires 743 

Mersey House, Bootle (OK) 

pressure estimation. . 687 

EXPLOSION STATISTICS 
reporting methods 

Jugoslavia 1076 

EXPLOSIVE OPENERS 

fluid containers 

fire extinguishants.. 903 
patent 903 

EXTINGUISHANTS 
(also see: dry powder; 
foam extinguishants; 
halons) 
compound 

ethyl bromide/carbon 

dioxide 1006 

discharge mode 

patent 885 

foams 

suitability 1002 

liquid solutions 

fire extinguishers. ,. 908 
nitrogen-Frecn 

combustible liquid fires 

872 

powders 

suitability 1002 

solutions 

chemical properties 

1010 

fire tests 1010 

EXTINGUISHING SYSTEMS 
interrupted cyclic dis- 
charge 

patent.. ...912 

temperature sensitive 
interrupted cyclic 

discharge 912 

F 

FABRICS 

burning properties 

testing methods 730 

clothing 

fire extinguishment 

1047 

flame -resist ant 

survey 758 

ignition 

testing methods 730 



FABRICS (cont'd) 
metallized 

patent 761 

protective clothing. . 761 

FACEPIECES 

air supply 

patent .'. 982 

breathing apparatus 

air supply 982 

carbon dioxide concen- 
tration 992 

protective clothing 

firefighters 98 8 

overcoatings 989 

FALSE ALARMS 
fire alarm boxes 

Oakland, CA 1C69 

FATALITIES SEE: FATAL 

FIRES; FIRE FATALITIES 

FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF GER- 
MANY 
Eaden-Wuerttemberg 

fire service organiza- 
tion 673 

FIBERS 

flame- resistant 

survey 758 

FILLERS 

breathing apparatus 

moisture sensitive. . .983 
patent 983 

FILLING APPARATUS 
fire extinguishers 

powder materials. ... 1013 

FIRE ALARM BOXES 
false alarms 

Oakland, CA 1C69 

FIRE ALARM CENTERS 
USSR 

description 799 

FIRE ALARMS 
classification 

GDR 789 

defects 

detection 854 

fire detectors 

patent 802 

gas-powered 

patent 806 

heat detectors 

patent 807 

highrise buildings 

design 795 



FIRE fllABMS 



FIRE EXTINGUISHERS 



SUBJECT INDEX 



FIFE ALARMS (cont'd) 
hydrogen detectors 

Pd-gate field-effect 

transistor 79 3 

light team 

patent 812 

light scatter 

gas medium 812 

light transmission 

gas medium 812 

miniature 

battery powered 791 

electric powered 791 

Yugoslavia 791 

office buildings 

design 795 

portatle 

patent 808 

self -powered 808 

rate-cf-rise detectors 

patent 809 

self -powered 

patent 806 

spring-operated clapper 

patent 813 

systems configuration 

central stations 79U 

temperature-response trig- 
ger 

patent 813 

threshold control 

patent 800 

ultraviolet radiation 

detection 854 

FIEE ALARM SYSTEMS 
testing 

high-frequency heating.. 
816 

FIRE ECATS 

tactical performance 

Japan 970 

technical data 

Japan 970 

FIEE EEIGADES 
in-plant protection 

organization 938 

training facilities 

South Carolina 963 

training regulations 

FRG 964 

FIRE EUILDDP 
wood cribs 

growth rates 700 

FIRE CCDES 

(also see: building codes) 

FI-EE COMMUNICATIONS CEN- 
TERS 
USSR 



FIRE (cont'd) 
USSR (cont'd) 
description, 



999 



FIRE CCNTEOL 
information systems 

computer programs. ... 976 
municipalities 

information systems. .976 
sprinkler systems 

testing 915 

FIRE CURTAINS 
foam filler 

ceiling suspension. .. 8U8 

FIRE EAMAGE 
building structures 

restoration 1086 

FIRE DEATHS SEE: FIEE 
FATALITIES 

FIRE DEPARTMENTS 
apparatus 

USSR 955 

fire alarm systems 

Basel, Switzerland. .. 792 
municipal 

bibliography 957 

systems management 

deployment methods. .1050 

dispatching practices... 
1050 

mathematical models 

1050 

station siting 1050 

FIRE DETECTICN 
automatic 

underground mining. .. 942 
public buildings 

system design 796 

systems configuration 

central stations 794 

systems development 

design 843 

FIRE DETECTORS 

(also see: detectors) 

classification 

GDR 789 

combustion products 

description 790 

fire alarms 

patent 802 

flame sensing 

patent 805 

infrared 

airborne 788 

infrared radiation 

patent 811 

ionization 

patent 810 



FIRE DETECTORS (cont'd) 
ionization chambers 

patent 804 

IB range 

patent 805 

Ed-gate field-effect 
transistor 

hydrogen detection. . .793 
photoelectric 

testing 815 

sprinklers 

chemical plants 798 

testing 

high-frequency heating.. 
816 

radio-frequency induc- 
tion 816 

FIRE EOOES 
escape hatches 

self-closing 1C35 

retainers 

patent 1034, 1035 

self-closing 

field trials 858 

improvements 841 

FIRE ENDUEANCE 
(also see: fire resis- 
tance) 
concrete beams 

failure modes 771 

structural materials 

polymers 729 

FIRE ENGINEERING 
steel structures 

design handbook 783 

FIRE ENVIEONMENTS 
reinforced concrete frames 
structural response .. 769 

FIEE ESCAPE ROUTES 
highrise buildings 

smoke movement 866 

FIRE EXTINGUISHANTS SEE: 
EXTINGUISHANTS 

FIRE EXTINGUISHERS 
actuators 

heat-sensitive triggers. 
899 

patent 899 

alkali metal fires 

patent 884 

automatic 

coal mines 875 

patent 882 

spray nozzles.. 913 

buses 

patent 889 



I-ll 



FIEE EXTINGDISHERS 



FIRE BJZflEES 



SUBJECT INDEX 



FIEE (cont'd) 
carbon dioxide 

alkali metals 881 

delivery mode 

patent .885 

drenchers 

foam-water 894 

expellant flasks 

patent 897 

filling apparatus 

powder materials. ... 1013 
fireproof pads 

vehicle fires 893 

foam makers 

patent 906 

halogenated compounds 

toxicity 1058 

industry 

systems development. . 874 
inert gas 

alkali metals 884 

laboratories 

fire safety 936 

liquid 

patent 908, 909 

nozzle head fastener 

patent 910 

oxyacetlyene welders 

torch control 887 

plunger 

patent 897 

portable 

patent 882 

powder 

buses 889 

patent 902 

tank pressurization. .89 1 
pressuri2ed 

manometers. 886 

shut-off valves 896 

propellant cartridges 

compressed gas 879 

remote controls 

patent 904 

shut-off caps 

patent 898 

shut-off valves 

hermetic seal 892 

patent 892, 896 

sprinkler heads 

actuators 900 

automatic actuators. . 895 

liquids 883 

patent 883 

sprinklers 

foam- water 894 

tunnels 

patent 890, 907 

vehicle fires 

patent 893 

FIRE-EXTINGDISHING SYSTEMS 
automatic 

reliability 878 



FIRE-EXTINGUISHIN (cont'd) 
automatic (cont'd) 

technical maintenance... 

878 

design criteria 

equipment 873 

reliability 

statistical calculations 
878 

FIRE FATALITIES 

causes 

analysis 1065 

forensic medicine. .. 1066 

FIREFIGHTER HELMETS 
performance criteria 

standard 1082 

FIREFIGHTERS 
accident incidence 

biorhythm theory .... 107C 
accident insurance 

FRG 997 

services 997 

accident liability 

FAG.............^S7b, 996 

breathing filters 

personal equipment ... 978 
protective clothing 

aircraft fires 987 

f acepiece-visor assembly 
988, 989 

footwear 990 

radio communication 

individual 1000 

reference source 

handbook 678 

youth members 

girls 1024 

FIREFIGHTER TRAINING 
(also see: physical train- 
ing) 
curriculum 

organization 961 

examinations 

systems approach ..... 960 
industrial brigades 

facilities 963 

National Fire Academy 

planning grants 692 

planning status 690 

rescue operations 

breathing apparatus 

teams 1025 

ship fires 

facilities 962 

FIREFIGHTING EQUIPMENT 
aerial ladders 

development 972 

fireproof sheaths 

patent 985 



FIREFIGHTING (cont'd) ^j,. 
highrise buildings 

arrangement 87-6 

FIREFIGHTING OPERATIONS 
aircraft 

CL-215 1044 

evacuation procedures 

earthquakes 1028 

performance evaluaticn 

post-fire analysis. .. 977 
ships 

procedures 1042 

vehicle deployment 

models 1049 

FIREFIGHTING TACTICS 
helicopters 

exercises 1040 

natural gas fires 

recommendations 1C45 

tanker ships 

crude oil. ' 1043 

FIREFIGHTING UNITS 
fireground commanders 

leadership qualities.... 
1021 

FIREFIGHTING VEHICLES SEE: 
APPARATUS; AUXILIARY 
VEHICLES 

FIRE Flows 

(also see: water supplies) 

FIEE GASES 
toxicity 

animal experiments. . 1 057 

FIREGROUND COMMANDERS 
command qualities 

tactical units 1021 

FIREGROUND CONTROL 
command vehicles 

standardization 998 

duty assignments 

Rheinland-Pfalz, FRG.... 
694 

FIRE HAZARDS 
aircraft 

identification 818 

chemical vapors 

electrical equipment.... 

74S 

chipboard factories 

chip drier 823 

department stores 

evacuation 924 

elevators 

jamming 821 

overloading 821 



1-12 



FIEE BAZflRDS FIBE PHOTECTION SYSTEMS 

SUBJECT INDEX 

FIEE HAZARDS (cont'd) FIRE INCIDENTS (cont'd) FIRE EBOTECTION (cont'd) 

floor coverings varnish factories alarm systems 

corridors 822 synthetic resin depart- Basel, Switzerland .. .792 

test methods 822 ment 681 factories 

foamed plastics electrical cables. .. .927 

metal roof decks 746 FIEE INJDEIES highrise buildings 

industrial occupancies wick-like burning research programs. . .697, 

static electricity. ..835 clothing 106«» 698 

military aircraft sprinkler systems. ... 869 

identification 819 FIEE-INSULATED CABINETS systems development, . 876 

natural gas record storage 8U9 industrial occupancies 

storage methods 836 foam extinguishment .. 935 

oil tanks FIEE LOSSES LNG facilities 

regulations 827 (also see: large loss extinguishing systeus... 

paint products fires; property losses) „ 937 

characteristics 748 master planning 

roof decks FIEEMEN SEE: FIEEFIGHTERS federal programs 67C 

foaned plastic insula- Tukwila, HA S56 

tion 746 FIRE OFFICERS mining eguipment 

sodiuB fires command qualities automatic control .... 942 

breeder reactors 780 tactical units 1021 oilfield complexes 

tar vapors UK 931, 933 

electrical wiring. ... 824 FIEE PERFORMANCE organization 

theaters conveyor belts Baden-Huerttemberg jFEG) 

protection measures. . 833 test methods 726 673 

varnish products fire department ccnscli- 

characteristics 748 FIEE EEEVENTION dation 672 

aircraft floors regional planning .... 669 

FIEE HOSES fiberglass laminates.... USSR 668 

drying systems 953 power plants 

horizontal 967 aircraft fuel tanks electrical cables. ... 927 

tower-type 967 fog inerting 919 pressure vessels 

aircraft safety recommendations 647 

FIEEHODSES nonflammable materials.. public housing 

design 952 USSB 677 

architects role 966 broadcasting industry regulations 

designs BBC-UK 934 combustible materials... 

low temperature zones... dynamics 1073 

968 conference report .... 675 schools 

USSE 968 education curriculum Berlin 785 

siting Berlin Technical Univer- building construction... 

systems management. . 1050 sity 689 786 

guidelines services 

FIEE INCIDENTS FEG 1085 cost engineering. ... 1 048 

concrete structures inspections demand charge 1048 

analysis 686 USSB 1020 systems configuration 

electrical appliances ships central station 794 

statistics 1090 construction. ... 947, 948 systems development 

motor vessels repair 947 standardization 839 

foam suppression. ... 1041 repair work 948 theaters 

nuclear power plants hazards identification.. 

Browns Ferry 684 FIEEPBOOF SHEATHS 833 

uranium trioxide 688 firefighting equipment warehouses 

optical workshops patent 985 high-rack 923 

description 685 

prisons FIREPBOOF WAILS FIRE-PEOTECTION CLOSUFES 

analysis 682 fire resistant compart- licensing 

Savancah Hiver Plant ments FRG 842 

uranium trioxide 688 patent 853 standardization 

ships FRG 842 

analysis 683 FIRE EBOTECTION 

subway stations administration FIRE PBOTECTION SYSTEMS 

analysis 680 USSB 668 air conditioning comhina- 

tion 

1-13 



FIEE fBOTECTJON SYSTEMS 



FIRE SUPPBESSICN 



SUBJECT INDEX 



FIEE EEOTECTION (cont'd) 
air conditioning (cont'd) 

building structures. .787 

heat exchanger 787 

alarms 

classification 789 

detectors 

classification 789 

FIEE FESEAECH 
bibliographies 

NBS CFE 1975 679 

FIEE EESEAECH STATION 
research programs 

UK 1S75 696 

FIEE EESISTANCE 
(also see: fire endurance) 
aluminum bulkheads 

intumescent paints... 830 
breathing apparatus 

test methods 979 

building structures 

intumescent coatings.... 

757 

concrete beams 

analysis 770 

failure modes 771 

concrete frames 

mathematical model... 768 

prediction 768 

concrete structures 

pre stressed 766 

reinforced 766 

sp ailing 765 

electronic configurations 

space vehicles 832 

floor coverings 

evaluation 728 

reinforced concrete frames 

limit state 769 

ship structures 

aluminum bulkheads. .. 830 
steel structures 

heating calculation .. 829 

unprotected 784 

ventilation ducts 

dampers 856 

wall coverings 

decorative ...762 

structural 762 

FIEE EETARDANTS 
intumescent 

patent .....763 

polyester composites 

tunnel test analysis.... 

735 

polymers 

smoke generation 734 

sublinating material 

patent 76 3 



FIBE EISKS 

(also see: risk manage- 
ment) 

FIEE SAFETY 
aircraft structures 

floor panels 953 

civil defense 

conference papers. ... 676 
highrise buildings 

research programs. . .697, 

698 

hydraulic lifts 

hazards reduction. ... 831 
industrial occupancies 

regulations (OSSB)..1071 

round-table discussion.. 

930 

laboratories 

extinguishers 936 

legislation 

New York City. 693 

public buildings 

system development. .. 9U5 
residential occupancies 

education program. ... 9U6 
rural 

regulations (USSE)...921 
vehicles 

dies el -powered 8 4 5 

FIEE SCIENCE EDUCATION 
architects 

Berlin Technical Univer- 
sity 689 

FIEE SERVICE 
accident liability 

FEG 995, 996 

administration 

data retrieval 975 

history 

Japan 671 

legal guides 

book 95^ 

operating methods 

Japan 671 

organization 

Baden-Wuerttemberg, FEG. 
673 

Japan 671 

youth members 

girls 1024 

FIEE SERVICE EDUCATION 

examinations 

systems approach 960 

National Fire Academy 

planning grants 692 

planning status 690 

FIRE SERVICE INSTEUCTORS 
training aids 

guidebook 958 



FIRE SERVICE TRAINING SEE: 
FIEEFIGHTEfi TRAINING 

IIRESETTING SEE: AESCK; 

INCENDIARISM; PYBCKANIA 

FIRE SPREAD 
flame extinction 

criterion 699 

urban areas 

earthquakes 1028 

FIRE STABILITY 

porous concrete structures 

heat transfer 767 

mass transfer 767 

FIRE STATIONS SEE: FIEE- 
HOUSES 



FIRE STATISTICS 
reporting methods 
Jugoslavia 



1076 



FIRESTOP HATCHES 
smoke removal 
patent 



852 



FIEE SUPPRESSION 
aircraft fires 

training facilities. . 965 
airfield fires 

resources allocation.... 

837 

apparatus 

procurement 973, 974 

specification. .. 973, 974 

system analysis 974 

systems analysis 973 

aviation fuels 

cascade flow 920 

rod flows 920 

coal mines 

automatic extinguishers. 

875 

fabrics 

clothing 1047 

foam compounds 

organic liquid fires.... 

1014 

fuel storage tanks 

base foam injection 

1046 

LNG facilities 

dry chemical extinguish- 
ers 937 

high-expansion foams.... 

937 

public buildings 

system design 796 

sleeping cars 

railroad fires 951 

spray nozzles 

evaluation 913 



1-14 



FIFE SUPPRESSION 



FOAM INSTflliailONS 



SUBJECT INDEX 



FIFE SUPPRESSION (cont'd) 
systems development 

design 843 

standardization 839 

tank fires 

subsurface foams .... 1008 
water-miscible organic 
liguids 

foam compounds 1014 

water supplies 

Belgian regulations 

1016 

calculations 1018 

FIRE lESTING 
alumicum roofing 

filn 775 

FIRE TESTS 

(also see: testing; test- 
ing facilities) 
bedding 

full scale 725 

full-scale 

beds 725 

ships 772 

large-scale 

houses 773 

performance 

heat release... 776 

sprinkler systems 

aqueous film-forming 

foams 1001 

stored plastics 

final report 777 

FIRE TEAINIRG CENTERS 
offshore oil industry 

UK 932 

FIRE WHIRLS 
burning rates 

solid fuels 702 

FLAME DETECTORS 
(also see: detectors) 
photoelectric sensors 

invisible radiation. .803 

visible radiation. ... 803 
UV range 

description 790 

visible range 

description 790 

FLAME EXTINCTION 
fire spread 

criterion 699 

FLAME EBOPAGATION 
cotton fabrics 

rate determination. . .739 
polymethylmethacrylate 

cylindrical rods 722 



FLAME RADIATION 
turbulent diffusion 

modeling 7 19 

FLAME RESISTANCE 
fabrics 

survey 758 

fibers 

survey 758 

FLAME SPREAD 

compartment fires 

flocr coverings 7CU 

thermal conductivity 

liquid fuels 703 

solid fuels 703 

FLAME STOPS 
fire curtains 

ceiling suspension. .. 848 

FLAMMABILITY 
clothing 

standards 108 4 

cotton fabrics 

ncnflame retardant. . . 739 

FLAMMABILITY TESTS 
aircraft interiors 

fire-resistant materials 
, 774 

furniture 

polyurethane foams.. .732 
upholster y 731 

plastics 

development history. .742 

FLAMMABLE ATMOSPHERES 
Static electricity 

risk evaluation 817 

FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACCIDENT 
CASE AND TESTING SYSTEM 
SEE: FFACTS 

FLAMMABLE MATEiilALS 
hazards identification 
labeling - OK 1078 

FLASHCVEE 
wall coverings 

small-scale fires... .701 

FLOCE COVERINGS 
compartment fires 

flame spread 704 

fire hazards 

corridors 822 

test methods 822 

fire resistance 

evaluation 728 

pads 

fire resistance 728 



FLUID CONTAINERS 
explosive openers 

patent 903 

fire extinguishants 

explosive openers. ... 903 

FLUORCCHEMICALS 
foam concentrates 

storage properties. . 1015 

FLOORCPROTEINS 
foam concentrates 

storage properties. . 101 5 
fuel storage tanks 

base injection 1046 

FOAM COMPOUNDS 
fire suppression 

water-miscible organic 

liquids 1014 

organic liquid fires 

patent 1014 

FOAMED MATERIALS 
(also see: polyurethane 
foams) 

FOAMED PLASTICS 
roof insulation 

fire hazards 746 

FOAM EXTING-UISHANTS 
fire suppression 

USSR. 1007 

flow characteristics 

rheometer measurement... 

1004 

f lu or o proteins 

fuel storage tanks.. 1046 
proteins 

fuel storage tanks.. 1046 
ship fires 

suppression 1041 

tank fires 

subsurface injection.... 
1C08 

FOAM EXTINGUISHERS 
fire protection 

industrial occupancies.. 

935 

light water 

paint factories 881 

FOAM GENEEATOfiS 
fixed installations 

failure causes 877 

FOAM INSTALLATIONS 
generators 

failure causes 877 



1-15 



FOiM IIQOIDS HAZARDS IDENTIFICATION 

SDEJECT INDEX 

FOAM IIQOIDS FOEl SEILI.S ' GEL ATINIZ ATION 

playpipes (also see: spills) water supplies 

50 liter/min 917 firefighting 1C11 

FUEL SIOBAGE TANKS 

FOAM BAKERS (also see: tank fires; GIRLS 

fire extinguishers fuel tanks) youth fire service 

patent 906 fire suppression integration 102'4 

base foam injection..... 

FOAM fLAYPIPES ..10t}6 GLOVEBOXES 

50 liter/min alarm systems 

constructicn details.... FUEL TANKS testing 816 

917 (also see: fuel storage 

tanks; tank fires) GROONC CURRENT LEAKAGE 

FOAMS flame prevention system electrical shock 

agueous film forming patent 911 mine fires 940 

sprinkler systems. .. 1001 military vehicles 
discharge devices ignition prevention. . 91 1 

GDE 880 H 

explosion hazards FURNISHINGS 

tests 743 fire statistics HALOGENATED COMPODNES > - 

f luorcchemicals UK - 1S70. 10a9 toxicity 

storage properties. . 1015 bibliography 1058 

fluorcprcteins FURNITURE 

storage properties. . 1015 beds HALON 1301 

high expansion fire tests ........... 725 flow mechanisms 

carbon dioxide additives fire statistics pipelines 1C05 

1012 UK - 1970 1089 

production 1012 polyurethane foam uphols- HALONS 

optimal use tery (also see: extinguishants) 

suitability 1002 f lammability 732 

production upholstery HANDBOOK 

patent ....1012 f lammability tests. .706, fire engineering design 

...731 steel structures 783 

FOAM StRINKLEES polyurethane foams.. .732 references 

effectiveness firefighters 678 

oil rig fires 916 

G HATCH RETAINERS 

FOG INERTING fire doors 

aircraft fuel tanks GARMENTS SEE: CLOTHING patent 1035 

fire prevention 919 

GAS AESOEEENCE HAZARE LOADING 

FOOTWEAR combustion products fire performance tests 

protective clothing wet towels..... 1067 heat release.. 776 

firefighters 990 

GAS BOTTLES SEE: GAS HAZARIOUS MATERIALS 

FORENSIC MEDICINE CYLINDERS code amendments 

fire fatalities FRG. 1075 

causes 1066 GAS EXELCSICHS industrial chemicals 

building structures safety manuals 1C80 

FRICTICN DRUM TESTS measurements ...831 

conveyor belts test instrumentation^.... HAZARDS 

fire performance 726 71C flammable materials 

laboratory tests labeling - UK 1078 

FUEI FIRES instrumentation 741 

(also see: aircraft fuel roof layers HAZARES IDENTIFICATION 

fires) laboratory simulation... airfield fires 

» 741 classification 837 

FUELS test chamber cardboard industry 

(also see: aviation fuels) instrumentation 740 fire prevention 825 

liquid chemicals 

flane spread 703 GAS HELLS labeling regulations.... 

solid clustered 1077 

flane spread 703 fire protection 820 chipboard factories 

chip drier...- 823 

1-16 



HAZAEIS IDENTIFICATION 



INDUSTKIAL OCCDEANCIES 



SOEJECT INDEX 



HAZARES (cont'd) 
explosions 

military aircraf t. . . . 819 
fires 

aircraft 818 

military aircraf t. ... 819 
paper industry 

fire prevention 825 

plastics 

fire behavior 736 

theaters 

fire protection 833 

vehicle narking 

HAZCHEM system (OK) 

1079 

Kemler system (FFG) 

1079 

wood dust 

explcsivity 745 

HAZAFIS EEDDCTION 
hydraulic lifts 

fire safety 834 

HAZCHIB SYSTEM (UK) 
hazards identification 
vehicle marking 1079 

HEAT DETECTOBS 
alarms 

patent 801 

fire alarms 

patent 807 

fixed -temperature 

description 790 

rate-cf-rise 

description 790 

smoke detectors 

patent 801 

HEAT EFFECTS 
hot environments 

physiological response.. 
1068 

HEAT EXCHANGERS 
fire protection systems 
air conditioning com- 
bination 787 

HEAT FEBOVAL 

stairwell pressurization 

highrise buildings. .. 778 
ventilation systems 

supplier obligation. . 859 

HELICCETEES 
firefighting tactics 

exercises 1040 

rescue operations 

exercises 1040 

highrise buildings. .. 676 
suspended gondola 

patent 1030 



HIGHRISE BUILDINGS 
escape bridges 

patent 1033 

fire alarms 

design 7 95 

fire protection system 

research programs. ... 698 
fire protection systems 

centralized control. .870 

development 876 

research programs. .. .697 
fire safety 

civil defense 676 

rescue operations 

helicopters 676 

smoke control systems 

France 867 

pressurization 86 4 

smoke movement 

control systems 868 

escape routes 866 

sprinkler systems 

fire protection 869 

stairwells 

pressurization 778 

HOMOPOLYMERS 

poly (arylcxyphosphazenes) 

flame properties 723 

smoke properties 723 

HOODS 

protective clothing 

firefighters 9 88 

overcoatings 9 89 

HOSE REELS 
cabinet 

first-aid stations. .. 888 
first-aid stations 

patent 888 

HOSES 

large diameter 

development 969 

history 969 

HOSPITAL FIRES 
smoke movement 

unsteady-state calcula- 
tions 711 

HOSPITALS 

(also see: operating 
rccms) 

HOT ENVIRONMENTS 
heat effects 

physiological response.. 
1068 

HOT PARTICLES 
mineral wools 

detection methods. ... 721 



HOUSES 
fire tests 

fullscale 773 

interiors 

fire tests 773 

HUMAN BEHAVIOR 
arson 

public policy 1052 

structural fires 

psychological aspects... 
1071 

HYDRANTS 
pressurized tubes 

patent 8 98 



HYDRAULIC LIFTS 
fire safety 

hazards reduction, 

HYDRAULICS 
fire suppression 
calculations , 



834 



1018 



HYDROGEN DETECTORS 
Pd-gate field-effect 
transistor 
fire alarms 



793 



I 



IGNITION PREVENTION 
fuel tanks 

patent 911 

INCENDIARISM 

(also see: arson; pyrcman- 
ia) 

INDUSTRIAL FIRE PROTECTION 
fire brigades 

organization S3C 

organization 

Austria 538 

INDUSTRIAL FIRES 
statistics 

France - 1975 1C88 

INDUSTRIAL OCCUPANCIES 
explosion hazards 

electrical systems. .. S26 
fire hazards 

electrical systems. .. 926 
fire prevention 

inspection 1C1S 

fire protection 

foam extinguishment .. 935 
fire safety 

plant management 930 

regulations (USSR)..1C74 

round-table discussion.. 



1-17 



INDDSIBIAL OCCDPfiNCIES 



LOSS ECONOMICS 



INDDSTBIAL (ront'd) 
fire safety (cont'd) 

round-table (cont'd) 

930 

static electricity 

control. 835 

generation 835 

ventilation 

systems development .. 874 

INFOBMailON SYSTEMS 
fire control 

computer prcgrains....976 

INFEAFED DETECTOBS 
airfcorce 

wide -range 788 

(also see: detectors) 

INFEAFED BADIATION 

fire detectors 

airborne 788 

patent 811 

INHALATION INJOBIES 
burn patients 

medical treatment.. . 1053 

INSPECIIONS 
fire prevention 

USSB 1020 

fire protection 

industrial occupancies.. 
1019 

INSOLATION MATERIALS 
polyurethane foams 

burning characteristics. 
7i»a 

fire hazards 744 

INSUEAHCE COMPANIES 

fire prevention guidelines 

compliance incentives... 
.1085 

FEG 1085 

INTEEIOE PANELS 
building materials 

calcium-silicate panels. 
760 

INTUHESCENT COATINGS 
fire resistance 

building structures. .757 

INTOMESCENT PAINTS 
fire resistance 

aludinum bulkheads. .. 830 

INVESTIGATION SEE: ARSON 
INVESTIGATION; FIEE 
INVESTIGATION 



SOEJECT INDEX 

IONIZATION DETECTOBS ' 
air current actuation 

false alarms 804 

(also see: detectors) 
false alarms 

air currents.... 804 

smoke 

model 797 

transistorized 

patent .. 810 

IONIZATION DETECTOESS 
smoke 

operating parameters.... 
797 

ISFSI SEE: INTEENATIONAL 
SOCIETY OF FIEE SCIENCE 
INSTEUCTOBS 



J 

JAPAN 

fire service 

history 671 

JET FDELS SEE: AVIATION 
FOELS 

JOB ANALYSES 

emergency medical services 

Detroit Fire Departuent. 

1062 

JP-4 FUEL FIBES 
smoke abatement systens 
Hater spray injection... 
918 

K 

KABETA ■ 

breathing apparatus 

fire resistance. ..... 979 

KEMLEE SYSTER (FEG) 
hazards identification 
vehicle marking 1079 

L 

LABELING SYSTEMS 
hazards identification 

flammable materials 

1078 

LABELS 

hazards identification 
chenicals 1077 



LABOBATOEIES 
fire safety 

extinguishers 936 

LATENT SDPERHEATING 
liquids 

explosion hazards. .. .747 

LAVftTOEIES 
aircraft 

fire safety 950 

LEGAL GUIDES 
fire service 

book 954 

LEGISLATION 
fireground control ' 

Eheinland-Pfalz, FEG.... 

694 

fire safety 

New York City 693 

LEISUBE BUILDINGS SEE: 
EECBEAIION BUILDINGS 

LICENSING 

fire-protection closures 
FEG 842 

LIGHT OBSCUEATION 

smoke detectors 

calibration 814 

testing 814 

LIGHT-SCATTEE MEASOBEHENTS 
smoke detectors 

photoelectric 815 

LIGHT WATEE 

foam extinguishers 

paint factories 881 

LIMITING THEEMAL INDEX 
heat release rate 

calorimeter measurement. 
718 

LIQUID FUEL FIBES 
energy balance 

computer solution. ... 7C5 

LIQUIDS 

superheated 

explosions 747 

sudden boiling 747 

ING FACILITIES 
fire protection 

extinguishing systems... 
937 

LOSS ECONOMICS 

(also see: fire losses) 



1-18 



LOSS ECONOMICS 



OIL EIG FIFES 



LOSS ECONOMICS (cont'd) 
industrial-residential 
risk management 1087 

LOSSES SEE: FIRE LOSSES 

LOSS EEEVENTION 
ind us trial- residential 
risk managenient 1087 

M 

MAJOE FIRES 

statistics 

France 108 8 

international comparis- 
ons 1088 

MANOMEIEBS 

fire extinguishers 

pressurized 886 

MASTER PLANNING 
fire protection 

federal programs 670 

fire protection prcgrani 

Tukwila, HA 956 

MATERIALS 
heat resistant 

tests 76a 

nonflammable 

tests 764 

MATTRESSES 

(also see: bedding) 

METAL FIEES 
combustion mechanisms 

research programs. ... 724 

METHANE IGNITION 
friction sparks 

mining machines 939 

mining machines 

foam prevention 939 

METHYl BROMIDE 
(also see: halons) 

MILITARY VEHICLES 
fuel tanks 

ignition prevention .. 911 

MINE FIRES 

electrical shock hazard 
ground current leakage.. 
940 

MINEEAI WOOLS 
thermal inclusions 

detection methods. .. .721 



SUBJECT INDEX 

MINING EQUIPMENT 
metal 

fire protection 942 

mobile 

fire protection 942 

underground 

fire protection 942 

MINING MACHINES 
methane injection 

foam prevention 939 

MODELING 

cable tray fires 

power reactors 781 

fire-induced airflows 

corridors 710 

flame radiation 

turbulent diffusion. . 719 
pool fires 

thermal radiation. ... 720 
pressure 

crib fires 779 

sodium fires 

breeder reactors 780 

MOTOR VESSELS 
fire incidents 

foam suppression. ... 1041 



N 

NATIONAL EIRE ACADEMY 
arson detection 

education program. .. .691 
arson investigation 

education program. ... 691 
education programs 

planning grants 692 

planning status- ..... 690 
training programs 

planning status 690 

NATIONAL FIRE ADMINISTRA- 
TION 
conferences 

Dynamics of Fire Preven- 
tion 1976 675 

master planning 

federal programs 670 

NATUBAL GAS 
fire hazard 

storage methods 836 

storage method 

patent 836 

NATURAL GAS FIEES 
fire suppression 

tactics 1045 

NBS SEE: NATIONAL BUREAU 
OF STANDARDS 



NFPA SEE: NATIONAL FIRE 
PROTECTION ASSOCIATION 

NFPCA SEE: NATIONAL FIRE 
ADMINISTRATION 

NITROGEN-FREON 
extinguishants 

combustible liquid fires 
672 

NOZZLE HEADS 

fire extinguishers 

patent 910 

NOZZLES 

extinguishant delivery 
mode 
patent 865 

NUCLEAE FIRES 
Browns Ferry Power Plant 
1975 684 

NUCLEAR SAFETY 
sodium fires 

classification 94 4 

o 

OFFICE BUILDINGS 
fire alarms 

design 795 

fire protection systens 
centralized control.. 670 

OFFSHORE OIL INDUSTRY 
fire training centers 

UK , 932 

OFFSHORE PLATFORMS 
oil fires 

foam sprinklers 916 

OIL FIELDS 
offshore 

fire protection 931, 

933 

OIL LOADING TERMINALS 
fire protection 

UK 931, 933 

OIL REFINERIES 
fire protection 

UK.... 931, 933 

OIL EIG FIRES 
foam sprinklers 

effectiveness 916 



1-19 



oil TfiNKS 



EaiENlS 



SOBJECT INDEX 



Oil TSKKS 
explosion hazards 

regulations 827 

fire hazards 

regulations 827 

Oil HEllS 
clustered 

fire protection 820 

OLD AGE HOMES 

(also see: nursing homes) 

OPEBAIING BOOMS 
(also see: hospitals) 

OPTICAL WORKSHOPS 
fire incidents 

description. 685 

ORGANIC LIQUID FIRES 
suppression agents 

foam compounds 1014 

OXYACETYIENE WELDERS 
fire extinguishers 

torch control 887 

OXYGEN BREATHING APPARATUS 
voice communication 

fire fighting. 986 

OXYGEN RECIRCULATION 
breathing apparatus 

exhaled breath 981 



PAINTING PLANTS 
foam extinguishers 

light water 881 

PAINT PRODUCTS 
fire hazards 

characteristics 74 8 

PANELS SEE: CEILING 

PANELS; WALL PANELS 

PANIC SEE: HUMAN BEHAVIOR 

PANORAMA NOVA 
breathing apparatus 

fire resistance 979 

PAPER INDUSTRY 
fire hazards 

hazards identification. . 
825 

PASSENGER SEATS 

(also see: seat cushions) 



PATENTS 

ALARM DEVICE, PREFEEAELY 
FOR FIRE ALARMS (FBG) . . 
802 

ALARM DEVICE (Swiss) ... 807 

APPABATDS FOR FILLING 
CONTAINERS WITH DIF- 
FICULTLY FLOWABLE 
MATERIALS (US) 1013 

A SPRINKLER HEAD ACTUATOE 
(UK) 900 

AUTOMATIC FIBE ALARM (US). 
813 

AUTOMATIC FIFE EXTINGOISH- 
EB (Japanese) 882 

AUTOMATIC FIRE EXTINGUISH- 
ING SYSTEM FOR TUNNELS 
(Japanese) 907 

AUTOMATIC FIBE PROTECTION 
INSTALLATION (French).. 
908 

AUTOMATIC ON-OFF SPBINKLEfi 
HEAD (UK) 895 

AUTOMATIC VALVE FOR FIRE 
EXTINGUISHANTS (French) 
885 

BREATHING APPAEATUS WITH 
FIILEB SENSITIVE TO 
WATEB VAPOE (FBG).. .983 

COMBIKATION AIE CONDITION- 
ING AND FIBE PBOTECTION 
SYSTEM FOE A BUILDING 
(US) 787 

COMBINATION SMOKE AND HEAT 

DETECTOB ALARM (US) 

801 

DETECTION OF PBESENCE OE 
ABSENCE OF FLAMES (US) . 
803 

DEVICE FOE AUTOMATIC 
CONTBOL OF A SMOKE- 
EEMOVAL SYSTEM (USSR).. 
857 

DEVICE FOE DETECTING 
DEFECTIVE STATES IN 
FIBE AND EXPLOSION 
PROTECTION SYSTEMS 
(USSR) 854 

DEVICE FOB EXTINGUISHING A 
FIBE IN A TUNNEL 
(Japanese) 890 

DEVICE FOB MAKING MECHANI- 
CAL FOAM (USSR), 906 

DEVICE FOE SPRAYING 

LIQUIDS (USSR) 883 

DEVICE FOE THE EXTINGUISH- 
MENT OF FIBES IN BUSES 
(Japanese) 889 

DEVICE FOB THE SUPPLY OF 
AIE TO THE FACEPIECE OF 
A BEEATHING APPABATOS 
(USSR) 982 

DEVICE TO EEIAIN A DOOB 
FOE A SET PERIOD OF 



PATENTS (cont'd) 

TIME (French) 1034 

EMEEGENCY BESCUE DEVICE 

(US) 1030 

ESCAPE ELEVATOB (US).. 1031 

EVACUATION SYSTEM PABTICU- 
LAELY APPLICABLE FOR 
THE BESCUE OF ENDAKGEB- 
ED PEESONS (French).... 
1C29 

EXOTHEEMIC CHEMICAL EEAC- 
TIVE SPfilNKLEB RELEASE 
(US) 901 

EXTINGUISHER FOB ALKAII 

METAL FIRES (USSR). .684 

EXTINGUISHER WITH A 

MANOMETER (French) .. 886 

FIRE ALARMS (UK) 612 

FIRE ALARM (Swiss) 800 

FIRE DAMPER (French) ... 856 

FIRE DETECTION DEVICE 
CONSISTING OF AN 
IONIZATION DETECTOR 
(Swiss) 804 

FIRE DETECTOR (UK) 6CS 

FIRE EXTINGUISHEB CONSIST- 
ING OF AN EXTINGUISHANT 
TANK FILLED WITH A 
PEESSURIZED FIBE EX- ' 
TIN6UISHANT (Belgian).. 
910 

FIHE EXTINGUISHES (French) 
893 

FIBE EXTINGUISHER WITH 

CONTAINEB FOE EXPELLING 
AGENT, PENETEATOB AND 
VALVE (FBG) 897 

FIRE EXTINGUISHING AP- 
PARATUS FOE OXY-ACiTEY- 
LENE WELDING ASSFHELIES 
(US) 887 

FIRE EXTINGUISHING AP- 
PARATUS (UK) 909 

FIRE EXTINGUISHING SYSTEMS 
(US) 912 

FIBEFIGHTING EQUIPMENT 

(FBG) 985 

FIRE PROTECTION AND SMOKE 
DAMPER (Austrian) . . . 855 

FIBE RESISTANT HALL AND 
ENCLOSURE WITH SUCH A 
WALL (French) 853 

FLAME PBEVENTION SYSTEM 
FOE FUEL TANK FIBES 
(US) 911 

FLAME SENSING UNIT (Japan- 
ese) 805 

FOAM-WATEE SPEINKLEE 

DEVICE (UK) 894 

GAS-POHEEFD ALAEM WIIB 
PEESSUEE EESPONSIVE 
REMOTE INDICATOR 
CIRCUIT (US) 606 

HERMETIC CONNECTION 



1-20 



PATENTS 



POLYMETHYLMETHACElliTE 



SDEJECT INDEX 



PATENTS (cont'd) 

BET«EEN A FIRE EXTING- 
OISHANT CONTAINER AND A 
SHOT-OFF DEVICE (FEG) . . 
892 

HIGH EXPANSION FOAH METHOD 
WITH CARBON DIOXIDE 
ADDITIVE AND DEVICE FOE 
IBELEMENTING THE METHOD 
(FEG) 1012 

HOSE EEEl DEVICE FOB FIRE 
EXTINGUISHING APPLIANCE 
(US) 888 

HYEBAUIIC RETARDING DEVICE 
FOB A FIRE PROTECTION 
INSTALLATION (French).. 
1035 

IMPROVED PROCEDURE FOE 
PRESSURIZING FIEE- 
FIGBTING EQUIPMENT 
TANKS (French) 891 

IMPEOVEMENTS IN FIRE 
DETECTION APPARATUS 
(UK) 811 

IMPEOVEMENTS IN OB RELAT- 
ING TO FIFE EETABDANT 
MATERIALS (UK) 763 

IMPEOVEMENTS IN OE RELAT- 
ING TO FLUID CONTAINEBS 
(UK) 903 

IONIZATION FIBE DETECTOE 
(Swiss) 810 

HETHCE OF DETERMINING THE 
SMCKE-GENEEATING 
CAPACITY OF CONSTRUC- 
TION MATERIALS (USSR).. 
755 

METHOD CF PRODUCING A 
METALLIZED FABRIC 
(USSR) 761 

METHOD OF STORING NATURAL 
GAS (USSR) 836 

MULTIFLOOE-TYPE ESCAPE 
BRIDGE APPARATUS FOR 
USE IN MULTI-STORY 
BUILDING (US) 1033 

PORTAEIE FIEE DETECTOE 

(US) 808 

PORTAEIE FIRE ESCAPE (US) . 
1032 

POWDEE FIRE EXTINGUISHER 
(USSR) 902 

PROCEDURE FOE PRODUCING 
AND EMBELLISHING A 
FLAMEPROOF OB INCOM- 
BUSIIELE COMPLEX TO EE 
USED FOR DECOEATING OR 
STECCIUEAI WALL FINISH- 
INGS (French) 762 

EEMOTE CONTROL DEVICE FOE 
A EIEE EXIINGUISHEE 
(French) 90a 

SEAL FOR TOGGIE-JCINT 

STOPPERS CF CONTAINERS, 



PATENTS (cont'd) 

ESPECIALLY FOR BREATH- 
ING APPARATUS (FRG).... 
98« 

SMOKE-VENTING FIEEEBEAK 

HATCHES (French) 852 

SPEAY SPRINKIEE HEAD 

(Swiss) 905 

STOPPER FOE A HOLLOW EODY 
CONTAINING A FLUID 
UNDER PRESSURE (Swiss) . 
896 

SYNTHETIC FOAM COMPOUND, 
ESPECIALLY FOR THE 
SUPPBESSICN OF FIRES OF 
HATER-MISCIBLE ORGANIC 
LIQUIDS (FRG) lOlU 

TEMPEEATUEE-CONTEOLLED 
TRIGGER FOR AUTOMATIC 
FIEE-EXTINGUISHING 
SYSTEMS OB DEVICES 
(FEG) 899 

TUBULAE BODIES (UK)... .898 



PD-GATE FIELD-EFFECT 

TRANSISTOE 
hydrogen detectors 
fire alarms 



793 



PERFORMANCE EVALUATION 
firefighting operations 
post-fire analysis. .. 977 

PERFORMANCE TESTS 
heat release 

hazard loading.. 776 

PERSONAL EQUIPMENT 
(also see: protective 
clothing) 

PETROCHEMICAL INDUSTRY 
civil defense 

conference papers. .. .676 

PHENOL-FORMALDEHYDE RESINS 
pyrolysis products 

toxicity 1060 

PHENOLIC EESINS 
pyrolysis products 

toxicity 1060 

PHOTOELECTRIC DETECTOES 
SEE: SMOKE DETECTOES 

PHOTOELECTRIC SENSORS 

flame detectors 

invisible radiation .. 8C3 
visible radiation. ... 803 



PIPELINES 
flow mechanisEs 
Halcn 1301.... 



,1001 



PLANT MANAGEMENT 
fire safety 

industrial occupancies.. 
, 930 

PLASTICS 

(also see: polymers; 

thermoplastics) 
fire tests 

research programs. ... 736 

smoke hazards 737 

flammability tests 

development history. . 7*42 
fuels 

flame spread 703 

smoke generation 

density measurement .. 738 
smoke tests 

gravimetric measurement. 
75i» 

PLATFORMS 

(also see: elevating plat- 
forms; offshore plat- 
forms) 

PLAYPIPES 
50 liter/ffiin 

foam liquids S17 

pressurized tubes 

patent 898 

PLYWOOD BOARDS 
fire resistant coatings 
ship structures 759 

FOLY(ABYLOXYPHOSPHAZENE) 

homopolymers 

flame properties 723 

smoke properties 723 

POLYESTER COMPOSITES 
fire retardant analysis 
ASTM tunnel test 735 

POLYETHYLENE 
storage conf iguraticns 
fire tests 777 

POLYMERS 

(also see: plastics; rub- 
ber; thermoplastics) 
combustion 

smoke generation. .... 734 
smoldering 

smoke measurement .... 751 
structural materials 

fire endurance 72S 

POLYMETHYLMETHACBYLATi 
cylindrical rods 

flame propagat ion . . . . 722 
horizontal slabs 

pool burning rates.. .727 



1-21 



POIYPFCPYLENE 



EAMM 



POLYPECPYLENE 
storage configuration 

fire tests 777 

POLYSTYRENE 

Storage configuration 

fire tests 777 

POLYUBETHANE FOAMS 
burnicg characteristics 

fire hazards 744 

charring tendencies 

tests 733 

furniture 

flam liability 732 

insulation 

fire hazards 744 

stDoldering tendencies 

tests 733 

POIYVIHYICHLCEIDE 
combustion products 

toxicity 1055 

pyrolysis products 

inhalation toxicity 

1056 

toxicity 1055 

storage configuration 

fire tests 777 

POOL fIRES 
polymethylmethacrylate 

horizontal slabs 727 

sodiua 

breeder reactors 780 

thermal radiation 

modeling ,. .720 

POST-FIRE ANALYSIS 
firefighting operations 
performance evaluation.. 
.977 

POWDEF EXTIN6DISHANTS 
composition 

test fires, 1009 

filling apparatus 

fire extinguishers. . 1013 
fire extinguishers 

patent 902 

optimal use 

suitability 1002 

tank pressurization 

patent 891 

POWER PLANTS 

electrical installations 
fire protection 943 

nuclear 

fire incidents. . 684, 688 
sodium fires... 944 



SDEJBCT INDEX 

POWER REACTORS 
electrical cables 

tray fires 781 

PRESSOHE MODELING 
radiation 

crib fires 779 

PRESSURE REDUCERS 
trunk lines 

water supplies 1017 

PRESSURE VESSELS 
fire protection 

recoamendations 847 

PRESSURIZATION SYSTEMS 

smoke control 

codes 862 

escape routes 866 

highrise buildings. .. 864 

PRISONS 

fire incidents . 

analysis 682 

PROPANE RUST TESTS 
conveyor belts 

fire performance 726 

PROPEIIANT CARTRIDGES 
compressed gas 

fire extinguishers. .. 879 

PROPERTY LOSSES 

(also see: fire losses) 

PROTECTIVE CLOTHING 
(also see: clothing) 
firefighters 

aircraft fires, 987 

f acepiece-visor assembly 
988, 989 

foot«ear 990 

metallized fabric 

patent 761 

PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT 
fireproof sheaths 

patent 985 

PROTEIN FOAMS 
fuel storage tanks 

base injection 1046 

PUBLIC BUILDINGS 
fire protection 

system design 796 

fire safety 945 

PUBLIC EDUCATION 
(also see: education) 
fire safety 

residential occupancies. 



PUBLIC EDUCATION (cont'd) 
fire safety (cont'd) 
residential (cont'd) 

946 

PUBLIC HOUSING 
conferences 

USSR. 677 

PUBLIC SERVICES 
fire protection 

cost engineering. ... 1048 

PULMONARY FAILURE 
burn injuries 

pathogenesis 1063 

smoke inhalation 

pathogenesis 1063 

PUMPER-LAEDERS 

(also see: apparatus) 

PYROLYSIS PRODUCTS 
polyvinylchloride 

inhalation toxicity 

1056 

toxicity 1055 

textile fibers 

analysis 753 

toxicity 

animal experiments. , 1054 

PYROMANIA 

(also see: arson; incen- 
diarism) 

R 

RADIATION 
crib fires 

pressure modeling. .. .779 
measurement 

calorimeters 718 

RADIATIVE HEATING 
pool fires 

polymethylmethacrylate. . 
727 

RADIO COMMUNICATION 
individual 

firefighters 1000 

RAILROAD FIRES 

prevention measures 

personnel training. .. S49 

sleeping cars 

fire prevention 949 

fire suppression 951 

smoke removal 951 

RANN 

( Research Applied to 



1-22 



BANN 



SHIE EEPilE 



RANN (cont'd) 

National Needs ) 

RAPID TRANSIT 
(also see: elevated rail- 
ways; sutways) 

RATE-CF-RISE DETECTCKS 
fire alarms 

patent 809 

EEACT05S 
fast breeders 

sodium fires 782 

sodium fires 

modeling 780 

EEBREATHING CANISTER 
breathing apparatus 

charging system 980 

EECOEE STORAGE 
fire-insulated cabinets... 

8as 

REGIONAL PLANNING 

fire departments 

bibliography 957 

consolidation 672 

consolidation study.. 669 

EEGULATIONS 
combustible materials 

FRG 1073 

fire safety 

industry (USSR) 1074 

EEINFCECEE CONCRETE FRAMES 
fire environments 

structural response. .769 

BEMCTE CONTROLS 
fire extinguishers 

patent 904 

RESCUE EQUIPMENT 
gondola 

helicopter-suspended. . . . 

-.. 1030 

helicopter- supported 

patent 1030 

highrise buildings 

escape chutes 1027 

RESCUE OPERATIONS 
breathing apparatus teams 

training 1025 

building evacuation 

elevators 1039 

helicopters 

exercises 1040 

higbrise buildings. . .676 



SOEJECT INDEX 

RESEARCH PROGRAMS 
Fire Research Station 

UK 1975 696 

smcke control 

structural fires 695 

UK 861 

smoke movement 

UK 861 

RESIDENTIAL OCCUPANCIES 
(also see: highrise build- 
ings; hotels; mobile 
homes; motels) 
fire protecting systems 

centralized control. .870 
fire safety 

education program. .. .946 

RESINS 
aircraft floors 

fire resistance 953 

RESPIRATORS 
(also see: breathing 
apparatus) 

RESTORATION 
fire damage 

building structures 

1086 

RETAINERS 
fire doors 

patent 1034 

RETIREMENT HOMES SEE: 

NURSING HOMES; CLE AGE 
HOMES 

RHEOMETEBS 

foam measurements 

flow characteristics.... 
1004 

RIGHT-OF-WAY 

emergency vehicles 

driver conduct 1023 

judicial ruling 1022 

RISK EVALUATION 
flammaile atmospheres 

static electricity. .. 817 

RISK MANAGEMENT 
loss economics 

residential-industrial. . 

1087 

loss prevention 

residential-industrial. . 
1087 

ROOF LAYERS 
explosions 

laboratory simulation... 



ROOF LAYERS (cont'd) 
explosions (cont'd) 
laboratory (cont'd) 

741 

ROOFS 

foamed plastic insulation 

fire hazards 746 

metal deck 

fire hazards 746 

RUGS SEE: FLOOR COVERINGS 



s 

SAFETY MANUALS 

chemicals 

hazardous 108 

industrial 1080 

SANCTUABIES SEE: REFUGE 
AREAS 

SAVANNAH RIVER PLANT 
fire incidents 

uranium trioxide 688 

SCALE MODELS 
corridors 

fire-induced airflcfcs... 
710 

SCHOOL FIRES 
statistics 

UK 1972-1975 786 

SCHOOLS 

fire protection 

Berlin 785 

building construction... 
786 

SEAT CUSHIONS 
(also see: passenger 
seats) 

SHIP ACCIDENTS 

(also see: accidents) 

SHIP BULKHEADS 
insulated aluminum 

fire resistance 830 

SHIP FIRES 

firefighter training 

facilities 962 

OK.. 962 

motor vessels 

foan suppression. ... 1041 

SHIP REPAIR 
shipyards 

fire prevention 947 

1-23 



SHIPS 



SMOKE PAKTICDLfiTES 



SUBJECT INDEX 



SHIPS 
construction 

fire prevention 947, 

948 

firefighting operations 
procedures 1042 

fire incidents 

analysis 683 

fire tests 

chemical parameters. . 772 

full-scale 77 2 

physical parameters. . 772 

repair 

fire prevention 948 

repair work 

fire prevention 947 

SHIP SIBDCTURES 
fire endurance 

computer calculations... 

828 

plywocd boards 

fire resistant coatings. 
759 

SHIPYAEDS 
construction work 

fire prevention 947 

repair work 

fire prevention ,948 

SHOPPING CENTERS 
venting systems 

wind effects 860 

SHOPPING MALLS SEE: SHOP- 
PING CENTERS 

SHUT-OFF VALVES 
breathing apparatus 

patent 984 

fire extinguishers 

patent 892, 896 

hermetic sealing 

extinguishers 892 

SLEEPING CARS 
railroad fires 

prevention measures. . 949 

SMALL-SCALE FIRES 
flashcver times 

wall coverings 701 

SMOKE 
nature 

structural f ires. .». .707 
quantitative determination 

NBS-smoke chamber. ... 717 
structural fires 

control problems 708 



SMOKE ABATEMENT SYSTEMS 
water spray injection 

JP-4 fuel fires 918 

SMOKE CONTROL 

highrise building fires 

ventilation systems. .851 
highrise buildings 

pressurization 86 4 

mechanical ventilation 

computer analysis. .. .712 
pressurization systems 

codes 862 

protection measures 

firefighters views. ..715 
research studies 

UK 861 

structural fires 

mechanical ventilation.. 
714 

research programs. ... 695 
venting systems 

description 863 

SMOKE CONTROL SYSTEMS 

highrise buildings 

France 867 

Japan 868 

SMOKE CURTAINS 
inflatable 

corridor barriers. ... 840 

SMOKE DAMPERS 
air ducts 

patent 855 

SMOKE DENSITY 
plastics 

measurement ..738 

SMOKE DETECTORS 
alarms 

patent 801 

(also see: detectors) 
heat detectors 

patent 801 

ionization cells 

operating parameters.... 

797 

light obscuration 

calibration 814 

testing 814 

photoelectric 

description 790 

light-scatter measure- 
ments* t. 815 

testing 815 

SMOKE DOOBS 
self-closing 

field trials ...858 



SMOKE EXPLOSIONS 
(also see: backdraft) 

SMOKE GENERATION 
building materials 

measurement method. ..755 
compartments 

estimation 709 

furnishings 

estimation 7 09 

measurement method 

patent 755 

plastics 

density measurement. . 738 
polymers 

fire retardants 734 

SMOKE HAZARDS 
plastics 

fire tests 737 

structural fires 

protection measures. . 838 

SMOKE INHALATION 
pulmonary failure 

pathogenesis 1063 

SMOKE MEASUREMENT 
polymers 

smoldering fires 751 

SMOKE MOVEMENT 
buildings 

model 713 

control measures 

firefighter's views. .715 
control systems 

highrise buildings. .. 868 
highrise buildings 

escape routes 866 

hospital fires 

unsteady-state calcula- 
tions. 711 

mechanical ventilation 

computer analysis. ... 712 
natural ventilation 

computer analysis ... .712 
research studies 

UK 861 

structural fires 

hazard reduction 716 

pressure measurements... 
865 

symposia 674 

SMOKE PARTICULATES 
plastics 

gravimetric measarenent. 

754 

polymers 

fire retardants 734 



1-24 



SMOKE EEMOVAL 



STORAGE CAEINETS 



SUBJECT INDEX 



SMOKE EEMOVAL 
control systems 

France 867 

electrostatic filters 

breathing apparatus. .959 
firestop hatches 

patent 852 

highrise building fires 

ventilation systems. . 851 
multistory building struc- 
tures 

system design 871 

sleeping cars 

railroad fires 951 

stairwell pressurizaticn 

highrise buildings. .. 778 
systems design 

equipment 87 3 

ventilation systems 

supplier obligation . .859 
venting systems 

patent 857 

SMOKE EEMOVAL SYSTEMS 
duct materials 

fire protection 844 

SMOKE STOPS 
fire curtains 

ceiling suspension. .. 8i<8 

SMOKE TESTS 
plastics 

gravimetric measurement. 
754 

SMOLDEEING FIRES 
explosion incidents 

foam mattresses 743 

polymers 

smoke measurement .... 751 
polyurethane foams 

tests 733 

SODIUM FIRES 
breeder reactors 

modeling 780 

classification 

nuclear safety 944 

power reactors 

breeder reactors 782 

SOLID COMBUSIIBLES 
wetting agents 

fire suppression .... 1003 



SOLID FUELS 
burning rates 
fire whirls, 



,702 



SOUNDING SEE: ACOUSTIC 
SOUNDING 



SPACE VEHICLES 
electronic configurations 
fire resistance. ..... 832 

SPALLING 

concrete structures 

fire exposures 765 

SPILLS 

(also see: fuel spills) 

SPRAY NOZZLES 
fire extinguishers 

test methods 913 

SPRINKLER HEADS 
actuators 

patent 900 

automatic 

spray patterns 913 

automatic actuator 

patent 895 

fog 

patent 905 

liquids 

patents 883 

SPRINKLERS 

automatic detection 

testing 915 

fire control 

testing 915 

fire detectors 

chemical plants 798 

foam-water 

patent 894 

fog heads 

patent 905 

special applications 

aircraft hangars 914 

computer centers 914 

offshore platf orms. . . 9 14 
warehouses 914 

SPRINKLER SYSTEMS 
aqueous film forming foam 

effectiveness 1001 

chemically reactive 

patent 901 

selective triggering.... 

901 

highrise buildings 

fire protection 869 

SIAIEKAYS 
evacuation times 

structural fires. ... 1038 

STAIRWELLS 
highrise buildings 

pressurizaticn 778 



STANDARDIZATION 
fire- protection closures 
FRG 842 

STANDARDS 
firefighter helmets 

performance criteria.... 

1082 

f lammability 

clothing 1084 

flammability tests 

plastics 742 

structureil components 

German 1C81 

structural materials 

German 1081 

transportation vehicles 

recognition features 

(USSR) 1083 

STATIC ELECTRICITY 
flammable atmospheres 

risk evaluation. ..... 617 

industrial occupancies 

control 835 

STATISTICS 
electrical fires 

appliance defects ... 1090 
explosions 

reporting methods. .. 1076 
fires 

reporting methods. .. 1076 
furnishings fires 

OK - 1970 1089 

furniture fires 

UK - 1970 1C89 

industrial fires 

France - 1975 ,1C88 

major fires 

France 1068 

international comparis- 
ons 1088 

school fires 

OK 1972-1975 786 

STEEL COLUMNS 
water-filled 

fire resistance. .... .784 

STEEL STRUCTURES 
fire endurance 

computer calculations... 
828 

fire engineering 

design handbook 783 

fire resistance 

heating calculation .. 629 
unprotected 

fire resistance 784 

STORAGE CABINETS 
fireproof 

sensitive materials. . 850 



1-25 



STRDCIORAL CCMPONENTS 



TOXICITY SCREENISG TESTS 



SDBJECT INDEX 



STEOCTDEAL COMPONENTS 
fireproof walls 

patent 853 

standards 

updating 1081 

STEOCTDEAL FIRES 
human behavior 

evacuation studies. . 1071 
smoke 

nature ...707 

smoke control 

mechanical ventilation.. 
7m 

problems 708 

research programs. .. .695 
smoke hazards 

protection measures. . 838 
smoke movement 

hazard reduction 716 

model 713 

pressure measurements... 
865 

sympcsium papers 67U 

stairways 

evacuation times. ... 1038 

STEOCTUEAL MATEEIALS 
polymers 

fire endurance 729 

standards 

updating 1081 

SDBSDBPACE FOAMS 
fire suppression 

tank fires 1008 

SDBWAY STATIONS 
fire incidents 

analysis 680 

SDPPEISSION SEE: FIRE 
SUEPEESSICN 

SUEFACTANTS 

(also see: wetting agents) 

SYMPOSIA 

Annual Simulation 

1976 1039 

Control of Smoke Movement 
in Euilding Fires 

1975 674, 693, 695, 

..707, 709, 710, 711, 
..712, 713, 714, 715, 
..716, 838, 858, 859, 
..860, e61, 862, 863, 
..861, 865, 866, 867, 

868, 1038, 1071 

1976 708 

Human Behavior in Fire 
1975. ..1061, 1065, 1066, 
1068, 1072 



SYMPOSIA (cont'd) 
International Hire and 
Cable 
1975 750, 928, 929 

SYNTHETIC RESINS 
xylene vapors 

ignition 681 



TANKER SHIPS 
crude oil 

f irefighting, 



10a3 



TANK FIRES 

(also see: fuel tanks; 
fuel storage tanks) 
foam extinguishants 

subsurface injection.... 
1008 

TAR VAPORS 
fire hazards 

electrical wiring. ... 82U 

TEST FIRES 

foam extinction 

flucrochemicals 1015 

flue ro proteins 1015 

powder extinguishants 

composition 1009 

TESTING 

(also see: fire tests; 
flanmability tests) 
explosion hazards 

foam mattresses 743 

fire behavior 

plastics 736, 737 

full scale 

aircraft interiors. . .774 
materials 

heat resistant 764 

nonflammable 764 

sprinkler systems 

operational readiness... 

915 

wall coverings 

combustion products. . 756 
wood cribs 

fire buildup 7C0 

TESTING METHODS 

fabrics 

burning properties* . .730 

ignition 730 

international coopera- 
tion 730 

TEXTILE FIBERS 
combustion products 

analysis 753 



TEXTILE FIBERS (cont'd) 
pyrolysis products 

analysis 753 

TEXTILES SEE: FABRICS 

THEATERS 
fire hazards 

protection measures. . 833 

THERMAL INCLUSIONS 
mineral wools 

detection methods. .. .721 

THERMAL RADIATION 
pool fires 

modeling 720 

THERMAL SENSITIVITY INDEX 
heat release rate 

calorimeter measurement. 
718 

THEHMO-LAG 
fire retardants 

patent 763 

THERMOPLASTICS 
(also see: plastics) 

TOWELS 
wet 

gas absorbence 1067 

TOXIC GASES 

guantitative determinaticn 
NBS-smoke chamber .... 717 

TOXICITY 

(also see: combustion 

toxicology) 
combustion products 

animal experiments .. 1054 
building materials. . 1C61 
commercial materials.... 

752 

evaluation method. .. 1C59 
fire gases 

animal experiments. . 1C57 
polyvinylchloride 

combustion products 

1C55 

pyrolysis products 

1055, 1C56 

pyrolysis products 

animal experiments. . 1054 
phenolic resins. ... »1C60 

TOXICITY SCREENING TESTS 
combustion products 

commercial materials.... 
752 



1-26 



TRAFFIC ACCIDENTS 



MALLBOABDS SEE: CHIEECABES; 



TRAFFIC ACCIDENTS 
(also see: accidents) 

TRAFFIC FIRES 
tunnels 

fire extinguishing 

system 907 

fire extinguishing 

systems 890 

TRAFFIC REGUIATIONS 
emergency right-of-way 

FRG 1023 

right-of-way 

FRG 1022 

TRAINING 
(also see: education; 

firefighter training) 
fire service instructors 
guidebook 958 

TRAINING FACILITIES 
fire suppression 

aircraft fires 965 

TRAINING REGULATIONS 
fire brigades 

FRG 964 

volunteer fire departments 

FRG 964 

TRANSISTORS 
field-effect 

smoke detection 793 

TRANSIT VEHICLES 
(also see: buses; subway 
cars) 

TBANSPORTATION VEHICLES 
standards 

recognition features 

(DSSR) 1083 

TRAY FIRES 
electrical cables 

analytical model 781 

TONNELS 

fire extinguishers 

patent 890 

fire extinguishing systems 

patent 907 

TOEBOLENT DIFFUSION 
flame radiation 

modeling. .......;... .719 

U 

ULTRAVIOLET DETECTOKS 
(also see: detectors) 



SUBJECT INDEX 

ULTRAVIOLET (cont'd) 
flame radiation 

patent 85i4 

ULTRAVIOLET FLAME BADIA- 

TICN 
detection 

fire alarms 851 

UNDEEIAYMENTS SEE: FLCOE 
COVERINGS 

UNITED KINGDOM 
aircraft crash fires 

extinguishants 1037 

UPHOLSTERY 
furniture 

flam liability 706 

flammability tests.. .731 

URBAN FIRES 
wildland hazards 

suburban areas 922 

UREAN/HILELAND FIRES 
interface aspects 

suburban areas 922 

USSR 

fire alarm centers 

description 799 

fire communications cen- 
ters 

description 999 

fire departments 

apparatus 955 

fire protection 

administration 6 68 

public housing 

fire protection con- 
ferences 677 

rural fire safety 

regulations 921 

,V 

VARNISH FACTORIES 
synthetic resin department 
fire incidents 681 

VARNISH PRODUCTS 
fire hazards 

characteristics 748 

VEHICLE ACCIDENTS 
(also see: accidents) 

VEHICLE COLUMNS 
command problems 

fire officers 1021 



VEHICLE FIRES 
fire extinguishers 

patent 893 

VEHICLES 

(also see: apparatus) 

diesel-powered 

fire protection 845 

VENTILATION 
mechanical 

smoke control ,714 

smoke control analysis.. 

712 

smoke movement analysis. 

712 

natural 

smoke control analysis.. 

712 

smoke movement analysis. 
712 

VENTILATION DUCTS 
fire dampers 

patent 656 

VENTILATION SYSTEMS 
duct materials 

fire protection 844 

heat removal 

supplier obligation .. 859 
smoke control 

highrise buildings. .. 851 
smoke removal 

highrise buildings. .. 851 

supplier obligaticn. . 859 

VENTING SYSTEMS 
shappin^ centers 

wind effects 660 

smoke control 

description 863 

smoke removal 

patent 857 

VISORS 

protective clothing 

firefighters S88 

overcoatings 989 

VOICE COMMUNICATIONS 
breathing apparatus 

amplifier systems. ... 986 

VOLUNTEER FIRE DEPARTMENTS 
training regulations 

FBG... . 964 

w 

HALLBOARDS SEE: CHIE- 
BOAEDS; FIBERBOABIS; 
GYPSUM BOARDS 



1-27 



WALL CCVEBINGS 



YOUTH FIRE SEEVICE 



SOEJECT INDEX 



WAIL CCVERINGS 
decorative 

fire resistant 762 

fire behavior 

smoke production 756 

small-scale fires 

flashover times 701 

structural 

fire resistant 762 

WABEHOOSES- 
high-rack 

fire protection 923 



HILDIAND FIEES 
urban hazards 

suburban areas 922 

HOOD CBIBS 
fire buildup 

growth rates 700 

WOOD DOST 
explosion hazard 

assessment 745 



WASHING MACHINES 
explosion hazards 

oil-impregnated clothing 
826 



XYLENE VAfOES 
synthetic resins 

ignition 681 



WATEE-EILLED COLUMNS 
steel structures 

fire resistance..., 



,784 



KATEE SPEAY INJECTION 
smoke abatement systems 
aviation fuel fires.. 918 



YOUTH FIEE SERVICE 
female members 

integration 10 24 



VATEB SPRAYS 
fire protection 

cable ducts 925 

WATER SUPPLIES 

(also see: fire flcHs) 

f iref ighting 

gelatinization 1011 

fire suppression 

Belgian regulations 

1016 

calculations 1018 

reguirements 1016 

trunk lines 

pressure reducers.. . 1017 

WATER THICKENING 
gelatinization 

fire fighting 1011 

WEARING APPAREL SEE: 
CLOTHING 

WETTING AGENTS 

(also see: surfactants) 

fire suppression 

solid combustibles. . 1003 
USSR 1007 

WET WATER 
discharge devices 

GDR 880 

WICK EOENING 
clothing 

burn injuries 1064 



1-28 



CONFERENCES 



BOOKS OCDFNALS 

SOURCE INDEX 

BOOKS, MONOGRAPHS JOOBNALS (coDt'd) JOUENaiS (cont'd) 

ARSON: SOME EEOELEBS AND Arch Bal Prof Med (cont'd) Bull mens Chambre CCBBerce 

SOLOTIONS 1051 36(12): (cont'd) ind Meurthe-et-Moselle 

AUTOMATIC EXTINGOISHMENT 105U (10):21-26, 1975813 

OF PIPES 872 Arch lermodyn Spal (French) 1C19 

FIBE ENDORANCE OF BDILDING 7 (2) : 1 65- 174, 1976.. 1008 Combust Flame 

STROCTORES 828 7 (2) : 243- 253, 1976. ..745 26 (3) : 4 11-412 , 1976. .699 

FIRE ENGINEERING DESIGN OF ASCE Eroc. J Struct Div 27 (2) : 267-278, 1976.. 700 

STEEL STROCTORES.. . .783 1 02 (ST8) : 1 549- 1 558, 1976 Constr Specifier 

FIRE SERVICE AND THE LAB.. 829 29(1):36-40, 1976 669 

954 ASHRAE J 29(5):46-53, 1976 746 

FIRE SERVICE INSTRDCTOR'S 18(2):17-19, 1976. ...851 Densetsu kogyo 

GDIEEBOOK 958 18(2):26-28, 1976 790 21 ( 1 1) : 82-98, 1975. ..843 

ORGANIZATIONAL PROBLEMS IN Berat€nde Ing Eiraensions/NBS 

IMPROVING THE CONTROL (6):14-16, 1976 1085 60(1):10-11, 1976 724 

OF SOCIALIST PROEOCTION (6):17-18, 21-24, 1S76.. DIN Mitt 

668 689 55(2):72-75, 1976. ..1081 

TOXIC AND HAZARDOUS Bezop ekspluat elektromekh Diteru 

INEDSTRIAL CHEMICALS oborud v shakhtakh (274):36-43, 1975.... 949 

SAFETY MANUAL FOR (7) :35-38, 1 975 939 Draegerheft 

HANDLING AND DISPOSAL (7):67-72, 1975 940 (304): 13-17, 1S76....979 

ilTE TOXICITY AND Bezcp tr pron-sti Dtsch Ausschuss Stahltetcn 

HAZARD DATA 1080 (4):20-21, 1976 875 (248):1-40, 1975 765 

Brandaus Face au Risque 

84(5) :167-170, 1976 (119):25-36, 1976 930 

1040 (120):13-16, 1976.. .1088 

84 (7):247-251, 1976. .743 Feuerwehr 

84(7) : 266-267, 1976. .784 26(3):€7-68, 1976 822 

Dynamics of Fire Preven- Brandforsvar 26(4):96-97, 1976... 1024 

ticn Conf, Proc 13(1):10, 1976 978 Fire 

1976, Oct 18-20, Los Brandforsvar, FoO-Brand 68(851) :600, 1976 841 

Angeles, CA 675 (1):1-6, 1 S76 730 69(853):80, 1976 696 

industrial Civil Defense (1):13-15, 1976 721 69(853) :82, 1976 775 

Conf, Int, 3rd, Proc Brandhilfe 69 (854) : 1 19-122, 1976... 

Record 23 (6) : 130-132, 1976 946 

1975, Apr 8-12, Beirut, 1021 69(854):123, 1976. ..1077 

Lebanon 676 23 (7) : 157-162, 1976 69 (854) : 124-1 25, 1976... 

Space Sinulation Conf, 1002 960 

8th, Proc Brandschutz 69 (855) : 177-179, 1976... 

1975, Nov 3-5, Silver 30(4):92-95, 1976 694 975 

Spring, MD...717, 832 30(4):96-99, 1976 998 69(855) :183, 1976 678 

SPE Annual Technical Conf, 30 (5) : 122-124, 1976 69 (855) : 1 89-190, 1976... 

Proc 1079 933 

1976, Apr 26-29, Atlan- 30 (6) : 1 58- 161 , 1976. .785 Fire Chief 

tic City, NJ 751 30 (7) : 168-169, 1976 20(7):29-30, 1976 956 

1022 20(8):68-71, 1976 672 

30 (7) : 170-171, 1976 20(8):72-74, 1976 669 

1023 20(8):79-82, 1976 S77 

30 (7): 172-173, 192, 1976 20(9):29-32, 1976 969 

JOURNALS 996 20(9):36-38, 1976 S66 

Acta Oniv Upsaliensis 30(7):174, 1976 995 20(9);39-40, 1976 961 

(356):1-4S, 1976 817 30 (7) : 1 86- 1 91 , 1976. .842 Fire Command 

Antincendio protezciv 30 (8) : 196-201, 1976. .964 43(7):27, 1976 S63 

27(10) :755-760, 1975.... Brandvaern 43(8):46-49, 1976 682 

1003 2(1):17-19, 1976 881 43(8):54-56, 1976. ..1069 

27(10) :764-765, 1975 2(2):20-22, 1976 821 Fire Eng 

923 Brandverhuetung 1 29 (7) :47-48, 1976. .1082 

27(10) :767-771, 1975 (118):57-59, 1976 681 1 29 (7) : 54-55, 1976. .1070 

680 (118):59-61, 1976 823 129(8):18, 21-22, 1976.. 

Apave (118):61-62, 1976 824 670 

57 (193) :89-91, 1976. .757 Brauwelt 1 29 (8) : 44-45, 1976. ..690 

Arch Bal Prof Med Trav B1 1 5 (38) : 1 247- 1249, 1975 1 29 (8) : 48-49, 1976. ..691 

Secur Soc 744 1 29 (8) : 50-52, 1976. ..692 



36 (12) : 707-738, 1975.. 



1-29 



JOUENfilS JCDEMilS 

SOOPCE INDEX 

JOURNALS (cont'd) JOURNALS (cont'd) JOURNALS (cont'd) 

Fire Internat J Ccnsumer Prod (cont'd) Pczhar delo 

5(52):23-27, 1976 948 3 (2) : 1 28-1 40, 1976. ..733 (1):19, 1976 1025 

5(52):28-32, 1976. ..1043 3 (2) : 1 41- 1 49, 1976. ..752 (1):24-25, 1976 925 

5(52):41-42, 1976.. .1041 J Fire Flammability (2) :26, 1976 943 

5(52):46-48, 1976 962 7(1):5-18, 1976 723 (3):24-25, 1976 1C74 

5(52):57-66, 1976 818 7(1):19-40, 1976 703 (3):25, 1976 980 

5(52):69-72, 1976 819 7(1):41-58, 1976 734 (3):27, 1976 924 

5(52):89-93, 1976 845 7(1):59-70, 1976 772 (3):29, 1976 968 

5(53):18-21, 1976.. .1042 7 (1) : 104-1 11 , 1976. .-722 (4):8-9, 1976 1020 

5(53):18-30, 1976 847 7 ( 1) : 1 1 2- 1 24, 1976. ..773 (4):18-19, 1976 820 

5(53):41-49, 1976.. .1045 7 (1) : 1 25- 1 59, 1976. ..950 (4):22-23, 1976 1006 

5(53):53-56, 1S76..,.932 J Fire Retard Chen (4) :23-25, 1976 878 

5(53):59-69, 1976.. .1007 3(1):22-33, 1976 735 (4):26-27, 1976 1083 

5(53):87-92, 1976 931 Kasai (5):14-16, 1976 677 

Fireline 25 (4) : 225-226, 1976 (5):24-25, 1976 877 

:3-5, May 1976 1052 1090 (5):26-27, 1976 799, 

:5-e, June 1976 922 25 (4) : 227-233, 1975.. 971 999 

:8-10, May 1976 731 25 (4) : 234- 240, 1975 (6):18-19, 1976 921 

:9-11, June, 1976 706 1044 (6):24-25, 1976 955 

Fire Mater Keisoku jido seigyo gakkai (6) :26-27, 1976 778 

1(2):52-56, 1976 758 ronbunshu (6):28-29, 1976 1009 

1(2):57-62, 1976 1055 1 1 (5) : 501-507, 1975 Promenerg .x 

1(2):63-73, 1976 725 1028 (3):19-20, 1976 926 

1(2):74-75, 1976 701 Kuki tyowa to reito Protivpozarna Zastita 

1(2):76-82, 1976 1089 15 ( 1 1) : 61 -66, 1975. ..844 16(2):58-59, 1976 791 

Fire Erev 15(11):74-8C, 1975. ..876 16(2):59, 1976 826 

(115):13-16, 1976 934 15 ( 1 1) : 110-1 12, 1975.... 16(5):47-48, 1976 627 

(115):21-22, 1976.. ..786 873 PIT Tech Mitt 

(115):28-29, 1976. ..1078 Kunstst 54 (4) : 126-134, 1976. .792 

Fire Frev Sci Technol 66 (6) : 375-378, 1976. .738 R/D 

(14) :4-17, 1976 686 Lakokrasoch uaterialy i 27 (10) : 18-21, 1976. ..936 

(14):18-26, 1976. ...1046 ikh primenenie Eep Fire Sci Lab (Japan) 

(15):4-10, 1976 835 (6):77-78, 1975 748 (12):20-25, 1975 1010 

(15):11-18, 1S76 798 Maschinenioarkt (12):55-58, 1975 959 

(15):17-21, 1976 747 82(2):29, 1976... 879 (12):68-70, 1975 840 

(15):22-26, 1S76 1086 Melliand Textilber (12):75-78, 1975 981 

Fire lechnol 57 (1 0) : 807-810, 1976 (12):79-83, 1975 1067 

12(1):5-17, 1976 1001 753 (12):88-93, 1975 1011 

12(1):33-40, 1976 702 Mitt Inst Wasserbau Oniv Rev Eelge Feu 

12(1):41-48, 1976 937 Stuttgart (30):34-37, 1976 1016 

12(1):49-54, 1976 776 (35) :423- 437, 1975. .1017 Rev Sci Instrum 

12(1):55-65, 1976 777 ModPiast 47(1):74-80, 1976 797 

12(1):66-69, 1976.. .1004 53(3):46-48, 1976 736 47 (6) : 738-740, 1976. .793 

12(1):18-32, 1975.. .1005 53(5):47-49, 1976 737 Schadenprisma 

Fune DO kagaku 53(6):64-66, 1976 742 5 (2) : 32-36, 1976 1C75 

28(9):17, 1975 970 Nav, ports, chant Schweiz Feuerwehr Z 

Glueckauf Forschungsh (302) : 489-494, 1975. .947 102 (8) : 291 ,293,295, 297- 

37(4) :142-147, 1S76..726 Not AICAP 299, 1976 967 

Hansa 3 (4) :2-8, 1976 766 102 (8) : 303-308, 1976 

112 (23) :1937-1942, 1975. Nuclear Saf 673 

683 17 (5): 592-611, 1976. .684 Seewirtsch 

Hessische Feuerwehr Z Ohm: denki zasshi 7 (1 1) : 684-686, 1975. .759 

85 (15) :267-272, 1976.... 62 ( 13) : 17-20, 1975. ..870 Sharyo to denki 

997 62(13) :21-27, 1976. ..839 26(7):30-32, 1975 951 

Ind Digest 62 (13) : 46-51 , 1975.. .795 Sichere Arb 

15(1):35-39, 1976.. .1073 62 ( 13) : 52- 56, 1975. ..796 29(2):12-13, 1 S76 938 

Ind Eng 62 (13) ;57-61, 1975.. .945 Siemens Rev 

8(6):44-45, 1976 935 62 (13) : 62-66, 1975. ..871 43 (8) : 351-353, 1976. .794 

Internat Fire Chief 62 ( 13) : 67-72, 1975. ..846 Sigurnost 

42(3):8-13, 1976 671 Paper Technol 18(1):27-54, 1976 633 

J Consumer Prod Flamma- 16 (6) : 361 -367, 1975. .825 18 (1) : 101-110, 1976 

bility Plast Technol 1076 

3(2):73-127, 1976 732 22(3):46-42, 1976 754 

1-30 



JOUENiLS FEFOPTS 

SOURCE INDEX 

JOUENflLS (cont'd) PAIENIS (cont'd) REPORTS 

Sud Med Ekspert FEG (cont'd) fiir Force Weapons Lab, 

18(3):49-52, 1975.. .1064 1,7C8,8'49 985 Kirtland AF, NM 

Surg lorum 2,163,125 983 AD-A024 763/5GA 918 

26:204-206, 1975 1063 2,229,620 899 AFWL TE-7a-126 918 

Technocrat (Japan) 2,336,502 892 Ansul Co, Marinette, «I 

8(9):52, 1975 848 2,408,129 802 BuMines OFS-81-76 S42 

8(10):53, 1975 788 Japanese PB-254 851/9GA 942 

8(10):72-73, 1975.. ..760 50-2960 907 Assoc Nat pour la Prct 

9(1):88, 1976 1026 50-10476 890 Centre I'Incendie 

Text Bes J 50-10478 882 (Belgium) 

46(4) :238-246, 1976. .739 50-13598 889 DT 13 1018 

Tr Vost Nil po bezop rabot 50-16179 805 Atomics Internat Div 

V gcrn prom-sti Swiss AI IBDA-13161 944 

(24):239, 1975 941 563,044 804 TID-26978 816 

(Jnser Erandschutz 564,809 807 Boeing Commercial Airplane 

26(3):30-31, 1976 927 565,567 896 Co 

26(4):29-31, 1976 880 566,602 800 AD-919 346/7GA 919 

26(5):29-31, 1976 789 566,791 905 D6-42614 952 

26(7):28-29, 1976 685 569,335 810 N76-22330/4GA 952 

Vet M€d Small Anim Clin UK N76 -24365/8GA 953 

71 (4) :520-521, 1976. .849 1,394,680 898 NASA CR-137838 952 

West J Med 1,399,863 903 NASA CB-147750 953 

124 (3) :244-248, 1976 1,401,634 763 OSAAMEDI TE-74-13 919 

1053 1,402,783 809 Building EesEstab (UK) 

Yuatsu gijutsu 1,406,359 909 BRE CP-39-76 . . . . . 729 

14(13) :57-62, 1975. ..874 1,406,677 900 BBECP-52-76 914 

Yuatsuka sekkei 1,408,278 895 BRE CP-53-76 1037 

13(10) :65-6S, 1975. ..834 1,410,482 811 BRECP-77-75 915 

Zentralbl Arbeitsmed 1,412,348 894 BRE CP-95-75 1036 

Arheitsschutz 1,455,615 812 BRECP-98-75 916 

25(12) :373-374, 1975.... US Civil Service Commissicn 
850 3,930,541 911 PB-252 928/7GA 1062 

ZS Magazin 3,931,785 , 813 USCSCP E-3AU 1062 

(4) :30-35, 1976 972 3,931,868 1030 Dept of the Environ and 

(6):20-21, 1976 1027 3,935,879 888 Fire Offices' Committee 

3,937,284 901 (UK) 

3,938,114.... 806 Fire Res Note 988. ...831 

3,938,115 801 Fire Res Note 1004. ..741 

3,939,914 787 Fire Bes Note 1013. ..756 

PATENTS 3,940,753 803 Fire Res Note 1045. ..917 

Austrian 3,942,561 1013 Fire Bes Note 1047. .1015 

324,631 855 3,943,499 808 Fire Res Note 1048. .1056 

Belgian 3,945,440 887 Fire Res Note 1051. ..705 

754,896 910 3,945,469 1031 Fire Res Note 1052. ..740 

French 3,949,812 912 Fire Res Note 1054. ..687 

2,232,920 1029 3,949,832 1032 Eouglas Aircraft Co, Inc 

2,233,549 856 3,951,232 1033 MDC J7133 1057 

2,21^0,605 904 USSR N76-20800/8GA 1057 

2,240,606 1035 326,799 884 NASA CR-137802 1C57 

2,242,845 852 329,814 761 II EuPont de Nemours and 

2,242,847 885 450,431 902 Co 

2,24 3,586 908 450,577 982 CONF-75 1084-1 6 88 

2,2 44,363 103 4 451,111 854 DPSPU-7 5-30-1 3 688 

2,245,162 891 455,224 836 Epscolabs 

2,245,163 886 461,743 883 AD-A025 184/3GA 986 

2,248,722 853 463,900 755 Fabric Res Labs 

2,249,525. 893 470,298.* 906 AFHL TB-76-47 764 

2,251,183.. .762 475,646 857 Factory Mutual Bes Corp 

FEG FMRC 22360-2 779 

1,559,679 1012 FMRC 22360-3 719 

1,559,691 897 FMEC 22361-3 727 

1,586,580 984 FMRC 22361-5.... 720 



1,621,721 1014 



1-31 



EEPOBIS 



S^MEOSJi 



SOOECE INDEX 



BEPOE 

IIT E 

NBS 

Japan 

In 

JAE 

Kernf 

Ka 

KFK 

Massa 

Te 

NES 

PB- 

Micis 

Ja 

BEI 

Missi 

BEC 



IS (cont'd) 
6S Inst 

GCE-76-72. 

Atomic Ene 

£t 

EI M-6073. . 
orschungsze 
rlsruhe, FB 

-2202 

chusetts Id 
chnol 

GCE-76-71 . 
25a 751/IGa 
try of Cons 
pan 

65 

on Bes Corp 

£-7511-1-1 



rgy Bes 



,913 



780 

ntrum 
G 

• •••• •• f o ^ 

St of 



1047 

10a7 

tr, Tokyo, 



1059 



175-Vol-l. 

973 

MEC E-7511-1-1175-V01-3. 

974 

6 973 

6B 974 

973 

974 



NSF 
NSF 
PB- 
PB- 

Nat A 
AC- 
OSC 

Nat A 

Ad 

JSC 

N76 

NAS 

Nat B 
NBS 
NBS 
NBS 
NBS 
NBS 
NBS 

Nat I 
an 
NIO 
NIO 
NIO 
NIO 
PB- 
PB- 
PB- 
PB- 

Nat E 
BEN 

Nat T 
NTI 

NTI 
Navy 
Be 
AD- 
AE- 
AE- 
DoD 
DoD 
DoD 



BA/S-75-07 
EA/S-75-07 

252 389/2GA 

252 390/OGA 

cad Sci 

A026 215/4G 

6 D-71-76.. 

eronautics 

Din 

-10613 

-23181/OGA. 

A TM-X-5ei7 

ureau of St 
ESS-76. ... 

IB 76-1012. 

IE 76-1013. 

IB 76-1018. 

IE 76-1072. 

IB 76-1120. 

nst Occupat 



and 



749 

749 

Space 



d Health 
SH TC/E-003 
SH TC/E-004 
SH TC/B-005 
SH TC/B-006 
252 692/SGA 
252 694/5GA 
252 695/2GA 
252 696/OGA 
es Council 

106 

ech Inf Ser 
S PS-76/043 



S PS-7 

Clothi 

s Facl 

A026 

A026 

A026 

AGFSE 

AGFSE 

AGFSE 



6/057 

ng an 

llty 

33/1G 

34/4G 

94/3G 

S-76- 

S-76- 

S-76- 



774 

774 

2 774 

andards 

770 

830 

704 

728 

1084 

679 

Safety 

992 

• • ••• • •^jH 

991 

993 

991 

994 

992 

993 

of Canada 

1060 

vice 

2/5GA 

1058 

5/1GA..957 
d Textile 



A. . 
A. . 
A. . 
14. 
15. 
16. 



.988 
,989 
,990 
,988 
,989 
,990 



BEPOETS (cont'd) 
Navy Clothing an 

TE-118 

TE-119 

TE-1200, 4-76. 
Netherlands Comm 
Concrete Bes, 
meer 

CUE Eapport 68 
New York City Ba 

PB-253 394/1GA 

PB-253 395/8GA 

E-1853-HUD.. .. 

E-1867-HUD.... 

Eheinisch-Hestfa 

Coll, Inst El 

CoBiDun Techno 

FEG 

NBSIE 76-1087. 
Sandia Labs 

SANE 75-0288.. 
Stanford Bes Ins 

NBS GCB-76-54. 

NSWC WOl TB-75 
Tacoma Fire Dept 

NSF EA-760C36. 

PB-252 605/1GA 
Teleccmm Austral 

N76-22513/5GA. 

EEPT 6953 

Univ of Californ 
ley) 

DCB FEG 76-5.. 

UCE FEG 76-12. 

UCB FEG 76-15. 

UCE FEG HP 76- 
Univ of Californ 
more) 

OCEl-77754 

DSAC Project 

HUD DF-76/012. 

PB-253 639/SGA 

USAC IMIS-HFT- 
W right -Patter son 

AD-A024 447/5G 

AD-A024 449/1G 

AD-A025 935/8G 

AD-A025 936/6G 

DoD AGFSBS-76- 

DoD AGFSES-76- 

DoD AGFSES-76- 

DoD AGFSBS-76- 



d (cont'd) 

988 

989 

990 

ittee for 
Zoeter- 

771 

nd Inst 

1050 

1049 

1050 

1049 

lian Tech 

ectron 

1, Aachen, 



,815 



,781 



718 

■205. ..965 



la 



. . .1048 
...1048 
Bes Lab 

814 

814 

ia (Berke- 



697 

..768, 769 

767 

10 698 

ia (liver- 



1087 



976 

976 

013 976 

AFB 
A. .. 
A. .. 
A. .. 

A 1000 

3 920 

4 837 

5 1000 

6 987 



920 
837 
987 



SYMPOSIA 

Annual Simulation Symp, 
9tii, Eec of Proc 
1976, Mar 17-19, Tampa, 

FL 1039 

Control of Smoke Movement 
in Building Fires Symp, 
CIE, Proc, Vol 1 - 



SYMPOSIA (cont'd) ]- , 
Papers •;. 

1975, Nov 4-5, Garston, 

Hatford, UK 674 

Paper 

1 707^. 

2 708 - 

3 709 

4 710 

5 1038 

6 1071. 

7 858 

8 711 

9 712 

10 713 

11 714 

12 859 

13 860 

14 661 

15 862 

16 863 

17 864 

18 665 

19 866 

20 667 

21 868 

22 715 

23 716 

24 693 

25 838 

26 695 

Human Behavior in Fire 
Symp, Bain Beports 
1975, Nov 20-21, Tokyo, 

Japan 1061, 1065, 

1066, 1068, 1072 

International Hire and 
Cable Symp, 24th, Proc 
1975, Nov 18-20, Cherry 
Hill, NJ.. . .750, 928, 
929 



1-32 



AD-919 3a6/7GA DSCSCE B-3AD 

REPORT NUMBER INDEX 

AD-919 3a6/7Ga 919 FMRC 22361-3 727 PB-252 605/1G& 10*48 

AD-A017 787/3GA. .750, 751, FHEC 22361-5 720 EE-252 692/96A 991 

928, 929 PB-252 69V5GA 994 

AD-A02') aa7/5GA 920 HOD Df-76/012 976 PB-252 695/2GA 992 

AD-A02I4 U49/1GA 837 PB-252 696/OGA 993 

AD-A021 763/5GA 918 PE-252 928/7GA 1062 

AD-A025 18V3GA 986 PB-253 39a/1GA 1050 

AD-A025 935/8GA 987 JAEEI M-6073 780 PE-253 395/8GA 1049 

AD-A025 936/6GA 1000 JSC-10613 774 PB-253 639/9GA 976 

AD-A026 033/1GA 988 EE-254 751/lGA 1047 

AD-A026 034/4GA 989 PB-254 851/9GA 942 

AD-A026 094/3GA 990 

AD-A026 215/4GA 749 

AFML TE-76-47 764 KFK-2202 782 

APWL TB-74-126 918 

AI EBEA-13161 944 B-1853-HUD 1050 

E-1867-H0E i 1049 

REPT 6953 814 

MDC J7133 1057 

MBC E-7511-1-1175-VOL-1. . . 

BEE CP-39-76 729 973 

BEE CE-52-76 914 MEC E-75 1 1- 1-1 175-VOL-3 . . . 

ERE CE-53-76 1037 974 SAND 75-0288 , 781 

BEE CE-77-75 915 

EBE CE-95-75 1036 

BEE CP-98-75 916 

BRI 65 1059 

BEN 106 1060 N76-2C800/8GA 1057 TID-26978 ,816 

BOMINES OFE-81-76, 942 N76-22330/4GA . . , 952 TE-118 988 

N7 6-22513/5GA 814 TB-119 989 

N76-231i31/0GA. 774 TR-1200, 4-76 990 

N76-2436 5/8GA 9 53 

NASA CE-137802 1057 

CONF-751084-1 688 NASA CE-137838 952 

COB BAEPOBT 68 771 NASA CE-147750 953 

NASA SPEC PDEL NO. 379 . DCB FEG 76-5 697 

717 OCB FEG 76-12 766, 769 

NASA TB-X-58172 774 OCB PEG 76-15 767 

NBS ESS-76 770 DCB FEG HE 76-1 ....... 698 

D6-42614 952 NBS GCE-76-54 718 UCEL-77754 1087 

DOD AGFSES-76-3 920 NES GCE-76-71 1047 DSAAMBDL IE-74-13 919 

DOD AGFSES-76-4 837 NBS GCE-76-72 913 USAC IMIS-HFT-013 S76 

DOD AGFSES-76-5 1000 NBSIE 76-1012 830 OSCG D-71-76 749 

DOD AGFSES-76-6 987 NBSIE 76-1013 704 OSCSCE E-3AU .....1062 

DOD AGFSES-76-14 988 NBSIE 76-1018 728 

DOD AGISES-76-15 989 NBSIE 76-1072 1084 

DOD AGFSES-76-16 990 NBSIE 76-1087..., 815 

DPSPU-75-30-13 688 NBSIE 76-1120 679 

DT 13 1018 NIOSH TC/B-003 992 

NIOSH TC/E-004 994 

NIOSH TC/E-0C5 991 

NIOSH TC/E-006 993 

NSF RA-760036 1048 

FIEE FES NOTE 988 831 NSF BA/S-75-C76 973 

FIEE EES NOTE 1004 741 NSF EA/S-75-C76B 974 

FIEE BES NOTE 1013 756 NSHC HOL TB-75-205 965 

FIEE EES NOTE 1045 917 NTIS ES-76/0 432/5GA. . . 1 58 

FIEE EES NOTE 1047... .1015 NTIS ES-76/0575/1 GA .957 

FIEE EES NOTE 1048... .1056 

FIEE EES NOTE 1051 705 

FIEE EES NOTE 1052 740 

FIEE EES NOTE 1054 687 

FMBC 22360-2 779 PB-252 389/2GA 973 

FHEC 22360-3 719 PB-252 39C/0GA 974 

1-33 



EIP&NSIONS OF JODRNiL ABBHEVIATIONS 



Accid Anal Prev ... Accident Analysis and [Consulting Engineers] 

Prevention Bezop ekspluat elektromekh oborad v shak- 

Acta Oniv Opsaliensis. Acta Oniversitatis htakh Bezopasnost ekspluatatsii 

Upsaliensis [Transactions of Dppsala elektromekhanicheskogo oborudovaniya 

(Sweden) University] v Shakhtakh [Safety of Operation of 

Adv Fire Retard Text, Prog Fire Retard Electromechanical Equipment in 

Ser ...., Advances in Fire Eetardant Mines] 

Textiles, Progress in Fire Retar- Bezop tr proa-sti ... Bezopasnost truda v 

dancy Series promyshlennosti [Occupational Safety 

Allg Forstztg ... Allgemeine Forstzeitung in Industry] 

[General Forestry Gazetteer] Brandaus Brandaus [All Cut] 

ABts Hitteilangsbl Bundesanst Material- Brandforsvar . Brandf orsvar [ Fire Erotec- 

pruef ... Amts- und Mitteilungsblatt tion ] 

der Bundesanstalt fuer Materialprue- Brandforsvar, FoO-Brand . . . Brandforsvar, 

fung [Official Gazette and Communi- FoD-Brand [Fire Protection, Research 

cations of the Federal Bureau for Bulletin] 

Materials Testing] Brandhilfe.. Brandhilfe [Fire Assistance] 

Anesth Analg ... Anesthesia and Analgesia Brandschatz ... Brandschutz [Fire Prctec- 

Ann Surg Annals of Surgery tion] 

Antincendio protez civ .... Antincendio e Brandvaern.. Brandvaern [Fire Protection] 

Protezione Civile [Fire and Public Brandverhaetung. . . . Brandverhuetung [Fire 

Protection] Prevention] 

Apave. . Revue technique du groupement des Brauwelt Brauwelt [Brewing World] 

associations de proprietaires d'ap- Bull mens Chambre Commerce ind Heurtheet- 

pareils a vapeur et electriques Moselle Bulletin mensuel de la 

[Technical Review of the Group of Chambre du Commerce Industriel de 

Associations of Steam and Electrical Meurtheet-Moselle [Monthly Bulletin 

Equipment Owners] of the Industrial Chamber of Com- 

Appl Ergon Applied Ergonomics merce of Meurtheet-Moselle] 

Arch Hal Prof Med Trav Secur Soc... Arch- Cah Cent Sci Tech Batim Cahiers du 

ives des Maladies Prof essionnelles , Centre Scientifigue et Technique du 

de Medecine du Travail et de Batiment [Communications of the 

Securite Sociale [Archives of Scientific and Technical Building 

Professional Diseases, Industrial Center] 

Medicine and Public Safety] Chem-Ing-Tech .. Chemie-Ingenieur-Technik 

Arch Teriodyn Spal... Archiwum termodyna- [ Chemistry- Engineer-Technology ] 

miki i spalania [Archives of Ther- Chen Tech ... Chemische Technik [Chemical 

modynamics and Combustion] Engineering] 

ASCE Proc. J Struct Div American COBbust Fla«e Combustion and Flame 

Society of Civil Engineers. Proceed- Combast Sci Technol .. Combustion Science 

ings. Journal of the Structural and Technology 

Division Constr Specifier.. Construction Specifier 

ASH6AE J ... -American Society of Heating, Cour Nora .. Courrier de la Normalisation 

Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning [Standardization Bulletin] 

Engineers Journal Densetsu kogyo .... Densetsu kogyo [Elec- 

ASME Trans. Ser C. J Heat Transfer trical Construction Engineering] 

American Society of Mechanical Di«ensions/NBS Dimensions/National 

Engineers. Transactions. Series C. Bureau of Standards 

Journal of Heat Transfer DIN Mitt. . Deutsche Industrie-Normen Mit- 

ASBE Trans. Ser H. J Eng Mater Technol teilungen [German Standards Bul- 

American Society of Mechanical letin] 

Engineers. Transactions. Series H. Ditern Diteru [Detail: Magazine for 

Journal of Engineering Materials and Architects and Engineers] 

Technology Draegerheft . . . . Draegerheft [Draeger Bul- 

BBC-Sachr .. Brown-Eoveri und Compagnie - letin] 

Nachrichten [Bulletin of the Brown- Dtsch Ausschuss Stahlbeton Deutscher 

Eovari Company] Ausschuss fuer Stahlbeton [German 

Beratende Ing Beratende Ingenieure Reinforced Concrete Committee] 

1-35 



EXPANSIONS OF JOURNAL ABBREVIATIONS 



Dtsche Farben Z ... Deutsche Farben-Zeit- 

schrift [German Paint Journal] 
Electr Comiun . . Electrical Communication 
Electron Ind .... Electronics in Industry 
Electron Power .... Electronics and Power 
Elektrotech Z ... Elektrotechnische Zeit- 
schrift [ Electrotechnical Journal] 

Elektr Stn Elektricheskiye Stantsii 

[Electrical Power Stations] 

Eng Min J Engineering and Mining 

Journal 
Environ Health Perspect . . . Environmental 
Health Perspectives 

Exchange Exchange 

Face aa Eisgue.... Face au Risgue [Facing 
the Risk - Journal of the French 
National Prevention and Protection 
Center ] 

Feaerwehr Die Feuerwehr [The Fire 

Service ] 

Fire Fire 

Fire Chief Fire Chief 

Fire Command Fire Command 

Fire Eng Fire Engineering 

Fire Eng J Fire Engineers Journal 

Fire Internat Fire International 

Fire J Fire Journal 

Fireline Fireline 

Fire Mater Fire and Materials 

Fire Prev Fire Prevention 

Fire Prev Sci Technol . . . Fire Prevention 

Science and Technology 
Fire Prot Rev .... Fire Protection Review 

Fire Technol Fire Technology 

For Sci ^. Forest Science 

Fune no ikagaku. . . . Fune no Kagaku [Marine 

Engineering ] 
Glueckauf Forschungsh. . . . Gluechauf-Fors- 
chungshefte [Glueckauf Research 
Journal ] 
Gorno spasat delo ... Gorno-spasatel 'noye 

delo [Mine Rescue] 
Bansa... Hansa [Journal of Shipping, Ship 

Construction and Harbors] 
Hessische Feuerwehr Z... Hessische Feuer- 
wehr-Zeitschr ift [Hessian Fire 
Service Journal] 
Hydrocarbon Process . Hydrocarbon Proces- 
sing 
IEEE Proc . . . Institute of Electrical and 
Electronics Engineers. Proceedings 

IEEE Trans Biomed Eng Institute of 

Electrical and Electronics Engin- 
eers. Transactions on Biomedical 
Engineering 
Ind Digest . Industrie Digest [Industrial 
Digest ] 

Ind Eng Industrial Engineering 

Ind Eng che« Prod Hes Dev .... industrial 
and Engineering Chemistry, Product 
Research and Development 

Ind Vernice Industria della Vernice 

[Varnish Industry] 
Inf Process Manage .. Information Proces- 
sing Management 
Ing Digest.. Ingenieur Digest [Engineer's 



Digest/Materiels Nouveaux et Tech- 
nigues Mondiales/Ingenieur Digest] 

Instrun Technol . . Instrumentation Techn- 
ology 

Internat Fire Chief . . International Fire 
Chief 

ISA Trans Instrument Society of 

America. Transactions 

J Ab Bed Assoc .. Journal of the Airerican 
Medical Association 

J Br Fire Serv Assoc and Ind Fire Prot 
Assoc .. Journal of the British Fire 
Service Association and the Indus- 
trial Fire Protection Association 

J Chei Edac . . Journal of Chemical Educa- 
tion 

J Coabust Toxicol . Journal of Combustion 
Toxicology (Quarterly Supplement to 
the Journal of Fire and Flamma- 
bility) 

J Consumer Prod Flammability . Journal of 
Consumer Product Flammability (Quar- 
terly Supplement to the Journal of 
Fire and Flammability) 

J Fire Flammability . Journal of Fire and 
Flammability 

J Fire Retard Chem Journal of Fire 

Retardant Chemistry (Quarterly Sup- 
plement to the Journal of Fire and 
Flammability) 

J For Journal of Forestry 

J Bines Met Fuels Journal of Mines, 

Metals and Fuels 

J Occup Med Journal of Occupational 

Medicine 

J Pediatr Journal of Pediatrics 

J Polym Sci: Polym Chem Ed . . . journal of 
Polymer Science: Polymer Chemistry 
Edition 

J Polym Sci: Polym Lett Ed . . . journal of 
Polymer Science: Polymer letters 
Edition 

J Prestr Concr Inst Journal of the 

Prestressed Concrete Institute 

J Soc Automot Eng Jap .... Journal of the 
Society of Automotive Engineers of 
Japan 

Kasai Kasai [Journal of the Japanese 

Association of Fire Science and 
Engineering ] 

Keisoku jido seigyo gakkai ronbunshu 
. .Keisoku jido seigyo gakkai ronbun- 
shu [Transactions of the Society of 
Instrument and Control Engineers] 

Khim prom .. Khimicheskaya Promyshlennost 
[Chemical Industry] 

Koatsu gasu . . Koatsu gasu/Journal of the 
Institute of Safety in High Pressure 
Gas Engineering (Japan) 

Kuki tyowa to reito ..Kuki tyowa to reito 
[Air Conditioning and Refrigeration] 

Kunstst Kunststoffe [Plastics] 

Kunstst Plast ...... Kunststof f e-Plastics 

Lakokrasoch materialy i ikh primeneniye 
.... Lakokrasochnyye materialy i ikh 
primeneniye [Paints and Varnishes 



1-36 



1 



EXPANSIONS OF JOURNAL ABBREVIATIONS 



and Their Application] 
Baschinenmarkt . Maschinenmarkt [Machinery 
Market ] 

Haschinenschaden Maschinenschaden 

[Machine Failure] 

Helliand Textilber Melliand Textil- 

berichte [Melliand Textile Journal] 
Mitt Inst Wasserbau Oniv Stuttgart.. Mit- 
teilungen des Instituts fuer Wasser- 
bau der Universitaet Stuttgart [Com- 
munications of the Hydrological 
Institute of Stuttgart University] 

Mod Plast Modern Plastics 

■at Saf Hews National Safety News 

Hav Eng J Naval Engineers Journal 

■av, ports, chant Navires, Ports et 

Chantiers [Ships, Ports and Yards] 

Not aiCAP Notizario AICAP 

Nuclear Saf Nuclear Safety 

Ohm: denki zassbi. ohm: denki zasshi [Ohm 
Journal ] 

Offshore Serv Offshore Service 

Oper Bes Operations Research 

Paper Technol Paper Technology 

Plast Technol Plastics Technology 

Polizei Tech Verkehr . . Polizei-Technik- 
Verkehr [Police and Traffic Safety 
Engineering Journal] 
Poly» Eng Sci . . . Polymer Engineering and 

Science 
Pozhar delo . Pozharnoye Delo [Firefight- 

ing] 
Pozhar okhrana . Pozharnaya okhrana [Fire 

Protection ] 
Prakt Anaesth .... Praktische Anaesthesie 
[Practical Anesthesiology] 

Prof Saf Professional Safety 

Prom energ .... Promyshlennaya energetika 

[Industrial Power] 
Prot Civ Secur Ind . Protection Civile et 
Securite Industrielle [Public 
Protection and Industrial Security] 

Protivpozarna Zastita Protivpozarna 

Zastita [Fire Protection] 
PTT Tech Mitt.... Technische Mitteilungen 
der Schweizerischen Post-, Telephon- 
und Telegraphenbetriebe [Technical 
Information Journal of the Swiss 
Postal, Telephone and Telegraph 
Service ] 

Pabl Pers Manage Public Personnel 

Management 

B/D Research and Development 

Q Rep Eailw Tech Res Inst (Japan) 

Nihon Kokuyu Tetsudo Gijutsu 

Kenkyusho [Quarterly Reports of the 
Railway Technical Research Institute 
(published in English) ] 
Rep Fire Res Inst Japan . Shobo Kenkyushu 
Hokoku [Reports of the Fire Research 
Institute of Japan] 
Rep Fire Sci Lab (Japan) ... Shobo Kagaku 
Kenkyushoho [Reports of the Fire 
Science Laboratory] 
Bev Beige Feu .. Revue Beige du Feu [Bel- 
gian Fire Review ] 



Rev Sci InstruB Review of Scientific 

Instruments 

Rubber Age Rubber Age 

Sb Tr VNII protivopozhar cborony 

Sbornik Trudov Vsescyuznogc 

Nauchno-Issledovatel'skogo Instituta 
Protivopozharnoy Oborony [ Digest of 
Papers of the All-Union Fire Protec- 
tion Research Institute] 

Schadenprisaa schadenprisma [Damage 

Prism - Journal of Damage Prevention 
and Research] 

Schweiz Feuerwehr Z Schweizerische 

Feuerwehr Zeitung [ Swiss Fire 
Protection Journal] 

Science Science 

Seewirtsch Seewirtschaft [Maritime 

Affairs ] 

Sharyo to Denki . Sharyo to Denki (Japan) 
[Railway Car and Electric Equipment] 

Sichere Arb Sichere Arbeit [labor 

Safety] 

Siemens Rev Siemens Review 

Siemens Z .. Siemens Zeitschrift [Siemens 
Journal ] 

Sigurncst Sigurnost [Safety] 

Stahl lisen . . Stahl und Eisen [ Steel and 
Iron ] 

Sud Bed Ekspert. . . . Sudebno-Meditsinskaya 
Ekspertiza [ Expertise in Forensic 
Medicine ] 

Surg Clin North Am .. Surgical Clinics of 
North America 

Surg Forui Surgical Forum 

Tech Mod Technique Moderne [Modern 

Technology] 

Technocrat (Japan) . Technocrat (publish- 
ed in English) 

Teleccamun J . . Telecommunication Journal 

Text Chea Color Textile Chemist and 

Colorist 

Text Inst Ind Textile Institute and 

Industry 

Text Res J Textile Research Journal 

Tr Inzh-ekon Fak Rizh Politekhn In-ta 
... Trudy Inzhenerno-Ekonomicheskogo 
Fakul'teta Rizhskogo Poli tekhnich- 
eskogo Instituta [Transactions of 
the Faculty of Engineering Economics 
of the Riga Polytechnic Institute] 

Tr Vest Nil po bezop cabot v gorn proa-st 
. .Trudy Vostochnogo Nauchno-Issledo- 
vatel'skogo Instituta po bezopasos- 
sti rabot v gornoy promyshlennosti 
[Transactions of the Eastern Scien- 
tific Research Institute for Indus- 
trial Safety in the Mining Industry] 

Onser Brandschutz. Hnser Brandschutz [Our 
Fire Protection] 

Vet Med Small inim Clin Veterinary 

Medicine and Small Animal Clinician 

VFDB Z . . Zeitschrift der Vereinigung zur 
Foerderung des Deutschen Brandschut- 
zes [Journal of the Association for 
the Advancement of Fire Protection 
in Germany] 



1-37 



\ 

y 

' EXPANSIONS OF JOOENAL ABBPEVIATIONS 

Vopr ekon pozhar okhrane Voprosy draulics and Pneumatics] 

ekonomiki v pozharnoy okhrane Zentralbl Arbeitsmed Arbeitsschutz 

[Problems of Economics in Fire ... Zentralblatt fuer Arbeitsmedizin 

Protection] und Arbeitsschutz [Journal of 

West J Bed. . . Western Journal of Medicine Industrial Medicine and Occupational 

Yuatsu Gijutsu .. Yuatsu gijutsu [Hydrau- Safety] 

lies and Pneoiatics] ZS Hagazin. . . . Zivilschutz Magazin [Civil 

Yuatsuka sekkei .... Yuatsuka sekkei [Hy- Defense Journal] 



1>U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 19 7 7-240-848/269 



' I 



1 



1 



NATIONAL FIRE PREVENTION AND CONTROL 

ADMINISTRATION 

Available Publications 

PERIODICALS 

Fireword: Official NFPCA newsletter. 

Resource Exchange Bulletin: Prepared by NFFCA's Public Education Office. 

BROCHURES 

Wake Up ! Smoke Detectors Can Save Your Life If . . . 

Smoke Detector Fact Sheet 

Winter Fire Safety Tips for the Home 

Summer Fire Safety Tips for the Home 

The National Fire Data System 

National Fire Prevention and Control Administration 

Teaching Fire Safety Education 

Abstract of the National Survey of Fire Education and Training Programs 

REPORTS 

Highlights of the National Household Fire Survey 

Arson: America's Malignant Crime 

Second Annual Report: The annual report of the Secretary of Commerce on the NFPCA. 

The Report of the Site Selection Board: National Academy for Fire Prevention and Control. 

The Human Factor in High Fire Risk Urban Neighborhoods: A Pilot Study in New Orleans, Louisiana 

Fire Fighter Mortality Report: Prepared by the International Association of Fire Fighters for the 
Center for Fire Research, National Bureau of Standards. A study of on-duty fire fighter deaths. 

Dynamics of Fire Prevention: Proceedings of the Second National NFPCA Conference held October 
1976. 

Third Symposium on Occupational Health and Hazards of the Fire Service 

Sources of Federal Funds for the Fire Services 

NFPCA publications are available free from: 

NFPCA 

Office of Information Services 
P.O. Box 19518 
Washington, D.C. 20036 



PENN STATE UNIVERSITY LIBRARIES 



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" ' *